Klio # 11 (155) 2019



Gessen V.Y. (Saint Petersburg). Memories of wartime years (1939–1945)


Russian Federaion, 196233 Saint Petersburg, Zvezdnaya 11/ 2, 140

E-mail: geen27@mail.ru

Published memories are related, in the beginning, to the period of the Soviet-Finnish war, the events of which affected their author only to a small extent. His memories are mainly related to the years of World War II. In these memories, there are characterized the impressions and experiences of the author related to the beginning of the war in Leningrad and the evacuation of Leningrad journalists’ children with the “Internat” (sort of the boarding-school) for these kids. The living conditions of evacuees in the Yaroslavl region and the Tatar ASSR are considered. The significant role of A.L. Moiges in the creation and existence of this boarding school in the difficult wartime was particularly noted. Attention is paid to the attitude towards the Leningrad children of a number of the local high officials, as well as of the local population. Some of the author’s thoughts on the historical events he was experiencing are given here as well.

Keywords: diary, war, evacuation, echelon, village.



Grinёv A.V. (Saint Petersburg). Publication activity of the leading Russian historians in Scopus database and quartile index

ANDREI VAL’TEROVICH GRINЁV Doctor in Historical Sciences and Professor of the Department of Social Sciences of the Humanities Institute at the Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University. 195251, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Polytechnicheskaya, 29. E-mail: agrinev1960@mail.ru

Scientometric data is now widely used in practice when solving personnel issues, distribution of grants, financing universities, and also in various ratings. At the same time, basic scientometric indicators, such as the total number of publications, the citation index and the Hirsch index, even in the aggregate, very rarely can give a complete picture of the real scientific contribution of a particular researcher or team. Therefore, more than ever, the problem of expanding the list of basic scientometric indicators and the use of new scientometric tools becomes more urgent. As an example, a quartile index developed by the author is proposed, which was used to analyze the publication activity of leading Russian historians in the largest international database Scopus along with other scientometric indicators. Despite certain shortcomings, the quartile index can serve as an additional scientometric tool and indicator that can provide a more objective assessment of the results of scientific work.

Keywords: scientometrics, Web of Science, Scopus, RSCI, SCImago Journal Rank, Hirsch index, quartile index, Russian historians, Russian Academy of Sciences.



Zhukova A.E., Sidnenko T.I., Shaidurov V.N. (Saint Petersburg). Formation of personnel and daily life of officials of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia in the second half of 19th – the beginning of 20th centuries (historiographical review)

ZHUKOVA ANASTASIA EVGENIEVNA ― laboratory assistant-researcher, Scientific and educational center for historical research and analysis, Pushkin Leningrad State University

10, Peterburgskoye shosse, Pushkin, Saint Petersburg, 196605, Russian Federation, e-mail: sstasja@yandex.ru

SIDNENKO TATIANA IVANOVNA ― Doctor of historical Sciences, Professor, Director of the Center for educational technologies, Pushkin Leningrad State University

10, Peterburgskoye shosse, Pushkin, Saint Petersburg, 196605, Russian Federation, e-mail: sidnenko@list.ru

SHAIDUROV VLADIMIR NIKOLAEVICH ― Doctor of historical Sciences, Associate Professor, head of the Scientific and educational center for historical research and analysis, Professor of the Department of Russian history, Pushkin Leningrad State University

10, Peterburgskoye shosse, Pushkin, Saint Petersburg, 196605, Russian Federation, e-mail: s-w-n@mail.ru

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs was one of the keys to the system of state administration of the Russian Empire, responsible for the development and implementation of foreign policy. This explains the high interest of Russian and foreign researchers in the historical aspects of its functioning. During the 19th – 20th centuries in the field of view were the problems of the formation of the foreign policy of Russia, its implementation in different historical periods, the key events of international relations, individual representatives of the diplomatic corps. As a result, we have extensive historiography. New approaches that have recently spread in historical science (the history of everyday life, etc.) allow setting other research tasks. The purpose of this article is to analyze the domestic historiography for the study of the problems of the formation of personnel and daily life of employees of the Central institutions of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia in the second half of the 19th – early 20th century.

Keywords: Ministry of Foreign Affairs, personnel, employees, daily life, historiography.


Stepanov M.G. (Abakan, Republic of Khakassia). Forced migrations of the Soviet peasantry (late 1920s – 1933): historiography of the problem

 MIKHAIL GENNADJEWICH STEPANOV PhD in History, Associate Professor, Khakass state University named after N. F. Katanov.

Russia, 655010, Republic of Khakassia, Abakan, Torgovaya ul. 1 – 73.

E-mail: StepanowM@yandex.ru

 The article explores a problem that has received only fragmentary coverage in historiography. In particular, various estimates are shown in determining the scale of the deportation of the peasantry during the period of mass collectivization in the Soviet Union. Besides, the article analyzes the following problems of deportation of the peasantry in the historiographical context: the periodization, structure, and content of local forced migrations; deportations of the peasantry in the context of the General discriminatory policy in the USSR; the phenomenon of the so-called “kulak exile” and its consequences. In summary the article is focused the researchers conclusions: 1) repression against peasants in the Soviet Union of the period of mass collectivization became part of the policy of peasantry; 2) the deportation of the peasantry was an extraordinary link, wearing perpetuity, in families in connection with forced labour; 3) to the field of historiographical innovation should include the study repression against peasants in the context of the General discriminatory policy of the Soviet state.

Keywords: historiography, forced migrations, repressions, soviet peasantry, deportation of peasantry, social discrimination, stalinism, mass collectivization of agriculture, USSR, Ural, Siberia.



Danilov I.AL. (Saint Petersburg). The Family Pact as a model of family law in the knightly environment on the threshold of the early Modern time (family acts of the Bünau and Schoenberg)

 IGOR ALEKSEEVICH DANILOV Junior researcher at the Department of Rare Books Library of the Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation, 199034, St. Petersburg, Birzhevaja line, blok 1), E-mail: igordanilov1990@gmail.com

The article is devoted to the Family Pact of two noble knightly families of Saxony, Bünau, and Schoenberg, who held a high position at the Prince-elector’s court and belonged to the power elite of the region. Through these legal acts, which are a model of the family law of Early Modern Age, in the XVI‒XVII centuries there was a legitimization of the so-called Family Associations. Such institutions were designed to consolidate the economic and symbolic resources of a particular kind in a transitional period, when as a result of years of religious wars, causing great damage to the entire estate, the financial situation of the lower nobility became especially unstable. The ideological pathos of the Reformation era is reflected in the significant moral and ethical component of these statutes. After all, it was the feoffeу of the Saxon Wettins who formed the first Protestant knightly landscape in German history.

Keywords: History of Germany, Saxony, Reformation era, knightly nobility, Family Association, Family Pact, family law, Bünau family, Schoenberg family.


Mikhailov V.V., Yakovlev A.V. (Saint Petersburg). «For there Christ is the kings’ attorney»: the colonization of America and the founding ideologies of sir Walter Raleigh

VADIM VIKTOROVICH MIKHAILOV PhD in History, Professor, Department of History and Philosophy of Humanities faculty,

State University of Aerospace Instrumentation 196135, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, ul. Gastello, 15 – 14/07.

Tel: 8(921) 313-13-46, E-mail: batukom@mail.ru

 ALEXEY VIKTOROVICH YAKOVLEV PhD in History, Assistant-Professor

Department of History and Regional studies

State University of Telecommunications

196135, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, pr. Bolshevikov, 22-1-328.

Tel. 8(963) 341-56-65, E-mail: alexxxyak.@mail.ru

The article examines the historical origins of ideological invariants that determine the political tradition of the United States of America. The specificity of the cultural continuity of the American colonies of Great Britain from the “passionate” elements of the Elizabethan court circle, in particular, one of the first founders of the colonies in North America, a favorite of Queen Elizabeth Tudor – sir Walter Raleigh-was shown. Raleigh’s political, historical and literary works contain some of “textual forms” that have become ideological invariants for American culture, reproduced throughout the history of the colonial period and after independence. Expressing new ideas in a simple and accessible form, while finding new ways to defend these ideas, other than scholastic rhetoric, many of Raleigh’s “formulas” are “constituent” both for the subsequent development of European science and philosophy and as cultural invariants of American ideology.

Keywords: Elizabethan England, colonization of North America, “Atlanticism”, origins of American ideology, historical epistemology, cultural invariants, “constituent ideologems”, Walter Raleigh, M. Foucault.


Antonova L.V. (Pskov). Health Exhibition in London (1884)

 LIDIA VLADIMIROVNA ANTONOVA Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor of the Department of World History and Area Studies

Pskov State University

180016, Russia, Pskov, Yubileinaya St., 85–12

8 (900) 994-49-66, e-mail: antonova.lidia.24@yandex.ru

 The article is devoted to the 1884 Health exhibition in London in 1884, which was part of a series of large-scale diverse exhibitions held in South Kensington in the 1880s. The main sources for the study were the official catalog, some other exhibition materials and publications in the press. Based on this, it was possible to analyze the content of the main expositions, the circle of persons involved in the organization of the event, scientific and social events accompanying the exhibition. It is concluded that the purpose of the exhibition was to present the latest achievements of progress in the field of healthcare and education, as well as to demonstrate the positive results of social reforms carried out by the state during previous decades. It is also noted that the exhibition was primarily focused not on professionals, but the general public. Its educational, enlightening task was to convey to the visitors in the most accessible and interesting form relevant knowledge about health, hygiene and sanitation.

Keywords: 1884 Health exhibition in London, Victorian era, social law, healthcare, education, hygiene.



Zhukova A.V. (Saint Petersburg). Transformation of the system of peasant payments in the course of reform on February 19, 1861 (on the example of the landlords’ villages of Mozhaisk district of Moscow province)

ZHUKOVA ANNA VLADIMIROVNA ― undergraduate of the Institute of History, St. Petersburg State University

23/1 Rte. Gostilitskoe, Apt. 40, Petergof, St. Petersburg, 198504, Russia

8 (921) 446-48-63, 16sent61@gmail.com

 The article is devoted to the analysis of changes in the payment system of landlord’s peasants after the reform of February 19, 1861. The study is based on materials from the redemptions of the peasants of Mozhaisk district of Moscow province using quantitative methods and modern computer technologies. The transformation of the size and structure of obligations of peasants after the realization of the reform «Regulations» is considered, and a comparison of this process with the transformation of the system of peasant’s allotments is carried out. The analysis showed that one of the main economic consequences of the reform was a decrease in the average size of peasant’s payments and their leveling. Assessment of the relationship processes reduce the size of allotments and payments led to the conclusion about the deterioration of state of the landlord’s peasantry in the south-west of Moscow Province after realization of reforms.

Keywords: reform of 1861, landlords’ peasants, obligations of the peasants, land charters, quantitative methods, Mozhaisk district, Moscow province.


Aminov R.R. (Kazan). Demographic processes in the settlements of the Verkhneuralsk group of Nagaybaks in the late XIX-early XX centuries. (based on materials from metric books)

AMINOV RUSTEM RAVILEVICH ― PhD in History, Sh. Marjani Institute of History of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences

Russian Federation, Kazan, 420100

E-mail: rustem_270988@mail.ru

This article examines the demographic evolution in the settlements of the Verkhneuralsk group of Nagaybak-Cossacks of the Orenburg Cossack army in the late XIX – early XX centuries. The author, based on the data of metric books for four years (1896, 1897, 1913 and 1915), establishes the average age of the bride and groom in the studied villages, the period of marriage, reveals the ratio of the places of origin of the brides. Living in the same settlements with the Nagaybaks of people of the non-Cossack estatesphilistinism, peasants from other settlements, had contributed to their rapprochement and, as a rule, led to marriages between them. Expect for 1897, more men were born than women. The absolute maximum of births was noted in 1913 – 568 souls of both sexes (31.3% of all born in four years). A comparative analysis of the born and the dead showed that, despite not the last place in terms of number among the considered settlements (3rd place), in the village. Ostrolenko observed in 1915 the lowest birth rates and high mortality rates to 1913, respectively – all this suggests that the population growth dynamics of the village are not always consistent with its population. Characteristic was a high infant mortality rate (up to 3 years old inclusive) – the limit data were noted in 1896 – 70.6% of the deaths per year, the lowest in 1915 – 50.3%.

Keywords: Nagaybaks, marriage, population dynamics, metric books, Verkhneuralsk district, Orenburg Cossack army, birth rate, mortality rate, age.



Bulanov L.A. (Moscow). Opening of the pilgrimage route «Russia – Cyprus – Holy Land» and the construction of a memorial plaque to the «First Pilgrims»

LEONID ALEKSEEVICH BULANOV ― Chairman of the Cyprus branch of IOPS, Advisor to the Chairman of the IOPS S.V. Stepashin, Professor, Academician of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, Professor, Academician of EAEN

105062 Moscow Podsosensky Lane, d. 24 K. 1

e-mail ippocyprus@yandex.ru

 The article contains information about the opening of the pilgrimage route Russia-Cyprus-Holy Land. Before the revolution, Russian pilgrims made their way to the Holy Land through Cyprus. On the island of Saints Cyprus, they worshiped the most significant shrines of Cyprus and then followed to the Holy Land. After the revolution, this path was forgotten, after 100 years, the Imperial Orthodox Palestinian Society (IOPS) resumed the lost route. In connection with the opening of the pilgrimage route, a “Memorial plaque to the first pilgrims returning on the pilgrimage route Russia-Cyprus-Holy Land” was established. The memorial plaque was erected on October 8, 2019 at the church of St. Andrew the First-Called and all the saints in the Russian land shone, the Chairman of the IOPS Sergey Stepashin, the Metropolitan of Tamasos and Orynsky Isaiah, the chairman of the Cyprus branch of the IOI Leonid Bulanov.

Keywords: Russia, Cyprus, the Holy Land, Orthodoxy, the Imperial Orthodox Palestinian Society (IPPO).



Skurlov V.V. (St. Petersburg). The Russian presence in Palestine and the Cabinet of His Majesty. 1881 – 1917

VALENTIN V. SKURLOV ― doctor of art history, expert of the Ministry of culture of the Russian Federation, scientific secretary of the Memorial Fund Faberge (Saint-Petersburg).

199406, Russia, Saint-Petersburg,

E-mail: valentinskurlov@mail.ru

 The article is devoted to unknown aspects of the interaction of Russian spiritual missions in Palestine with such a powerful administrative institution as the Cabinet of His Majesty during the last two reigns of representatives of the house of Romanov (1881-1917). The chronological range is chosen from the time of the establishment of the Imperial Orthodox Palestine Society (IPPO) in 1882.. 28 surnames of Cavaliers of awards and gifts from E. V.’s office are revealed, that is an important addition in the biography of historical characters. Insufficient rewarding of experienced and worthy figures of IPPO, as a result of internal departmental feuds, different understanding of the purposes and tasks facing departments, society and Committee is noted. The facts of selective awarding of middle Eastern Church hierarchs loyal to Russian Orthodoxy are revealed – the factor of “soft power”, which is very effective in diplomacy, is used. The structure of expenses for the construction of the Church of St. Mary Magdalene equal to the Apostles in Gethsemane is analyzed, the involvement of the best architects and artists, as well as Suppliers of the Highest court, is noted. New information about gifts and awards from the Cabinet of E. V. Princess of Imperial blood Tatiana Konstantinovna, abbess of the Olivet monastery in 1946 – 1975 was put into circulation.

Keywords: Palestine. His Majesty’s Office. Gifts and awards to persons of spiritual rank. Jerusalem. Architects.


Sapogova E.E. (Saint Petersburg). P.P. Chistyakov’s art system of teaching in the works of Leningrad-Petersburg artists of the post-war period (1945 – 1990)

EKATERINA EDUARDOVNA SAPOGOVA Art critic, Member of the Union of Artists of Russia, 194214, Russia, Saint-Petersburg, Udelnii pr., 45-105.

E-mail: Ekat-sap@yandex.ru

 The article is devoted to the study of the artistic and pedagogical system of P.P. Chistyakova. Using the example of Leningrad-Petersburg art, the basic methods laid down by the great teacher and retaining their relevance today are examined. The main aspects and trends in the educational method of Pavel Petrovich are considered. The question of the continuity of the traditions of the Russian school of painting and their influence on contemporary art is investigated. The article analyzes the influence of the pedagogical system of Pavel Petrovich Chistyakov on modern creative universities – St. Petersburg State Institute of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture. I.E. Repin and the Russian Academy of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture Ilya Glazunov. The articles of the outstanding art critic Neshataeva Nadezhda Borisovna, a contemporary of Leningrad post-war artists, were first introduced into the scientific circulation. The author analyzes the work of Leningrad artists during the Great Patriotic War. The war, with its cruel and uncompromising demands, has become for many a great school of life and art. The article discusses the themes of the exploits of Leningraders and defenders of the city on the Neva, which were developed by the artists in the paintings, first of all, as topics of moral achievement, spiritual victory over the enemy, which was innovative for the art of that time. It is analyzed how the work of artists of this period significantly enriched the painting of the 1960-1980s with genre and stylistic diversity. The work of the Honored and People’s Artists of the second half of the twentieth century, including teachers of the Leningrad Institute of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture named after I.E. Repin.

Keywords: artist-teacher, art-pedagogical system, Leningrad school, Russian realistic art, post-war art.



Politov I.V. (Saint Petersburg). Modern aspects of the activities of military councils after 1993 as organs of military command

IGOR VITALIEVICH POLITOV North-Western Institute of management – branch of Ranepa (St. Petersburg) post-graduate student of the Department of Public Administration, 199178, St. Petersburg, V.O., Middle Ave. V.O., 57/43.

E-mail: i.polit@mail.ru

 The article reveals the modern aspects of the activity of military councils as organs of military administration. Methods of formation of military councils in various power structures of the Russian Federation and their numerical structure are considered. Features of formation of personnel structure of military councils of various levels are revealed. The tasks and main directions of the activity of military councils on the development of recommendations in various power structures of the Russian Federation are shown. The distribution of powers of members of the military Council is described. The functional duties of the Chairman, Secretary and members of the military Council are shown. The mechanism of implementation of the activity of military councils is considered. The principles and methods of decision-making of the military Council are shown. The article is based on the materials of legal acts and documents published in the public domain-Decrees of the President of the Russian Federation after 1993.

Keywords: Military Council, reform, military administration, powers, composition, activities.



Kondakov Y.E. (Saint Petersburg). Rosicrucian motifs in the works of V.A. Levshin

YURIJ EVGEN’EVICH KONDAKOV ― Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Associate Professor, Russian State Pedagogical University named after A.I. Herzen, 197198, St. Petersburg, Bolshaya Pushkarskaya ul., 34 – 90,

89111670397, urakon@rambler.ru

One of the most prolific writers and translators of the late 18th — early 19th centuries, V.A. Levshin (1746-1826) was a Freemason and a member of the Order of the Golden and Pink Cross. All evidence of Levshin’s Freemasonry dates back to the 19th century, when he headed the Order, becoming the receiver of N.I. Novikov. In the early 80s of the XVIII century, Levshin fell under the influence of Novikov and became his employee. By the order of Novikov and the “Printing Company” Levshin translated works of art. He could also be assigned to translate secret Rosicrucian documents. In the 19th century, Levshin, in collaboration with Novikov, worked on the compilation of the manuscript Hermetic Library, which became the largest work of Russian Rosicrucians. The teachings of the Order of the Golden and Pink Cross are reflected in Levshin’s works. Rosicrucian plots are in “Russian Fairy Tales” and “The Latest Journey, penned in the city of Belev.” In the first case, with the help of allegorical sculptures, the solar system was described, in the second case, Rosicrucian concepts were proposed under the guise of the secrets of the religion of Ancient Egypt. In the works and translations of Levshin, there are small Masonic plots. They can be explained by cooperation with Novikov and the translation of Rosicrucian literature. A different origin of Rosicrucian inserts in the “Russian fairy tales” and “The latest journey, penned in the city of Belev.” These are manifestos of the Order of the Golden and Pink Cross, designed to inform the initiates that a branch of the Order has opened in Russia. In 1783-1784, when these works were published, the Order of the Golden and Pink Cross only came to Russia. Not only Levshin, but Novikov then did not have serious Rosicrucian training. The authorship of Rosicrucian plots in the works of Levshin likely belongs to the first chapter of the Russian section of the Order of the Golden and Pink Cross, IG Schwartz. Thus, the Rosicrucians informed the initiates that the Russian section of the Order was open.

Keywords: Freemasons, lodges, Masonic system, Rosicrucians, Order of the Golden and Pink Cross, “Theoretical degree of Solomon’s sciences”, Kabbalah, astrology.


Petukhova A.P. (Moscow). Mikhail Katkov and the Genesis of the «Finnish question» in the Russian Empire (1860-1880)

ALEKSANDRA PAVLOVNA PETUKHOVA Independent Researcher 530 – 26/3, Anokhina st., Moscow, Russian Federation, E-mail: egorovaa1@yandex.ru

 The article studies the genesis of the “Finnish question” in the socio-political life of the Russian Empire. The article notes the role of Mikhail Katkov, the editor in chief of the «Moskovskie Vedomosti», one of the leading conservative newspapers in late XIX century Russia in the establishing of the Russian national movement. The author traces the evolution of Katkov’s attitude towards the national policy in general, and to Grand Duchy of Finland in particular. The article presents key aspects of his approach, that became the foundation for his followers in the further elaboration of the «Finnish question» in the late XIX – early XX centuries. Analyze of Katkovs belief system allows to link his position on the Russian Empire’s role in the «Finnish question» and his idea of the political, social and economic development of the State. The article shows the pool of opinions among the key figures in the Russian Empire and the competition in it, which Katkov managed to swing in his favor.

Keywords: «Finnish question», «Russian national movement», «Russian nationalism», «Russian conservatism», «Mikhail Katkov», «Moskovskie vedomosti».

Petrova E.E. (Saint Petersburg). Grand Duke Nicholas Mikhailovich of Russia seen through the correspondence with the French historian Frédéric Masson (In commemoration of the centennial death anniversary of the Grand Duke of Russia Nicholas Mikhailovich)



The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (The Presidential Academy, RANEPA); Associate professor of Department of International Relations; Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Korablestroiteley st, 12-2-114. petrovaelena70@mail.ru

The article is focused on the history of the correspondence between the Grand Duke Nicholas Mikhailovich of Russia and the French historian Frédéric Masson. The author has introduced a new source of information – letters written by these historical figures during 1897 – 1914. The events of the Russian revolution 1905-1907, the convening of the First State Duma are viewed through the prism of this correspondence. The article also clarifies the liberal position of the Grand Duke Nikolas Mikhailovich on political reforms in Russia in 1905, his support of the State Duma with legislative authority and the government responsible to the Duma. This represents the long evolution of the political views of the Grand Duke Nikolas Mikhailovich that were clearly manifested during the political crisis in Russia in the autumn and winter of 1916-1917.

Keywords: Grand Duke Nicholas Mikhailovich of Russia, Frédéric Masson, State Duma.


Ippolitov G.M. (Samara). The first post-revolutionary commander-in-chief. General from infanteria M.V. Alekseev at the post of the supreme chief commander of the Russian army (April 1-May 21, 1917)

GEORGE MIKHAILOVICH IPPOLITOV Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Professor of the Department of philosophy of the Volga state University of telecommunications and Informatics (Samara) Email: gippolitov@rambler.ru

The experience of the world and national history teaches that any revolution at its initial stage sharply reduces the combat capability of the army as a state-bearing structure, which is inherited by the new revolutionary authorities from the fallen political regime. The Great Russian revolution of 1917 is no exception. In the situation of a sharp decrease in the combat capability of the army, the personal factor begins to play a huge role. It becomes extremely important who will be at the head of the army, which feels the influence of all the revolutionary whirlwinds. One of the confirmations of this thesis can be the activity of the first post-revolutionary Supreme commander (Commander – in – Chief) of the Russian army, General of infantry, adjutant General Mikhail Vasilyevich Alekseev (1857-1918) – a person bright, dialectically contradictory, in many respects with a tragic fate. He served as commander-in-Chief for only 51 days and was dismissed by the Provisional government as persona non grata. It could not tolerate at a key post for the military construction of a new Russian state in the conditions of the revolution, a combat Russian General who made every effort to, at least localization of the process of collapse of the army. That decomposition which in many respects was caused by the amateurish policy of the Provisional government in the military dream. The experience of General M. V. Alekseev in his post (despite the short time interval) is very instructive in its inconsistency. In this article, an attempt is made to briefly (with elements of conciseness) coverage of the activities of the first post-revolutionary commander-in-Chief of the Russian army, General of infantry, adjutant General Mikhail Vasilyevich Alekseev. The main emphasis is placed on the political aspects of his activities in the office. The work was carried out on a diverse, extensive and representative source base, an integral part of which was, including, and official documentation, deposited in the Russian state military historical archive (RGVIA). The author of the article tried to ensure careful and correct attitude to the historiographical developments of predecessors, which did not exclude, however, critical (but not critical) understanding and rethinking. The author of the article, choosing the methodology of the study, took into account the specifics of the study of historical personalities, in particular, the use of the method of empathy. This work, of course, does not claim to be a complete analysis of the problem under consideration, since it is not only lapidary but also to some extent descriptive. In it, several theses can be regarded as debatable. There are also some author’s judgments, which can become information for reflection for future researchers of the historical personality of Mikhail Vasilyevich Alekseev.

Keywords: Mikhail Vasilyevich Alekseev, Supreme commander-in-chief, Provisional government, Order No. 1, notebooks of M. V. Alekseev.


Borisov R.V., Shevchenko M.M. (Saint Petersburg). Vladimir Leonidovich Alexandrov – engineer, organizer of shipbuilding production, scientist, teacher of higher school

RUDOLF VASILYEVICH BORISOV ― Doctor of technical Sciences, Professor of theory ship of the St. Petersburg State Marine Technical University.

3, Lotsmanskaya street, St. Petersburg, 190008, Russia.

Phone: 8(911)2547668, e-mail: rv2borisov@mail.ru

 MIKHAIL MAKSIMOVICH SHEVCHENKO ― Doctor of historical Sciences, Professor of interuniversity center for education in the history and philosophy of science and equipment of the St. Petersburg State Marine Technical University. 3, Lotsmanskaya street, St. Petersburg, 190008, Russia. Tel.: (812)757-20-22, 8(911)2520979, e-mail: mixail.shevchenko.44@mail.ru

 The article is devoted to the Hero of Russia, doctor of technical Sciences, Professor V. L. Alexandrov, a prominent Russian shipbuilder, honorary citizen of St. Petersburg (b. in 1944). It reveals the origins of his high professionalism in the development of domestic shipbuilding on the example of the shipbuilding enterprise “Admiralty shipyards”, where he worked for 44 years, including 27 years (1984-2011) Director-General. He participated in the construction of more than 160 ships, deep-sea vehicles, and vessels for military and civil purposes, including more than 30 submarines with nuclear power plants. The article analyzes the process of forming the meaning of Vladimir Leonidovich’s life in the family, school, Institute, at work.

Key words: shipbuilding production, family traditions, science to manage, Director and labor collective, moral value of service to the Fatherland.



German A.A. (Saratov). Review of the book: Cholakhyan V. A. «Armenians on the Saratov land». Saratov: Saratov University publ., 2018

ARCADY ADOLFOVICH GERMAN Doctor of History, Professor

Department of National History and Historiography Institute of History and International Relations, Saratov National Research State University

Russia, 410007, Saratov-7, Topolchanskaya ul., 1- 409

E-mail: a.a.german@mail.ru

The review analyzes the content of the monograph of the famous Saratov historian V. A. Cholakhyan. The content of the book is highly appreciated. It is noted that the author analyzed the history of the Armenians as a whole, as well as their contribution to the development of the Volga region and Saratov land. It is concluded that V. A. Cholakhyan’s monograph is a valuable work that tells about the development of Armenian historiography in Russia. According to the reviewer, the monograph deserves the attention of scientists and a wide range of readers. The practical significance of the monograph is that it allows readers, especially residents of Saratov and Saratov region, to get a comprehensive view of the history and modern life of the Saratov Armenians, their successes and difficulties of national development, as well as the contribution of Armenians to the development of the Saratov Volga region.

Keywords: V. A. Cholakhyan, Armenians, Saratov, Armenian Diaspora, history of Armenians.


Filatov T.V. (Samara). Paradoxes of pre-paradigm science (critical notes in the margins of N.M. Morozov’s monograph) (Morozov N.M. Conceptualization of historical knowledge about Russian civilization at the turn of XX-XXI centuries. Kemerovo, Publishing house «Practice», 2014.


TIMUR VALENTINOVICH FILATOV Doctor of Philosophy, Professor, Head of the Department of Philosophy of Volga Region State University of Telecommunications and Informatics.

443010, Russian Federation, Samara, L. Tolstoy St., 23.

E-mail: tfilatoff1960@mail.ru

 Paradoxes of pre-paradigm science (critical notes in the margins of N.M. Morozov’s monograph)

The article considers methodological aspects of N. M. Morozov’s monograph “Conceptualization of historical knowledge about Russian civilization at the turn of the XX-XXI centuries”. Based on the text of the monograph, collected in it a lot of factual material about the features of conceptual construction in modern historical science, it is concluded that the rejection of the formational approach, which had the status of paradigmatic in Soviet historical science, did not lead to the formation of a new paradigm after the loss of the old one, and initiated a backward movement of national historical science in the pre-paradigm stage of development. The reason for this situation is seen by us that the rejection of the Marxist system of ideas that form the basis of the formation approach was followed in national history preservation characteristic of the Marxist dialectical methodology, which resulted in a refocusing from finding a new paradigm for pluralistic Dialogic characteristic of postmodernism.

Keywords: paradigm, formational approach, theory of local civilizations, dialectics, Russian historical science, contradiction between method and system, regression in science, return to the pre-paradigm stage.