Klio #11 (191) 2022

Nesterova X.A. (Moscow). The Ukrainian Question in the Controversy of the Leaders of the Cadet Party M.M. Vinaver and P.N. Milyukov

competitor of the Department of Source Studies, specialist in educational and methodological work of the Department of the History of Russia in the XX-XXI centuries, Faculty of History, Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov,
Russian Federation, Moscow, 119192, Lomonosovsky prospect, 27, building 4,
e-mail: nestrovaxenia@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article attempts to reconstruct the controversy between the two leaders of the Cadet Party – M.M. Vinaver and P.N. Milyukov – about the so-called “Ukrainian question” in 1918 – 1919. On the basis of a complex of archival materials, including the funds of the Central Committee of the Cadet’s party in the State Archive of the Russian Federation, the M. Vinaver fund in the YIVO Archives, the development of their views under the pressure of historical circumstances is shown. The purpose of the article is to reveal differences in the opinions of politicians regarding the mission of restoring the integrity of Russia with a common vision of the outcome of its fate. The analysis carried out gives grounds to assert that the position of M. Vinaver is justified by the importance of deep historical traditions, according to P.N. Milyukov, circumstances have changed too much to bind the policy of the party and the country with traditions. Discussions about the international foreign policy orientation of Russia after the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk exacerbated the split in the Kadet party, which was also influenced by intra-party differences on the issue of assessing the “new role” of Ukraine after March 1918. Some conclusions are made about the similarities and differences in the positions of the cadet leaders. The importance of understanding them for the analysis of the events of the Revolution and the Civil War in Russia is emphasized.

Keywords: “Ukrainian Question”, Cadets, Vinaver, Milyukov, Russian liberalism, anti-Bolshevism, Ukraine, Skoropadsky

Nosov E.A. (St. Petersburg). «Bloody Sunday» in the foreign press and mass consciousness

2nd year postgraduate student of the Department of Russian History,
Leningrad State University named after A. S. Pushkin
198328, Russia, St. Petersburg, Peterhof sh., 21, room 1
Email: eugeny.nosoff@yandex.ru

Abstract. This article examines the reaction of the foreign press and public opinion in relation to “Bloody Sunday”. The purpose of the article is to analyze, compare and draw conclusions about the reaction of society and the press in the USA, Great Britain, France and Germany to the events of January 9, 1905 in St. Petersburg. The scientific and theoretical significance of the article consists in generalizing and comparing the materials of foreign newspapers and the opinion of society about the dispersal of the workers’ demonstration by the tsarist troops in St. Petersburg. It is worth noting that this topic has hardly been raised in Russian historiography and is poorly studied. In 1935, an article by N. M. Lukin was published entitled: “The Russian Revolution of 1905 and Western Europe according to the reports of tsarist diplomats,” in which this topic was partially considered. In this regard, the conclusions drawn in the future can be used in further scientific research on public opinion about the events in Russia during the first Russian revolution of 1905 – 1907 and the attitude to the autocratic tsarist government in Western countries.

Keywords: Bloody Sunday, press, mass consciousness, USA, Germany, France, Great Britain

Fedechkin A.A., Fedechkin A.D. (Moscow). “…In our country there is nothing like this…” Ocean-going armored cruisers of the Russian fleet in the assessments of British naval experts of the second half of the XIX – early XX centuries

Candidate of the degree of Candidate of Historical Sciences
at Moscow State University International Relations(MGIMO)
Ministry OF Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation.
105464, Moscow, st. 16 Parkovaya, 10, sq.129.
e-mail: rurik63@yandex.ru

captain of the 3rd rank of the reserve, Candidate of I.N.
105464, Moscow, st. 16 Parkovaya, 10, sq. 129.
e-mail: rurik63@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article considers the opinions of British naval experts of the second half of the XIX – early XX centuries regarding the creation of ocean-going armored cruisers in the Russian Navy. In context of an acute foreign policy confrontation with Britain and the limited industrial and financial resources for the construction of a linear fleet at that time, combat units capable of causing serious damage to the enemy’s extensive Maritime trade in the event of war acquired for Russia the character of an important component of the armed forces and an effective tool for protecting state interests. The effectiveness of their use was enhanced by the introduction of a lightweight armored belt along the waterline, which created a qualitative superiority over the majority of unarmored ships of the probable enemy involved in the defense of communications. From the moment of their appearance, Russian armored “trade fighters” attracted the attention of British experts, who considered them a serious threat to English commercial shipping, not without reason. The originality of the design solutions of Russian engineers, whose ideas, later borrowed more than once by their foreign colleagues, contributed to the formation of an independent direction in the world of shipbuilding, was particularly noted.

Keywords: Russian Maritime Ministry, ocean-going armored cruisers, naval artillery, threat to English commercial shipping, E. Reed, semi-armored frigates, 1st-rank cruiser “Rurik”, 1st-rank cruiser “Gromoboy”

Suzdaltsev I.A. (Moscow). The policy of the Comintern towards the CPUSA in the works of modern English-speaking historians

candidate of historical sciences, history teacher, state budgetary educational institution School № 1381 Moscow, Russia, 129346, Kominterna st., 52
e-mail: ialoko90@mail.ru

Abstract. The article is devoted to the analysis of the modern historiography of the relationship between the Communist International and the Communist Party of the USA. The choice of countries is due to the fact that a significant part of the works devoted to the policy of the Third International is represented precisely by English-speaking historians. The lion’s share among them is occupied by historians from the USA, one of the main issues of their research has been and remains the question of the relationship between the Comintern and the CPUSA. The range of scientific research is expanding: at the present stage, the activities of the CPUSA during the period of “Bolshevization” of the Communist Parties, during the period of “class against class” tactics, Popular Fronts and at the beginning of World War II are increasingly being considered; its contribution to the solution of labor, racial, women’s and other issues is being studied.

Keywords: historiography, “traditionalists”, “revisionists”, “class against class”, Popular Front

Mochalov D.P., Magomedov R.R. (Orenburg). Attempts to Rehabilitate Collaborationism in the Russian Periodicals of 1991-1992 as a Manifestation of Anti-Communism

Master of Historical Sciences, freelance researcher
460050, Russian Federation, Orenburg, Proletarskaya St., 296, 30
E-mail: dosoldschool@yandex.ru

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor
Orenburg State Pedagogical University
460014, Russian Federation, Orenburg, Sovetskaya St., 19
Orenburg Branch of Plekhanov Russian University of Economics
460000, Russian Federation, Orenburg, Leninskaya/Pushkinskaya St., 50/51-53
E-mail: rr-magomedob@yandex.ru

Abstract. This article examines the issues of rehabilitation of collaborationism in Russia after the collapse of the USSR against the background of civil confrontation within Russian society. The article analyzes the publications of socio-political periodicals of those years that directly justify the Vlasov movement or problematize this issue. Various approaches used for such justification are considered. Special emphasis is placed on readers’ letters, which allow us to identify not only the public mood of that time, but also the editorial policy of publications of that period. The considered materials of various orientations allow us to talk about the rehabilitation of cooperation with Nazism as an integral part of the anti-communist sentiments of that period. It is quite possible to talk about such revisionism not as a search for historical truth, but as an attempt to adapt to the conjuncture. The conclusion is made about the need for further consideration of the problem and the insufficiency of references to the connection between the silencing of collaborationism in Soviet times and its rehabilitation after the collapse of socialism. It is assumed that the relationship between the anti-communist policy of the period under review and the rehabilitation of Nazi accomplices is much stronger than references to the state of study of the issue in Soviet times, since it was such a policy that gave scope to historical revisionism at the official level.

Keywords: anti-communism, collaboration, rehabilitation of Nazism, Vlasov, historical memory, liberal reforms

Mikheev M.G. (Moscow). Austria’s German Policy in Summer-Autumn 1850 and Russia’s Stance

PhD Student, Chair of Modern and Contemporary History, History Department, Lomonosov Moscow State University
119192, Russian Federation, Moscow, Lomonosovsky avenue, 27-4,
E-mail: meast22@mail.ru

Abstract. The article focuses on the content and motives of the Austrian Empire’s German policy in the post-revolutionary year 1850 against the backdrop of Prussia’s attempts to achieve dominance in Germany and the position of Russian diplomacy in this issue. The interests of Austria and Russia in the intra-German conflict and their co-relation are investigated. At the time Austria faced the risk of its expulsion from Germany. Preventing such an outcome corresponded to the foreign policy tasks of both Vienna and St. Petersburg, the latter seeking to restore the pre-March situation in Germany based on the Vienna-Berlin cooperation. It is concluded in the article that, despite a militant stance, one of the Austrian Minister-President Felix Schwarzenberg’s priorities was getting back to cooperation with Prussia. With St. Petersburg’s assistance, Vienna and Berlin managed to reach the agreement in Olmütz, which became the basis for the subsequent return to the German Confederation in its pre-revolutionary form. It is claimed that the Russian diplomat Peter von Meyendorff played a significant role in reaching the compromise. At the same time, Austria failed to implement its plan to include all provinces of the Habsburg monarchy into the German Confederation. Conclusion is made that the restoration of the balance of power in Central Europe, the Austro-Prussian dualism being one of its pillars, met interests of Austria and, to an even greater degree, Russia.

Keywords: Austrian Empire, Germany, Russia, Prussia, German Confederation, Punctation of Olmütz, F. Schwarzenberg, P. Meyendorff, K. Nesselrode, A. Gorchakov, Austro-Russian relations, Habsburgs

Lapunov A.A. (St. Petersburg). Topic of Wends in the works of K. G. von Anton and J. G. Herder

Independent researcher, applicant, teacher of history and social studies,
School No. 221
198262, St. Petersburg, Leni Golikova Street, home 15, building 2,
e-mail: alexlapunov@gmail.com

Abstract. The article analyzes the origin of the idea of supposedly primordial antagonism between the Slavs and Germans in the last quarter of the 18th century on the example of the work «The first experience of describing the origin, customs, tempers, opinions and knowledge of the ancient Slavs» by the Lusatian scholar K.G. von Anton and « Ideas on the Philosophy of the History of Mankind» by the German philosopher and scholar J.G. Herder, the causes and prerequisites for the emergence of this discourse and the role of the Slavic (Wends) and German borderlands and the Wends factor in its formation. The author, comparing the ideas of the two scholars, comes to the conclusion that the frontier position of the Wends (“German Slavs”), the nearest neighbors of the Germans, played a big role in the development of this discourse, based on information about which K.G. von Anton and J.G. Herder build the concept of the relationship of the Germans with all the Slavs.

Keywords: Slavs, Germans, von Anton, Herder, Enlightenment, borderlands

Kolesnikov D.E. (St. Petersburg). School reform in the fennoman movement (1860s – early 1870s)

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Higher School of International Relations, Institute of Humanities, Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University
195220, Russia, Saint-Petersburg, Grazhdansky prospect 28a
E-mail: opettaja2018@gmail.com

Abstract. For the first time in Russian historiography in the article is analyzed the role which school reform played in the Finnish national movement from the 1860s to the early 1870s when the Fennoman movement began to acquire political character. The problem of educating the Finnish people and the necessity to introduce the Finnish language into schools and gymnasiums of the Grand Duchy of Finland resulted in the unification of Fennomans and Finnish liberals in the political struggle against higher bureaucracy. An appeal of fennomans to raise funds throughout Finland in order to open a private Finnish lyceum in Helsinki in response to the decision of the school board to transfer the Finnish-speaking classes of the Normal Lyceum from Helsinki to Hämeenlinna contributed to the mobilization of fennomans’ resources. The fundraising initiated by the Fennomans was a massive protest movement of the Finns against the higher bureaucracy.

Keywords: Grand Duchy of Finland, Fennoman movement, school reform, Uno Cygnaeus, Casimir von Kothen, Normal Lyceum of Helsinki, fundraising

Naumova N.N., Shaldin N.N. (Moscow). The Czechoslovak crisis of 1938 in the assessments of the French right

Candidate of Historical Sciences, docent, Department of modern and contemporary History, Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Lomonosov Moscow State University”
119991, Russia, Moscow, Leninskie Gory str., 1

PhD student, Department of modern and contemporary History, Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Lomonosov Moscow State University”
 119991, Russia, Moscow, Leninskie Gory str., 1

Abstact. The article is devoted to the views of representatives of the right camp of the political forces of the Third Republic towards the ways to overcome the Czechoslovak crisis of 1938. There was an internal split in the ranks of almost all parties and political associations of that period. Most politicians, of course, understood the scale of the threat emanating from the Third Reich, especially if it manages to obtain the industry of the Sudetenland and weaken the military-political potential of Czechoslovakia (ČSR). However, many right-wingers chose to neglect France’s allied commitments to Czechoslovakia for the sake of preserving “European peace” and the opportunity to gain additional time to rearm the army and prepare the country for an approaching military conflict. By September 1938, a large part of the French right-wing camp was convinced that the worst outcome would be to go to war with Germany in the absence of the necessary military resources. The probable loss of the Third Republic in such a situation, the rightists believed, would play into the hands of “world Bolshevism”, which uses the military difficulties of France to carry out the “communist revolution” – a threat that seemed to them the most unfavorable and dangerous development of events. At the same time, in the ranks of the right there were quite a few who did not agree and even condemned the government’s course of “appeasement” of Germany. Politicians A. Tardieu, A. de Kerillis, G. Mandel and P. Reynaud, Colonel Ch. de Gaulle and others did not share the belief in the effectiveness of concessions. In their opinion, they only led to the increasing German demands, undermining the authority of France and weakening its strategic positions. They saw the only way out in uniting all the opponents of fascism and in demonstrating their readiness to use force against Hitler’s aggressive actions. By no means willing to start a war in Europe, these representatives of the right camp believed that only decisiveness and intransigence towards Hitler’s expansionist plans would help to prevent it. However, remaining divided and traditionally rejecting any alliance with leftist parties, they were unable to exert a significant influence on the course of events and achieve the preservation of the integrity of Czechoslovakia.

Keywords: The Czechoslovak crisis, the policy of “appeasement”, P. Reynaud, G. Mandel, A. Tardieu, L. Marin, C. de Gaulle

Katkova E.P. (St. Petersburg). The Balkan direction of foreign policy of the SFRY in 1980-1991

Assistant of the department of history of culture, state and law of St. Petersburg State Electrotechnical University «LETI».
197022, Russia, St. Petersburg, Professor Popov street, 5.
E-mail: ekaterinak.17@gmail.com

Abstract. The article is devoted to the peculiarities of the foreign policy of the SFRY in relation to the Balkan countries, as well as the content of Yugoslavia’s bilateral contacts with Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Romania and Turkey in 1980-1991. The author focuses on the conflict episodes in the relations of Yugoslavia with these states, and also gives a general analysis of their state in the designated chronological period. The nature of cooperation between the SFRY and its neighbors in the Balkans depended on a number of objective and subjective factors and was of particular importance for Belgrade as a federal center in the light of the disintegration phenomena that it faced in the 1980’s. The task of the Yugoslav leadership in these conditions was to improve, and in other cases, simply normalize relations with the rest of the countries in the region. In the conditions of the end of the Cold War, projects to establish multilateral regional cooperation, in which Yugoslavia became an active initiator and participant, acquired great importance. As the Non-Aligned Movement weakened and the SFRY lost the status of one of its leaders, Belgrade turned from a world player into a regional player, which is the reason for the sharp increase in the role of the Balkan direction in its foreign policy planning.

Keywords: Balkans, Yugoslavia, international relations, regional cooperation, Cold War, socialist camp, Non-Aligned Movement, national minorities

Bychek A.A. (Moscow). Women’s public organizations in Ukraine at the end of the XX – beginning of the XXI century

postgraduate student of the Department of History of Neighboring Countries
Lomonosov Moscow State University
119991, Moscow, GSP-1, Lomonosovsky Prospekt, 27, building 4.
E-mail: sunny.bychek@mail.ru

Abstract. The article analyzes the activities of the women’s movement in Ukraine at the end of the XX – beginning of the XXI century. The main theories of the emergence of the women’s movement and feminism in the country are considered. The influence of Ukraine’s relations with European countries on the formation of the country’s gender policy is analyzed. The role of women’s public organizations in the activities of the state is determined. The article studies the activities of women’s public organizations to attract women to participate in the political processes of the country, as well as their educational, scientific, agitation and protest activities. The attitude of the Ukrainian leadership to the actions and achievements of women’s associations is analyzed. The benefits of the existence of such organizations for the current political regime are determined. The effectiveness of gender policy in Ukraine during the period of independence is analyzed.

Keywords: gender, gender relations, women’s public organizations, women’s movement, gender policy

Evgrafova I.V., Panteleeva E.V., Chepel A.I. (St. Petersburg). Communication problems in the Russian-Swedish borderlands after the Stolbov peace treaty

Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences, Associate Professor,
Dean of the Faculty of Science and Humanities Education,
St. Petersburg State Marine Technical University
Russia, St. Petersburg, Lotsmanskaya st., 3
e-mail: den@smtu.ru

PhD in Philosophy,
Associate Professor of the Department of History and Cultural Studies
St. Petersburg State Marine Technical University
Russia, St. Petersburg, Lotsmanskaya st., 3
e-mail: history@smtu.ru

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Head of the Department of History and Cultural Studies
 St. Petersburg State Marine Technical University
Russia, St. Petersburg, Lotsmanskaya st., 3
e-mail: achepel@mail.ru

Abstract. The object of the article is the Russian-Swedish border territories, formed as a result of the conclusion of the Stolbov peace treaty in 1617 and the establishment of a new Russian-Swedish border. According to this treaty, the northwestern Russian lands, together with the population living on them, were under the rule of the Sweden. The new border divided the local residents, who had long existed in a single cultural space. They professed Orthodoxy, spoke Russian, they were connected by consanguine, friends, business contacts. The subject of the article is the communication problems that appeared in the Russian-Swedish border area after the Stolbov peace treaty. On the one hand, the separation of the local residents by the border line, who knew each other and spoke the same language, created difficulties for the border administrations of Russia and Sweden in maintaining order in the border areas. Both countries did not have enough resources to reliably protect the border line, so the border residents freely contacted across the border, engaging in horse stealing, espionage, and creating cross-border criminal groups. In this illegal activity, they were aided, among other things, by their common Russian language. On the other hand, diplomatic contacts have intensified in the border area related to the drawing of a new border on the ground, the exchange of defectors, and the resolution of other border issues. During the negotiations, it often turned out that there were either no interpreters at all for communication between diplomats, or they did not know languages well and translated with errors. The study is based on archival documents that reflect various aspects of the problems under study.

Keywords: the Stolbov peace treaty, the Russian-Swedish border area, translators, espionage, border reliability

Umarov D.V. (Grozny). Paradoxes of the Caucasus war: fighting in the Caucasus, as an integration factor — Russians in the service of the highlanders

Dzhambulat Vakhidovich Umarov
candidate of political sciences, president of the Academy of Sciences of the Chechen Republic,
364043, Chechen Republic, Grozny, st. Vahi Aliyev, 19a
e-mail: katayama_1969@mail.ru, orcid.org/0000-0002-7949-2321

Abstract. The article shows the practice of desertion from parts of the Separate Caucasian Corps. The author, using archival materials, for the first time involved in scientific circulation, shows the reasons for this phenomenon, as well as the reaction of the Russian command to the facts of desertion. The purpose of the study is to analyze desertion from the point of view of the integration processes that took place during the Caucasian War, since a significant part of the deserters were either included in the life of mountain villages or participated in hostilities in the troops of Imam Shamil. It is known that representatives of different nations fought under the banner of Shamil: Chechens, Avars, Dargins, Ingush, Kumyks, Nogais, Turks, Ossetians, Circassians, Poles, Russians, Ukrainians. The former lower ranks of the Separate Caucasian Corps bore the hardships of service on an equal basis with everyone else. They were in the cavalry, and in the infantry, and as part of artillery teams. The Cossacks-Old Believers were especially famous for their courage. The motives of the defectors were different: some showed sympathy for the national liberation struggle of the highlanders; others fled from the hardships of service in the Russian army; still others hoped to gain personal freedom; and someone was hiding from justice. The fate of the defectors was different. They had the freedom to choose whether to accept Islam or remain Orthodox. Imam Shamil allowed artisans to create artels. The production of cannons and gunpowder in the imamate was established, in many respects, thanks to Russian defector specialists. It is concluded that the picture of the features of the relationship between deserters and the mountain population does not fit into the stereotype of “friends-enemies”, but is one of the facets of complex integration processes that have been going on in the Caucasus for decades.

Keywords: deserters; prisoners; Cossacks; Imam Shamil; Separate Caucasian Corps; integration

Nazarov V.V. (Balashov). V.Ya. Bogucharsky’s activity as an editor of the magazines «Biloe» and «Minuvshie godi»

Candidate of Historical Sciences,
Associate Professor of the Department of History,
Faculty of Philology, Balashov Institute (branch)
Saratov National Research State University named after N.G. Chernyshevsky.
412300, Russia, Saratov region, Balashov, Karl Marx str., 29.
E-mail: nvv7575@bk.ru

Abstract. This article examines the activities of the historian, publicist and public figure V.Ya. Bogucharsky (Yakovlev) as editor of the magazines «Biloe» and «Minuvshie godi». For a short time from 1906 to 1908, Bogucharsky, in collaboration with the historian and literary critic P.E. Shchegolev, managed to publish serious studies, memoirs and documents on the history of populism. These materials are of great interest to modern historians. The magazines were published under strict censorship. Their editors were persecuted by the authorities and had to fight for the publication of literally every issue.

Keywords: V.Ya. Bogucharsky, populism, liberation movement, «Biloe», «Minuvshie godi»

Medvedev S.V. (Moscow). “The case of dentists”: illegal activity of dentists during the first revolution in Russia

Candidate of Historical Sciences, assistant
 Professor of the Department of History of the Academy of Basic Training Russian University of Transport RUT (MIIT),
127055, Moscow, Novosuschevsky street, 22,
e-mail: speransky1809@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article examines police cases of suspicious dentists in the revolutionary period. As a rule, the Police Department and security departments sought to find out detailed information about dentists who applied to the authorities for permission to open dental offices. The political police analyzed their behavior, tried to uncover links with revolutionaries, and paid attention to the nationality of the doctors. Many archival files store information about relatives of dentists; their unreliability could prevent further professional activity of dentists. The effective work of the police consisted in identifying his oppositional views and launching an investigation at the stage of the dentist’s application to open an office. Sometimes the investigation of illegal activities of dentists could last for several years, as was the case with dentist Leiba Gurevich, who in 1906 came under police surveillance, and in 1911 was expelled from Moscow. The correspondence of various security institutions of the Russian Empire with each other was sometimes slow, which, of course, interfered with investigative activities. The author of the article comes to the conclusion that police cases against dentists have great research potential, are valuable in the context of the accumulation of new factual material about the first revolution in Russia.

Zubov A.Yu. (St. Petersburg). The moral and psychological factor and its role in the war at sea

Senior Lecturer of the Department of History and Personnel Management
Federal State Budgetary
Educational Institution
of Higher Education “St. Petersburg State
University of Civil Aviation
named after Chief Marshal of Aviation A.A. Novikov”.
196210, St. Petersburg, 38 Pilotov Street,
e-mail: aleksey.zubow2013@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article provides a characteristic of such a phenomenon as a moral and psychological factor, as well as the role and its influence on the state of combat readiness of the armed forces of our country at various stages in the history of their use. The author, revealing the essence of the phenomenon under consideration, proceeds from the fact that this factor plays one of the main roles in the formation of the necessary professional qualities among the military personnel. At the same time, the author provides examples of the implementation of this factor in the course of specific historical events, simultaneously determining the significance of its influence on their outcome. The result of the study is the conclusion that the moral and psychological state (factor) is a collective phenomenon, which is based on various principles that determine, first of all, the moral principle of servicemen in the matter of honor and conscience before fulfilling their official duty.

Keywords: moral and psychological aspect, military personnel, duty, morality, honor, history, war, sea power

Cherepanov A.V. (Moscow). Politburo of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) behind the facade of prosperity: the politically incorrect image of Soviet leaders of 1920-1930

Postgraduate student of the Institute of History and Politics, Department of Modern Russian History, Moscow Pedagogical State University
119421, Russia, Moscow, 38th quarter of the Southwest building.1. sq.148.
e-mail: aleks.1100@mail.ru 

Abstract. In this article, an attempt was made on the basis of a political caricature to trace the nature of ideological-political confrontation in the Bolshevik party of the period 1920-1930s. Assessing the artistic subjects and the nature of interpersonal relations among the Soviet ruling elite, it is necessary to see internal party contradictions in a slightly different perspective. Political caricatures of the Soviet nomenclature, which were not once intended for a wide range, are a valuable historical source reflecting the harsh realities of party life behind the facade of luxurious parades, departmental apartments, comfortable offices and public speeches of the Stalinist era. The source base of the article is formed by archival material, which, on the one hand, adds novelty to the existing problems, and on the other, demonstrates the urgency of contradictions. Relying on such a peculiar view of the source as a caricature, its significance is emphasized in terms of informativity and content. With its roots, the defeat of Trotskyism and the suppression of dissent go into hostile relations between party members and stem from universal human values. At the same time, personal motives turned out to be associated with ideological attitudes, which were adhered to by the leaders of factional camps and slopes. All this makes you pay attention to the role of personality in history, citing specific historical examples and situations.

Keywords: Political portrait, internal party struggle, activity of factions, Trotskyism, idea of world revolution

Fedulov S.V., Laushkin S.A. (St. Petersburg). The study of the German experience in the training of naval gunners in the interests of the Soviet Navy (1930 and 1940)

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Professor of the Department of Military-Political Work in the Troops (Forces) of the Military Space Academy
them. A.F. Mozhaisky, Corresponding Member of the Academy of Military Sciences
197198, Russia, St. Petersburg, Zhdanovskaya, 13,
E-mail: serg.val.fed.661000@yandex.ru

Senior Lecturer of the Department of Military-Political Work in the Troops (Forces) of the Military Space Academy. A.F. Mozhaisky
197198, Russia, St. Petersburg, Zhdanovskaya, 13,
E-mail: laushkin_s@mail.ru

Abstract. The article reveals the features of the training of marine specialists at the Artillery School of the German Navy in Kiel. Including: educational and material base, features of the educational process, living conditions of students. After the civil war and intervention, the leadership of the USSR began to revive the fleet and strengthen the maritime borders of the state. At the same time, the leading role was assigned to naval and coastal artillery, which needed trained qualified personnel. In this regard, specialized naval educational institutions began to be actively created in the country. To establish the training process in them, the command of the Navy decided to study the experience of training naval gunners in Germany. The study of this experience was carried out in stages. The first stage – the 1930s was characterized by a general introduction to the organization of naval affairs, and in particular the training of naval gunners. The second stage – the 1940s – was associated with the supply of German naval artillery weapons in the course of fulfilling the terms of the trade agreement concluded by Germany and the USSR. The materials of the report of the commission of Soviet specialists were sent to specialized naval educational institutions of the USSR Navy.

Keywords: Navy, coastal defense, naval artillery, Sevastopol VMU BO named after. LKSMU, Artillery School, artillery specialists, fire control devices

Alekseeva L.V., Mironychev S.V., Mamedova G.E.K. (Nizhnevartovsk). The population of the Khanty-Mansiysk district during the Great Patriotic war

Doctor of Sciences (History), Professor,
 Professor of Records Management and Russian History Department
Nizhnevartovsk State University
628600, Russia, Nizhnevartovsk, Mira str., 3 B
e-mail: lvalexeeva@mail.ru

postgraduate student
Records Management and Russian History Department
Nizhnevartovsk State University
628600, Russia, Nizhnevartovsk, Mira str., 3 B
e-mail: mironichev1983@mail.ru

Records Management and Russian History Department
Nizhnevartovsk State University
628600, Russia, Nizhnevartovsk, Mira str., 3 B
e-mail: mamedovag2017@gmail.com

Abstract. The article presents updated data on the number of population and its composition during the Great Patriotic War in the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous district in conditions of permanent displacement. It is substantiated that the main factor of population increase was forced migration. The composition and stages of settlement of the deported population in the district are considered. The changes in the number of population, its composition, number of births and deaths are shown both for the district as a whole and for individual areas. For the first time, information is presented on the number of the evacuated population in the district. A conclusion is made about the compensating role of temporarily living population and special settlers as a part of labor resources, which was of great importance for public production, especially the fishing industry, which was the main branch of economy of the national district.

Keywords: population dynamics, district, evacuees, special contingent, war

Abyanova A.N. (Moscow). Establishment of international relations of the People’s Commissariat of Health of the RSFSR on the example of the newspaper “News of the People’s Commissariat of Health of the RSFSR”

3rd year postgraduate student of the Faculty of History of Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov,
119192, Russia, Moscow, Lomonosovsky prospect, 27, building 4
e-mail: abyanova.adilia@yandex.ru

Abstract. This article discusses the process of establishing international relations between the People’s Commissariat for Health of the RSFSR and Western states in the 1920s. The research topic is relevant because it is related to one of the most important problems that is directly related to our time: the development of health care and international health cooperation in the context of diplomatic isolation. The creation of the Soviet health care system was launched in the conditions of war and the difficult epidemiological situation in the republic. In the matter of creating a new model of health care, the situation was complicated by the need to simultaneously break the previous model of health care, as well as the boycott on the part of the majority of the medical intelligentsia. In the shortest possible time, it was necessary to provide medical care not only to the wounded soldiers of the Red Army and participants in the October Revolution, but also to create a network of medical institutions to serve the needs of the civilian population. By the middle of 1918, the Soviet health care model had received a clear structure. It is worth noting that the Bolsheviks did not set as a priority the establishment of cooperation with Western doctors and scientific communities. The Soviet leadership was sure that for the further development of medical affairs in the republic, it would be enough to gain access to the works and achievements of Western medical scientists. At the same time, the Bolsheviks also intended to disseminate the works of Soviet scientists, as well as to popularize Soviet ideals and principles of health care in Western countries in order to create a positive image of the young Soviet state. Due to the diplomatic isolation of the Soviet Republic, access to Western advances in health care was limited. However, as a result of the mutual need for the exchange of experience and scientific achievements, the gap between the Soviet Republic and Western countries was bridged even before the diplomatic recognition of the USSR.

Keywords: People’s Commissariat of Health of the RSFSR, Red Cross, Soviet health care system, Izvestia of the People’s Commissariat of Health, League of Nations

Krutetsky V.Yu. (Yaroslavl). Maksim Grek’s biography related materials in the Synod and the Museum collections of his works

Candidate of Historical Sciences
Associate Professor of Department of
Humanitarian sciences
Yaroslavl State technical University
Russian Federation, 150023,
Yaroslavl, Moskovsky av., 88 A
e-mail: krutetsky_v@mail.ru

Abstract. The author analyzes the content and structure of the texts, reflecting the facts of the biography of Maxim Grek, united in the “biographical” complexes in the Synodal and Museum collections of his works at the last quarter of the XVI century. Both complexes are similar in composition but do not coincide. The materials of the Synod type biographical complex, including the official documents, have exclusively ecclesiastical nature. All these texts are systematized chronologically. The biographical texts of the Museum type are less order. 

Both collections include a Letter of Maksim Grek to Vasily III Ivanovich. This document is important for understanding the position of the writer in the initial (until 1525) period of his activity in Russia. The biographical materials of both collections include letters from Eastern patriarchs to Ivan IV with a request for the release and return of the writer to Athos. It can not be excluded that the activation of interest in the writer’s work and biography at this time could be partly caused by the participation of the Eastern patriarchs in his fate. Another document of the biographical materials of the collections of writer’s works is the Permissive to Maksim Grek, given by the Patriarch of Constantinople Jeremiah II (June 1588 y.). The list and composition of the texts of the biographical complexes of both collections indicate that interest in the fate of Maxim Grek was largely associated with the process of establishing the patriarchate in Russia and the autocephaly of the Russian Church.

Keywords: Maksim Grеk, Synod collection( type), Museum collection (type), “biographical” complex, letters of Eastern patriarchs, establishment of the patriarchate, autocephaly of the Russian Church

Lurie F.M. (St. Petersburg). The Greatest Emperor

art historian, writer, PEN-club member,
member of the Union of Writers of St. Petersburg
195220, St. Petersburg, Grazhdansky pr., 11
e-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru

Abstract. The purpose of the article is to draw the attention of the scientific community to the importance of preserving both the spiritual and material heritage of Peter the Great. The article expresses the author’s original judgments about the personality of Petr Alekseevich Romanov and his historical mission in the development of Russia and its statehood. The author argues with a number of researchers who, in his opinion, give inaccurate characteristics of the activities of Peter and his diversified personality. Focusing on the contribution of Peter the Great in establishing the architectural traditions of the capital, F.M. Lurie emphasizes that of the buildings from the time of the first Russian emperor in St. Petersburg, only the Tsar’s House on Troitskaya Square, the Summer Palace, Kikin’s Chambers, the Menshikov Palace, the Church of the Annunciation of the Blessed Mother of God and the Spiritual Building of the Alexander Nevsky Holy Trinity Lavra have survived to this day , somewhat modified Summer Garden. All the rest of the legacy of the sovereign was either rebuilt beyond recognition, or disappeared from the territory of the city altogether. 

Keywords: Peter I, Peter the Great, Catherine II, Russian Empire, St. Petersburg

Khandorin V.G. (Moscow), Teplyakov A.G. (Novosibirsk). On the question of the rehabilitation of Admiral A.V. Kolchak

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Moscow State Institute of Culture, Professor of the Department of History and Historical Archives
141406, Moscow region, Library street, 7, Khimki
e-mail khandorin@mail.ru

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Institute of History of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Senior Researcher, Sector of the History of Socio-Political Development
630090, Novosibirsk, st. Nikolaev, 8
e-mail teplyakov-alexey@rambler.ru

Abstract. The article is devoted to the review of the issue related to the case of rehabilitation of the Supreme Ruler Admiral A.V. Kolchak. This issue is especially difficult due to the fact that it covers not only historical and biographical, but also political and legal aspects, and although it was raised repeatedly, it never received a final resolution. The relevance of the topic lies in the unceasing public interest in the events of the Civil War in Russia. The author’s goal was to identify the main contradictions and to formulate the main legal and political arguments in favor of the rehabilitation of A.V. Kolchak, on the basis of more than a quarter of a century of discussion of historians, lawyers and public figures. At the same time, the importance and complexity of this issue are emphasized, since Kolchak was de jure the main universally recognized leader of the White movement and, as such, is still subjected to fierce attacks from representatives of the “left” camp. At the same time, the question is raised about the expediency of rehabilitation in the meaning of this word, given that Kolchak was executed by the Soviet government, which is now non-existent, and alternative legal and political solutions are being considered.

Keywords: A.V. Kolchak, Civil war in Russia, White movement, Siberia, rehabilitation

Leonov V.P. (St. Petersburg). On the library and book publishing activity of Peter the First

Doctor of Pedagogical Studies, professor,
Scientific supervisor of the Russian Academy of Sciences Library
199034, St. Petersburg, Birzhevaya liniia, 1
e-mail: valleo@mail.ru

Abstract. The range of interests of Peter I was distinguished by extraordinary diversity. A special place in it was given to books, he constantly collected. The book and libraries were seen as a working tool of his activities and policy. Peter had a deep respect for science and scholars, and required a respectful attitude towards them from others. The article presents an overview of the library and book publishing activities and policy of Peter. It considers his personal contribution to the formation of the future library funds, a reference apparatus and service to readers. The main criterion was the openness and accessibility of the library for all readers. Separately, the article shows Peter’s personal participation in the organization of publishing activities, the criteria for selecting books for publication and reprinting in order to make books available to the Russian readership. The circulation of published books in the time of Peter the Great reached 1200 copies. During the life of Peter, only 295 books were printed in the new civil type, in total in his reign – 600 books. The library of Peter, kept in the Library of the Russian Academy of Sciences, has 1603 titles. Among them are manuscripts in Russian – 293 titles; printed books in Russian – 490; manuscripts in foreign languages – 68; books printed in foreign languages – 812. The library was formed from several sources. It partly consists of books and manuscripts, both Russian and foreign, brought to St. Petersburg from Moscow palaces. Among them are essays on geography, medicine, horseback riding, textbooks on foreign languages and technics, as well as gifts and calendars. The information and reflections on the library and book publishing policy of Peter I collected in this article testify his amazing foresight of a new image of the state, its science and culture. Based on these achievements, foreigners viewed the Russian nation, and the library of the future Academy of Sciences was considered by them in no other way than the Russian national library.

Keywords: Peter the Great, books, library, publishing, science, policy, culture, Library of the Russian Academy of Sciences