Klio #11 (179) 2021


Kudryavtseva R.-E. A., Samylovskaya E.A. (St. Petersburg). The image of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in Lithuanian public thought of the late XIX – first quarter of the XX centuries

Junior researcher,
St. Petersburg State University,
199034, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya emb., 7-9;
Head of the Department of Expert Evaluation and Promotion of Publication Activities,
St. Petersburg Mining University, Russia,
199106, St. Petersburg, 21st Line, 2,
E-mail: aethel@yandex.ru

Candidate of Historical Sciences,
Senior researcher,
St. Petersburg State University,
199034, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya emb., 7-9;
Associate professor of the Department of History,
St. Petersburg Mining University,
199106, St. Petersburg, 21st Line, 2,
E-mail: katerina-samylovskaya88@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article analyzes the construction of the image of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the Lithuanian socio-political thought of the late XIX – first quarter of the XX century on the example of the Lithuanian newspapers «Auszra» and «Varpas». The article discusses the main elements of image construction: outstanding princes, victories over enemies, Lithuanian language and culture. Based on the analysis of newspaper texts, it is concluded that the cornerstone of Lithuanian historical memory has always been the image of the heroic past of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania: the heroes of the past have become a source of values and ideals, and the political history of the state is the foundation for the restoration of state sovereignty. The authors trace the manifestation of the construction of the historical memory of Lithuania on the basis of the past of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the idea of the national revival of Lithuania from the newspapers of the 1880s, through the poetry of Maironis and to the creativity of the signatories of the Act of Independence of Lithuania, among whom there were many historians.
Keywords: socio-political thought, historical memory, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, newspapers, Act of Independence of Lithuania

Khandorin V.G. (Moscow). The image of А.V. Kolchak in the autobiographical novel of a volunteer of the Kolchak army, German writer E. Dvinger

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Moscow State Institute of Culture.
115172, Russia, Moscow, Kotelnicheskaya nab., 33.
E-mail khandorin@mail.ru

Abstract. The article is devoted to the reflection of the image of the Supreme Ruler, Admiral A.V. Kolchak was a volunteer of the Kolchak army, the famous German writer Edwin Dvinger in his autobiographical novel “Between the Whites and the Reds” (“Zwischen weis und rot”). The relevance of the topic lies in the continuing public interest in the events of the Civil War in Russia. The author aimed to reproduce the perception of Russia, Russians, the White movement, and personally A.V. Kolchak, a German prisoner of war of right-wing views, a native of a military environment, who voluntarily joined the White Army and later became a major European writer, for a number of reasons still practically unknown to the Russian reader, and correlate it with reality. The article gives a brief overview of the literature in Russian, one way or another affecting the work of E. Dvinger. The main content is made up of the fragments of the novel translated from German, where we are talking about Kolchak. In conclusion, an assessment is made of the relationship between excerpts from the novel and historical reality. These excerpts from the novel are published in print in Russian for the first time, since Dvinger’s novel was not published in Russian. In addition, they are of exceptional interest as a reflection of the events of the Civil War in Russia, the White movement and the personality of A.V. Kolchak through the eyes of a foreign volunteer with a complex, contradictory fate, who later gained European fame as a writer.
Keywords: E. Dvinger. Civil war in Russia. White movement. Siberia. A.V. Kolchak. Conservatism

Mammadova N.V. (Baku, Azerbaijan). Rising of the Safavid dynasty: from the Sufi brotherhood to the political movement (based on the works of French researchers)

PhD (History), associate professor,
Lead researcher at the Institute of History named after A. A. Bakikhanov,
National Academy Sciences of Azerbaijan.
115 H. Javid St., Baku, Azerbaijan, AZ1073.
E-mail: elchin.mammadov@gmail.com

Abstract. The article is devoted to one of the interesting and significant events in the medieval history of Azerbaijan, the emergence of the Sufi order of Safaviye, which played a significant and grandiose role in the formation of a centralized state – the Azerbaijan state of the Safavids, the elimination of feudal fragmentation, the formation of a new type of ideology and doctrine that left an indelible mark on history Western Asia and the Caucasus. When writing the article, a critical study and analysis of the research of modern French historians was developed on the initial period of the history of the Safavid state, specifically to the emergency of a powerful medieval state and the role of the Sufi order of Safaviye in its formation. Researches of modern French historians involved by us make it possible to determine the point of view of the Western historiography in general on the issues of ethnic origin and political activity of the Kyzylbash.
Keywords: Ardabil, Sufi order, Qizilbashi, Safavid dynasty, Shiism, Shah Ismail I

Hippolitov G.M., Filatov T.V. (Samara). On the issue of periodization in problem-thematic historiographic studies. Discussion invitation

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Professor, Department of Philosophy, Volga State University of Telecommunications and Information Technology (Samara)
443010, Russian Federation, Samara, L. Tolstoy St., 23.
Email: gippolitov@rambler.ru

Doctor of philosophical science, professor, head of the Department of philosophy of the Povolzhskiy State University of Telecommunications and Informatics (Samara), 443010, Russian Federation, Samara, L. Tolstoy St., 23.
Email: tfilatoff1960@mail.ru

Abstract. The historiographic experience accumulated in both domestic and foreign theory and methodology of history provides grounds for such a generalizing judgment: the problem of periodization in historical science has always been distinguished and is distinguished by its multidimensionality, complexity and controversy. She received, including in domestic historiography, the corresponding scientific development. The author of the article submits to the judgment of the scientific community the reasoning about the role and place of periodization in problem-thematic historiographic studies. And they, as you know, differ in their specificity in comparison with other scientific and historiographic genres, since problematic and thematic historiography is a kind of reflection on the development of historical knowledge, which is realized within the framework of a particular historical research, serving as a solution tasks set in it. The subject of this research work is revealed through a historiographic analysis of a certain array of historiographic sources published in various civilizational dimensions (Soviet and post-Soviet periods of the history of our State). It is taken into account that the above circumstance left an indelible imprint on historiographic sources subjected to historiographic analysis. The author of the article tried to ensure a careful and correct attitude to the historiographic developments of his predecessors. Especially to those who worked in the Soviet period of the development of domestic historical science. The paper proposes, for example, a variant of periodization in problem-thematic historiographic studies on the history of the Soviet state. Certain provisions stated in the article are of a discussion nature. There are no copyright claims for completeness of coverage of the problem under consideration.
Keywords: historical science, periodization, method of periodization, problem-thematic historiography, Soviet historiography, post-Soviet historiography, I.D. Kovalchenko, M.V. Nechkina, V.D. Kamynin, S.N. Poltorak

Markova M.A. (St. Petersburg). Migration processes in St. Petersburg 2 half 19th XIX – early 20th century. in Russian historiography

PhD in History, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg,
journal for scientists “Klio”
195220, St. Petersburg, Grazhdansky pr., 11
E-mail: spbmarkova111@gmail.com

Annotation. Migration processes are one of the main topics of Russian historiography dedicated to the historical and demographic development of St. Petersburg. This article contains a review of domestic scientific literature covering various aspects of migration processes (dynamics of the total number, province of exit, adaptation tools, gender and age composition, demographic consequences) in St. Petersburg in the second half. XIX – early XX century. Аuthor’s main attention is focused on modern publications that have been published in the last decade, at the same time, the works of scientists of the 18th – 19th centuries, the work of researchers of the Soviet period, as well as publications of the 1990s – 2000s related to this topic are briefly reviewed. The author notes that the articles of modern authors touch upon such little-studied subjects as child labor migration, female withdrawal and its consequences. Concluding a review of the literature on migration processes in St. Petersburg after the reform period, the author claims that interest in this topic remains, and the source base of research is growing.
Keywords: population of St. Petersburg province, peasant reform of 1861, migration processes, peasant otchod, socio-demographic consequences of the agrarian reform of 1861

Tsyb A.V. (St. Petersburg). Henry More and Latitude-Men in the History of the Bensalem Kingdom

Alexey Vasilievich Tsyb
PhD, Associate Professor at the Higher school of International relation, Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, St. Petersburg, Russia, 195251, Polytechnicheskaya 29; Sociological Institute of FCTAS RAS, https://www.fnisc.ru/pers_about.html?id=1765, E-mail: alex.tsyb@gmail.com ORCID Id: 0000-0001-7492-356X

Abstract. The article is devoted to the intellectual movement “Latitude-men” in England during the Civil War of the 17th century and the restoration of the monarchy. The development of the events accompanying the Church Reformation makes a significant contribution to the political history of Europe. It is not the only but the most important factor in the Thirty Years War (1618–1648) in Europe, yet in England it contributes to the largest crisis of power in its history. English Intellectuals representing the elite of the national clergy see the reasons for the crisis in the decline of faith and in the rise of “atheism”, by which they understand any deviant interpretation of religion. A form of Calvinism prevails in the spiritual and university environment, professing the idea of universal predestination of events, the salvation of a few and the inevitability of eternal punishment for sinners. A group of free-thinking intellectuals stands out in this environment; they oppose Calvinism with the fundamental ideas of the “inner man”, the correspondence of human nature to the nature of God, personal free will and free spiritual agents operating in nature within the framework of divine omnipresence. This group of thinkers was formed on the basis of Neoplatonism and subsequently received the name of Cambridge Platonists. These latitudinarians or “free-thinkers”, oppose religious radicalism and bigotry, the theological extremes of numerous Reformation sects, and develop a religious platform that provides a basis for comprehending the discoveries of scientific revolution. Their own worldview is also based on: the fundamental (platonic in origin) idea of “incorporeal forces” acting in nature (“spirit of nature” by H. More, “plastic nature” by R. Cudworth), the recognition of the atomic structure of matter, Origen’s doctrine on immortality of the soul, the possibilities of its transmigration and general restoration. Despite their high clerkly and university positions, the leaders of this movement were subjected to theological criticism and administrative pressure in the post-Restoration England. In this regard, a cycle of literary apologies for the movement arises. The author analyzes versions from the works of this direction, reflecting the contribution of their recognized head, Henry More (1614–1687) to the ideology of the “Latitude-men” in the article.
Keywords: Civil War in England, Calvinism, Latitude-men, Cambridge Platonism, Origenism, Henry More

Ksenofontov I.A. (Moscow). František Ladislav Rieger and his program for the transformation of the Habsburg monarchy: the state historical law

graduate student of the Department
of History of the South and West Slavs
of Moscow State University
119192, Russian Federation, Moscow,
Lomonosovsky avenue, 27/4
e-mail: igor.ksenofontov1@gmail.com

Abstract. The article examines one of the most important concepts in the Czech political thought of the 19th century. The author draws special attention to the fact that, however, it arose not in the Czech, but in the Hungarian environment. Moreover, she was born in a noble environment. The main Czech policy documents, which were based on state historical law, are studied in detail. The concept was used primarily as a rationale for the preservation and development of the Czech nation within a single and autonomous administrative unit. It is important that Czech politicians tried to assess international events and trends through the prism of state historical law. Moreover, this concept became the ideological basis for the search for foreign allies, with the help of which the leaders of the Czech National Party wanted to influence internal politics in the Habsburg empire.
Keywords: Czech lands, Habsburg monarchy, F.L. Rieger, state historical law, nation, federalization, dualism.

Davydova T.N. (Yekaterinburg). On the issue of the legal personality of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (1918–1920) and its international recognition

Senior Lecturer of the Department of Foreign Regional Studies, Ural Federal University named after
the First President of Russia B. N. Yeltsin
620083, Russia, Yekaterinburg, Lenin Ave., 51
E-mail: tania.davydova@gmail.com

Abstract. The article examines the issue of the status of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic as a subject of international law, which appeared on the world map in 1918 and was de facto recognized by the Supreme Council of the Entente at the Paris Peace Conference. Attention is paid to the theoretical aspects of international law, namely: the state as the main subject of international law, theories and forms of recognition of states. The relevance of the study stems from the problem of determining the status of a newly formed states as subjects of international law in historical and modern world. The novelty of the research lies in the comprehensive analysis of the status of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic in the system of international relations. The author concludes that the state of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic had international legal personality and formally had the necessary features inherent in an independent state: the territory, the population living on it, the formed government and international relations established with a number of countries. The presence of symbols of state power, the armed forces, the financial system and the national language as the state is also noted. The author claims that the external circumstances in front of which the state discovered its instability and, as a result, lost its international legal personality, were of decisive importance for the functioning of the newly formed state.
Keywords: Azerbaijan, history of Azerbaijan, international relationships, international law, subject of international law, legal personality, international recognition

Grebenshchikova G.A. (St. Petersburg). Russia in «Armed Navy Neutrality» Politic

Galina A. Grebenshchikova
Doctor of History, professor of History of Saint-Petersburg’s State Marine University, corresponding member
of Russian Natural Sciences Academy
St. Petersburg, Lotsmanskaya st., 3, 190121
e-mail: galina_gre@bk.ru

Abstract. Using archival sources, the article examines important events of a naval, military-political and diplomatic nature in the life of the Russian Empire in the second half of the 18th century. In 1780, Catherine II proclaimed the policy of “Armed Naval Neutrality”. This policy accumulated several important principles – the law of the sea, jurisprudence, the rules of international cargo transportation in conditions of military conflicts, the behavior of commanders of ships of neutral powers in combat zones and beyond. The article emphasizes that there were no analogues of such a policy in the maritime powers. With the introduction of “Armed Maritime Neutrality”, Russia set a precedent in the field of international maritime law. The role of the Russian Navy and Russian diplomacy in the implementation of the policy of “Armed Maritime Neutrality”, which has had an ambiguous impact on bilateral relations between Russia and the leading maritime powers, Britain and France, is described.
Keywords: Stats’ struggle at sea in 1770, King’s decrees, privateers’ parties, trade protection, Russian’s position, Catherine the Second’ actions, “Armed Navy Neutrality” declaration and its results

Zavyalov D.A. (St. Petersburg). Was there a customs reform in the first half of the 1720s?

Dmitry A. Zavyalov
Candidate of Historical Sciences
Head of the Department – Leading Researcher of the Research Department of the St. Petersburg named after V.B. Bobkov branch of the Russian Customs Academy
192241, St. Petersburg, Sofiyskaya st., 52, lit. A

Abstract. The article examines the essence of the customs reform of the first quarter of the 18th century. Its basis was the introduction of new principles of service, which were embodied in the development and introduction of new customs states. Before the reform, the customs service was carried out on the basis of the state service of the townspeople and did not imply any remuneration. Customs officers were recruited for a short period (1-3 years) on an elective basis. In the course of the reform, the port customs offices switched to the free-hired principle of manning. The customs states of 1725 introduced a clear nomenclature of positions and established salaries for managers and officers of port customs. Elected posts in customs had been replaced by administrative ones. The components of the customs reform were the introduction of a new customs tariff of 1724, the Maritime Trade Regulations and Charter, new states of port customs in St. Petersburg, Kronstadt, Arkhangelsk, Vyborg, Kola, Narva and Novaya Dvinka. On the basis of a comparative analysis of the customs states of the St. Petersburg port customs in 1725 and 1764, a conclusion is made about the important role of the reform of the customs service in the formation of the system of port and border customs offices of the Russian Empire in the 20-60s of the 18th century. The author introduces into scientific circulation the staff of the St. Petersburg port customs in 1764 from the funds of the Russian State Historical Archive. The article analyzes the assessments of customs reform in scientific and educational literature, provides an overview of sources covering the activities of customs reform, during which the institutional framework for the management of customs affairs and customs policy of the modern (bureaucratic) type was laid.
Keywords: Customs reform, customs service, St. Petersburg port customs, customs staffs in 1724 and 1764, Commerce Collegium, I.K. Kirillov

Solentsova E.A., Zolotukhin E.I. (Samara). Transfer of Soviet Hydropower Technologies to Egypt and Indonesia in the 1950s and 1960s: One Goal, Different Results

Ph.D. in Economics, Associate Professor of the Department of Theory of Law and Philosophy, Samara State Economic University
Russian Federation, Samara, st. Soviet Army, 141
E-mail: solentsova2009@mail.ru

Egor Igorevich Zolotukhin
student, Samara State Economic University
Russian Federation, Samara, st. Soviet Army, 141
E-mail: GoldEgor3@gmail.com

Abstract. Archival documents of one of the largest design, survey and research institutes called Hydroproject allowed the authors to analyze the decision-making process on the advisability of the Soviet Union erecting hydraulic structures in Egypt and Indonesia in the 1950-1960s. The complex and multi-stage transfer in the field of hydropower is analyzed based on numerous facts indicating not only constructive actions, but also destructive measures that limit the export of technology to the other side. It is noted that the economic rapprochement between the USSR and Egypt took place against the backdrop of the Suez crisis, which predetermined the concluded contract on the construction of the Aswan High Dam by the Soviet Union. The authors regard the Soviet transfer in Egypt as the first successful interstate hydropower project, while the studied documents regarding the design of the Hydroproject hydropower plant in Indonesia allow us to speak of the transfer as incomplete. It is emphasized that internal political events served as a pretext for aggravating relations with the USSR, which in many respects became the reason for the suspension of most Soviet projects in Indonesia. Despite the obstacles that arose during the transfer, the study focuses on the recognition of science by the state and society during the period under study, which was an indispensable condition for the international authority achieved by the Soviet scientific and technical community. The involvement of participants in events and memoirs of contemporaries as sources of memoirs indicated the relevance of the activities of the domestic scientific community in the context of global trends set by the scientific and technological revolution in the middle of the twentieth century.
Keywords: technology transfer, hydropower, research institutes, Hydroproject, USSR, Indonesia, Egypt

Chibisov B.I. (Tver). Election of bishops of Tver at the end of the 13th – in the middle of the 15th century

Ph.D. in History, Assistant Professor, Department of Theology,
Institute of Pedagogical Education and Social Technologies,
Tver State University
170021, Russian Federation, Tver, 2nd Griboyedov St., 24/225.
E-mail: Chibisov.BI@tversu.ru

Abstract. The article is devoted to the problem of correlation of canons and church practice of the election of bishops at the medieval Tver cathedra. Special attention is paid to various models of episcopal election that existed in this region of Russia. It is shown that the church practice of electing bishops in Tver was far from fully conforming to the norms of church law from the time of the appearance of the cathedra around 1271 until the loss of Tver’s independence in 1485. Most often, the protege was a compromise figure: both the Grand Duke and the metropolitan directly influenced his election. In case of divergence of interests of the parties, a draw could be used as a method of electing a candidate. By the end of the independence of Tver Land, the local bishop took an oath to the metropolitan, according to which he undertook to observe the norms of church law and not to violate the administrative unity of the Russian Metropolis. The appearance in Russia of new collections of church canons and the oath confirming the right of the metropolitan to the sole election of bishops has become a kind of struggle of the metropolitans both for the canonicity and purity of church practice and for the integrity of the metropolis. The election of the Tver bishop was one of the most important instruments in the system of church-state and Moscow-Tver relations. Ecclesiastical legal mechanisms often gave way to the political interests of the grand ducal power in Tver, and at the end of the independence of the principality – in Moscow.
Keywords: canon, church practice, bishop, Tver, Moscow

Lokhov A.Yu., Natsvin A.V., Trukhin V.I. (Blagoveshchensk). Reconstruction of the site development of the inner space of the Albazin fortress in 1685

Candidate of Historical Sciences, senior teacher, tactics department
The Far Eastern Higher Combined Arms Command School named after Marshal of the Soviet Union K.K. Rokossovsky
675021, Russian Federation, Amur Region,
Blagoveshchensk, Leninа Street, 158,
E-mail: kluger999@inbox.ru

Postgraduate, department of information and control systems
Amur State University
675000, Russian Federation, Amur Region, Blagoveshchensk, Ignatevskoye highway, 21
E-mail: natsvin1998@yandex.ru

Museum academic consultant,
Amur State University
21, Ignatevskoye highway, Blagoveshchensk, 675021, Russia
E-mail: tru_vi@mail.ru

Abstract. The article examines the structures built inside the Albazin fortress, necessary for the creation of a fundamentally new reconstruction of the Albazin fortress. To reveal information about the internal structure of the fortress, as well as the structures located in the fortress, a detailed analysis of Russian service and other sources related to the history of the Albazin fortress was carried out, in particular: office documentation of the Albazin fortress, the Manchu “Luosha” drawing from the «Aihun, Luosha, Taiwan, NeiMenggutu» manuscript atlas, as well as a number of documents from other Siberian forts and the results of archaeological research. The analysis of the above sources made it possible to reveal additional information and convincingly proves the existence in the Albazin fortress, in addition to defensive structures, of other groups of buildings, united by their main purpose and determining the density of the site development of the prison territory in terms of functionality similar to other cities of Siberia of the 17th century.
Keywords: barn, tower, waywode yard, clerk hut, prison, structures

Plotkin K.M. (St. Petersburg). Pedagogical Academy (Higher scientific and pedagogical courses) (1918-1923): at the origins of Soviet postgraduate pedagogical education

Konstantin Moiseevich Plotkin
Ph.D. in history, associated professor
The Herzen state pedagogical university of Russia
bd. 6, 7-nd Murinsky pr., St. Petersburg, 194156,
Russian Federation
e-mail: kplotkin@yandex.ru

Abstract. The materials of the Central State Archive of St. Petersburg characterize the creation of Higher one-year pedagogical courses (1918), their transformation into a Pedagogical Academy (1919) and into Higher Scientific and Pedagogical Courses (VNPK) (1922). Reorganizations are connected with the development of the system of professional pedagogical education from the pre-revolutionary to the Soviet model of teacher training. A.P. Pinkevich and his associates simultaneously with the creation of the III Pedagogical Institute (now The Herzen state pedagogical university) conceived an innovative educational institution, combining educational and research activities with pedagogical practice and designed to improve the qualifications of existing teachers and train new teachers from representatives of educated segments of society. After the liquidation of the VNPK (1923), this idea was developed at the State Institute of Scientific Pedagogy (1924-1938) and the system of advanced training of educational workers.
Keywords: higher and postgraduate education, revolution, the Narcompros, education reform, unified labor school, pedagogical courses, academy and institute, teaching methods

Shapovalova A.E. (St. Petersburg). About the fate of the territory and buildings of the Koenig’s sugar plant in 1918–1930

PhD in Philology, leading researcher of
JSC “Concern “Sea Underwater Weapon – Gidropribor”,
24, lit. Z, B. Sampsonievskii pr., St. Petersburg, Russia, 194044,
E-mail: kuzdra_glokaya@mail.ru

Abstract. The article discusses the König’s sugar plant in Petrograd after the revolution. Based on discovered archival data we found out that in 1920–1922 the area of the closed plant was occupied by the 4th Petrograd Forced Labor Camp, as known as the Central Quarantine and Distribution Point, which was meant mostly for the prisoners of war. Besides that, the camp held the participants of anti-Soviet uprisings, labor deserters and Hungarian hostages. The camp was arranged the sugar plant because of its vast walled-in area, where there were, besides industrial buildings, some houses and outbuildings, as well as a hospital, which was converted from the Red Cross infirmary that used to occupy the mansion of the former plant owner. However, the buildings were not properly adapted for housing hundreds and thousands of people. Numerous documents describe in detail the unsanitary conditions of the detention of prisoners, as well as mismanagement of the occupied territory, which eventually led to fires and the destruction of industrial buildings, making it impossible to restore the sugar production. The uncontrolled removal of the sugar factory’s property, including the property of the mansion, during the liquidation of the camp explains why there is no authentic furniture in the mansion while its finish is quite well preserved. After several years of using the buildings of the mothballed plant for rent, the area of the sugar plant was annexed to the bordering Dvigatel plant in 1930. The article presents for the first time a reconstructed chronology of events that took place on the area of the former sugar plant from the time it was closed until it was annexed to the area of the Dvigatel plant. The State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation “Gidropribor” is located on this area nowadays.
Keywords: sugar plant, forced labor camp, territory and buildings

Lisitsyna E.N. (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk). Sakhalin oil in Soviet-Japanese relations in the second quarter of the twentieth century

Elena Nikolaevna Lisitsyna
Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor,
professor of the department Russian
and world history Sakhalin State University
693008, Russian Federation, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Lenin, 290
E-mail: Lisitsina1997@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article is devoted to identifying the place and role occupied by Sakhalin oil in Soviet-Japanese relations in the second quarter of the twentieth century. The reasons for the difficulties experienced by the Japanese economy in providing oil and the attempts of the country’s leadership to solve this problem are analyzed. It shows the transformation of Japan’s foreign policy towards hostility towards neighboring states and the Soviet side’s attempts to contain this aggression by expanding trade in Sakhalin oil (sale of Sakhalin oil from Soviet sites, an agreement with K. Matsukata). Concrete examples are given, indicating that Japan is preparing an oil concession on Sakhalin for a military conflict and reserving oil concession reserves in case of real hostilities between the two countries. It is concluded that the struggle of the Soviet leadership for the curtailment of Japanese concessions from the territory of Northern Sakhalin is a natural result of the policy pursued by the Japanese state at that time. The requirement to liquidate the concession also negatively affected the possibility of concluding a pact between the USSR and the Triple Alliance and for some time slowed down the signing of a neutrality pact with Japan. The article emphasizes that, despite all the difficulties (Japan’s violation of its obligations to liquidate concessions, the use of the difficult situation at the front to obtain permission from the USSR to continue oil production), the policy pursued by the Soviet leadership achieved the desired result – the Japanese oil enterprise on Northern Sakhalin was liquidated ahead of schedule.
Keywords: oil sales to Japan, agreement with Matsukata, Triple Alliance, the neutrality pact

Eroshkina O.N. (St. Petersburg). Issues of interethnic relations and international education in the coverage of large-circulation newspapers of the provincial pedagogical universities of the RSFSR in the 1930s

Olga Nikolaevna Eroshkina
Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor at the Faculty of International Relations, Saint-Petersburg State University. 199034, Russia, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya nab., 7-9.
E-mail: o.eroshkina@mail.ru

Abstract. The article analyzes the coverage in the 1930s by large-circulation newspapers of provincial pedagogical universities of the USSR of issues of interethnic relations and international education, both in the international and intra-union aspects. A study of newspaper publications allows us to conclude that the negative consequences of the economic crisis of 1929 revived in Soviet society hope for a new wave of the world revolutionary movement, which could be stimulated by the propaganda of Soviet achievements in the construction of socialism. It was actively carried out along the line of student international relations, contributing to their development. At the same time, as the analysis of newspaper materials shows, the class approach to determining the causes of interethnic strife within the USSR had a negative impact on the international education of Soviet students, the state of interethnic relations in the system of higher pedagogical education.
Keywords: large-circulation newspapers, pedagogical universities, interethnic conflicts, international education, 1930s

Shabelnikova N.A., Usov A.V. (Vladivostok). Military mobilization work of the NKVD of Primorsky Krai in the initial period of the Great Patriotic War

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Full Professor,
Department of Humanitarian Disciplines
Vladivostok branch of Far Eastern
Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal
Affairs of the Russian Federation
690087, Russian Federation, Vladivostok, Kotelnikova st., 21,
E-mail: nhistorik@mail.ru

Cand. Sc. in History,
Department of Public Law and Civil Law Disciplines
Vladivostok branch of Far Eastern
Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal
Affairs of the Russian Federation
690087, Russian Federation, Vladivostok, Kotelnikova st., 21,
E-mail: 101-mvd@mail.ru

Abstract. The article examines the military mobilization work of the NKVD of Primorsky Krai in the initial period of the Great Patriotic War. The main directions of studying the problem in modern research are outlined. Attention is focused on the attraction of documents and materials of the Archive of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia in the Primorsky Territory, which were kept secret for a long period of time, as a result of search work and the declassification process, which became available to researchers. A general description of the situation in the Soviet Far East, where in 1941 there was a real threat of an attack by Japan, is given. To strengthen the country’s defense capability in the rear areas, including in the Primorsky Territory, fighter battalions began to be formed, consisting of local residents, Soviet and party assets. These units were in the operational management of the NKVD of the USSR, they were intended to fight saboteurs, a criminal element, as well as to protect public order, and, in the case of occupation, they became the core of partisan detachments.
Keywords: Primorsky Krai, the Great Patriotic War, NKVD bodies, military mobilization work, fighter battalions, department of mobilization training

Krasnokutskaya L.I., Krasnokutskiy V.S. (Zheleznovodsk). Contribution of Leningrad scientists to the restoration and development of the city Pyatigorsk (1943)

Krasnokutskaya Lydia Ivanovna
associate Professor, K. East. associate Professor of the Department of historical and philological disciplines of the branch of Stavropol State Pedagogical Institute in Zheleznovodsk
Russia, Zheleznovodsk, Inozemtsevo, 357430
E-mail: karrass55@mail.ru

Krasnokutskiy Vladimir Sergeevich
K. East. associate Professor of the Department of historical and philological disciplines of the branch of Stavropol State Pedagogical Institute in Zheleznovodsk
Russia, Zheleznovodsk, Inozemtsevo, 357430
E-mail: kurasnokutsky.v@mail.ru

Abstract. The paper examines the actual problem of the role of scientists during the great Patriotic war in the cultural aspects of the development of society: culture, economy and education. The article considers the participation of evacuated scientists from Leningrad universities in the restoration of Pyatigorsk, which was liberated after the German-fascist occupation, and received the greatest damage from the four cities-resorts of the Caucasian Mineral Waters of the Stavropol territory. The organizational role of the City Defense Committee in creating 20 working groups that brought together 82 scientists, 27 students and specialists in various fields of the national economy in order to assess the damage and develop plans for the restoration of the city was noted. The importance of consolidating scientific forces in one body – the Consulting and technical Bureau at Gorplan – for a scientifically based concept of the sequence of this process is emphasized. It was established that major scientists of the country from three Polytechnic universities of Leningrad, who were evacuated in Pyatigorsk, were appointed to head the sectors that are subject to priority measures in the restoration and are technologically complex. The article analyzes the joint efforts of scientists and practitioners of the city to clarify the data on damage, which was the basis for the development of science – based projects and a competent assessment of working resources, materials and the pace of work in three stages from 1943 to 1945.
Keywords: occupation, material damage, liberation, restoration, scientists, Leningrad Polytechnic Institute named after Kalinin.

Sannikova Ya.M. (Yakutsk). The activity of the National Fisheries Company “Balyksyt” as an experience in the organization of fishery in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) in the 1990s

candidate of history, Institute for Humanities Research
and Indigenous Studies of the North,
Siberian branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Senior Research Fellow, Department of History and Arctic research 
Russia, Yakutsk, 677027, Petrovsky str. 1
E-mail: sannikowa@mail.ru

Abstract. The article reveals the issues of the activities of the National Fisheries Company “Balyksyt” of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) in 1992-1999. To study the problem of the development of the traditional Arctic economy in the first post-Soviet period, it is important to show the organization of traditional fishery and an attempt at a centralized approach of the region in this process. The studied archival documents show that from the very beginning of the creation of the Balyksyt company, there were contradictions in its legal and economic provisions that required it to carry out both economic and managerial activities. The tasks and directions of work for the company set by the executive authorities of the republic are not quite real. Also, the practice of the credit system in relation to the company has constantly increased its accounts payable. At the same time, the Balyksyt company was trying to establish economic relations with farms. The minutes of meetings and meetings with representatives of farms engaged in fishery reflect these historical facts. But, unfortunately, the result of the company’s activities showed that for farms it was also a negative experience of economic cooperation, which they had to go through in the process of organizing fishery in the 1990s.
Keywords: National Fisheries Company “Balyksyt”, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), 1990s, traditional economy, traditional fisheries

Rostovtsev E.A., Sosnitsky D.A. (St. Petersburg). Public Library – Center of Historical Science of the Early Soviet period

Eugenii Anatolievich Rostovtsev
Doctor of History, Professor
Institute of History, Saint Petersburg State University
199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, University Emb., 7–9.
E-mail: e.rostovtsev@spbu.ru

Dmitry Aleksandrovich Sosnitsky
Ph.D. in History, senior researcher
Institute of History, Saint Petersburg State University
199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Universitetskaya emb., 7/9.
E-mail: d.sosnitskij@spbu.ru

Abstract. Within the framework of this article, the Public Library is considered as one of the main centers of historical science of Petrograd/Leningrad of the early Soviet period. Based on a complex of published and archival sources and the processing of an extensive database of biographical data, the collective portrait of historians who worked in the Public Library in 1917-1934 was reconstructed. The article analyzes various data associated with their scientific biography. The problems of mobility / turnover of personnel among historians-librarians are considered, it is shown in which institutions they most often worked part-time. The article analyzes the processes of restructuring the work of the Public Library in new socio-political conditions and reveals the attitude of historians to these changes. There is an evidential opinion that the historians of the Public Library, even though they found themselves after 1917 in a hostile social and political environment, were able to preserve the possibility of working outside the ideological control of the Soviet state for a long time. Only the restructuring of the entire structure and structure of the library in the second half of the 1920s and early 1930s led to the outflow or expulsion of many professional historians from the Public Library.
Keywords: Public Library, E.L. Radlov, N.Yа. Marr, M.M. Dobranitsky, collective portrait, biographical data, historiography

Pyankevich V.L. (St. Petersburg). Bombings and shelling in the perception of the inhabitants of besieged Leningrad

Doctor of Historical Sciences,
Professor of St. Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation,
St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya emb., 7-9;
Email: v-pyankevich@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article examines the visual and sound space of the besieged Leningrad. The study of the perceptual image of the blockade is realized through an appeal to Leningraders perception of alarms, bombardments, shelling, victims and destruction, as well as the influence of this perception on the moral and psychological state and behavior of citizens, related strategies of human behavior. The features of the initial and transformation of the subsequent reactions of citizens to the use of military technologies by the German army are revealed, their impact on the emotional state of Leningraders is analyzed, the acquired traumatic experience is studied. The mechanisms of adaptation, the evolution of Leningraders attitude to alarms, bombing, shelling are considered. The article is based on the testimonies of the war and the blockade: diaries, letters, official documents, as well as transcripts of oral testimonies collected shortly after the blockade and the war, interviews and memoirs of a later time.
Keywords: The Great Patriotic War, the blockade of Leningrad, bombardment, shelling, perception, historical memory.

Gessen V.Yu. (St. Petersburg). Life and work of St. Petersburg bookseller and publisher M.O. Wolf (Part 2)

Ph.D. in Economics
Home address: Russian Federaion,
196233 Saint Petersburg, Zvezdnaya 11/ 2, 140
e-mail: geen27@mail.ru

Abstract. The article, on the basis of archival and literary materials, contains information about the life and work of M.O. Wolf, one of the most significant book publishers in Russia in the second half of the XIX century. It is indicated that he publishes a wide range of books related to educational, scientific, educational and children’s literature, with a variety of reference information. Attention is paid to the book publishing partnerships created by him: “Guttenberg” and his name, the introduction of advanced methods in printing, the use of his shop for communication of St. Petersburg writers. The difficulties that arose in its activities caused by censorship obstacles, the competition of many other publishing houses that arose in those years are noted. In a brief form, information is given about his entrepreneurial activities outside the publication of books, about his participation in a number of joint-stock companies of extractive industries, railways.
Keywords: St. Petersburg, Moscow, book, publishing house, merchant, entrepreneur, circulation, report, announcement, printing house, partnership

Zotova A.V., Sidnenko T.I. (St. Petersburg). New facets of the Civil War

First Deputy Editor-in-Chief of the journal “Klio”
Doctor of Historical Sciences, Docent, Associate Professor of the Department of International Relations in the Post-Soviet Area, Saint-Petersburg State University. 199034, Russia, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya nab., 7-9.
E-mail: anastasiyazotova@mail.ru

Doctor of history sciences, Professor
director of the institute for professional retraining and advanced training, head of the educational department,
Leningrad State University named after A.S. Pushkin
196605, St. Petersburg, Pushkin, Petersburg highway, 10
E-mail: sidnenko@list.ru

Abstract. The review assesses the publications of the famous Russian historian, Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor A.A. Shtyrbul. The authors analyzed the content of his monographs of recent years. Among them is a historical and literary study dedicated to the work and fate of the poet Yuri Sopov. The topic of a separate study is the establishment of Soviet power in Hungary, Bavaria, Bremen, Alsace and a number of other regions of the world. A.A. Shtyrbul studied the creative biography of Vsevolod Ivanov during his stay in Siberia (1917-1921). Of particular interest are the literary stories of the scholarly period of perestroika and post-perestroika. All publications of A.A. Shtyrbul of recent years indicate that he paid attention to the study of those historical events that were not previously interesting to other historians and literary critics. It is concluded that the author is a scientist-innovator, a researcher who deeply understood the spiritual aspects of past events.
Keywords. Soviets, Soviet republics, Yuri Sopov, Vsevolod Ivanov, Civil war in Siberia, perestroika, post-perestroika

Kaschenko E.S. (St. Petersburg). Review of the publication: G.A. Sokolov “Unofficial Art of Leningrad. Circle of Freedom”. Moscow: Slovo Publ., 2021. 256 p., Ill. ISBN 978-5-387-01673-8

Candidate of Art Criticism, Associate Professor,
Department of Western and Russian Culture,
History Institute, Saint Petersburg State University.
199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Mendeleevskaya Liniya, 5.
e-mail: e.kaschenko@spbu.ru

Abstract. The text of the review presents a brief description and analysis of the monograph by the State Hermitage researcher G.A. Sokolov “The Unofficial Art of Leningrad. Circle of Freedom”. The book is distinguished by a combination of art history analysis with a description of the historical background, so the author shows the viewer not only the paintings and graphic works that are discussed in the book, but also the historical and emotional context in which they were created. The text of the book is wonderfully supplemented by a large number of illustrations. We should especially like to note the author’s work with historical sources; attraction of a wide range of memories of contemporaries to create a multi-angle image of the Soviet art-reality of the 1940-80s.
Keywords: Unofficial Art of Leningrad, State Hermitage, Soviet underground art, freedom of creativity