Klio # 1(157) 2020



Lukashevich А.А. (Kropyvnytskyi, Ukraine). The principle of double historization in source studies…………….. 13



PhD in History, Associate Professor,

Central Ukrainian National Technical University,

25006, Ukraine, Kropyvnytskyi, 8, Prospekt Universytetskyi,

Tel.: +38 050 585 11 46

E-mail: feodosia56@yandex.ru


The principle of double historization is introduced into scientific circulation for the first time. The application of double historization in source studies has been substantiated. The “Turns” in historical science opened up new prospects as well as raised complex issues concerning historical facts, sources, truth, and the role of a historian in historical knowledge. Overcoming the opposition of the concept source–historian, the idea of “constructing” the source by a historian was formulated. The extremes of both approaches have forced historians to seek compromised solutions, the so-called “middle platform”. But we suggest to pay attention to the fact that the source and the historian are interconnected and included in the ontological and epistelomological aspects, in the objective social and cultural process, manifested in a subjective form. The process includes their “accomplishments”, that is, undergoes changes at the stages of their “life”. Since the subject and the object of cognition are unstable, the question arises of the specificity of truth in history. This means that in order to understand the source information, it is necessary to identify the moment of intersection of the “stories” of the source and the historian in a certain time space. In other words, the principle of double historicization in source studies should be applied. This creates the context of the dialogue-cognitive process, not only in its structural and functional dimension, but also in the genetic one. There is an opportunity to neutralize the modernization of the content of the source and the subordination of the historian to it. Thus, the justification of the historical conclusion has the prospect if it is based not only on the source, but also on the system of “production” of knowledge, which includes theoretical and methodological principles, the principles of the historian, and expert assessments of the scientific community.

Keywords: principle of double historization, source studies, historical source, historical truth, historical fact, cognitive activity of a historian, historicism.


Grinёv A.V. (St. Petersburg). Russian-American Company and the Sale of Alaska

on the Pages of Newspaper «Moskovskie Vedomosti»…………. 21



Doctor in Historical Sciences and

Professor of the Humanities Institute

at the Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University.

195251, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Polytechnicheskaya, 29. E-mail: agrinev1960@mail.ru


Acquaintance with one of the largest and most influential Russian newspapers in the second half of the 19th century makes the opportunity to look at this period through the eyes of contemporaries, to identify certain nuances, details that usually elude the attention of researchers writing their works on a documentary basis. At the same time, this source clearly reflected the nature of the era when the glasnost emerging in the country turned out to be powerless in a clash with government censorship, which blocking any direct criticism of senior officials and the government. Under these conditions, the Moscow vedomosti, when discussing issues related to the Alaska and Russian-American Company, was forced to use indirect hints, evading their own, often limiting themselves to narrow financial information and only in some cases resorting to the services of a freer foreign press. Needless to say, the lack of freedom of speech, democratic procedures and legal guarantees, weakness and passivity of public opinion led to the ease with which Alaska was sold to the United States, and the Russian-American company was the victim of rash and illegal government decisions.

Keywords: Russian press, Moskovskie vedomosti,” Russian America, Russian-American Company, sale of Alaska, Mikhail Katkov, Dmitrii Zavalishin.


Dianova E.S., Pavlova O.K. (St. Petersburg). Chinese revolution 1925–1927 in archival documents and in the memoirs of soviet specialists….. 32



Graduate student of the Department of Contemporary History of Russia,

St. Petersburg Institute of History of the Russian Academy of Sciences

193079, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Oktyabrskaya emb. 94 / 1 / 4.

E-mail: lenadianova@inbox.ru



Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor

International Relations Department Institute of Humanities

Saint-Petersburg Polytechnic University after Peter the Great

195251, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Polytechnicheskaya, 29.

E.mail: pavlovaok55@mail.ru


The complex of historical sources about the revolution in China is quite extensive and includes memoirs. Memoirs about Soviet specialists who stayed in China were published in several stages. The very first publications appeared immediately after the end of the revolutionary events in 1927-1930. The reference to the memoirs and diaries of Soviet advisers again took place at the end of 1959. The purpose of the article is to compare the contents of published memoirs with deposited archival documents, to analyze the author’s work with archival materials, to identify what percentage of notes, reports, diaries was transferred to the publication, and what was not selected for printing. In this article, such an analysis will be carried out on the example of the publication of A.V. Blagodatov’s “Notes of the Chinese Revolution,” since it is a vivid example of the author’s work with the documents in RGASPI.

Keywords: historiography, memoirs, Soviet military specialists In China, Chinese revolution 1925-1927, Soviet assistance to China, A.V. Blagodatov “Notes on the Chinese revolution”.


Demirova N.I., Milenko A.A., Naumova G.R. (Moscow). Archive of a historian

as a laboratory of a researcher………………………… 39



State Historical Museum, Department of Written Sources, the main keeper.

Russia, 125009, Moscow, Krasnaya square, 1.

+7 (495) 692-47-35

E-mail: nidemirova@shm.ru


Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov,

graduate student 2 years of study,

Faculty of History, Department of Source Studies.

Russia, 119991, Moscow, GSP-1, Lomonosovskiy prospekt, 27, building 4


E-mail: a_milenko@mail.ru


Doctor of Historical Sciences.

Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Faculty of History, Department of Source Studies.

Russia, 119991, Moscow, GSP-1, Lomonosovskiy prospekt, 27, building 4


E-mail: al.nikonof@yandex.ru


The article examines the importance of disclosing a scientist’s laboratory, its archive for the search for new scientific historical knowledge. The study analyzes the archives of historians, which are stored in the Department of Written Sources of the State Historical Museum and the Department of Manuscripts of the RSL. Using the example of these documentary collections, we propose a methodology for using the reference documentation of archives that reflects the research demand for personal archives. The article draws attention to the peculiarities of receiving documents in departmental archives, as a result of which the archives of scientists are divided between departmental archives, family collections of documents, current papers of institutions, settling in the hands of students, etc. The subject and aim of this study made it necessary for the authors to turn to the personal archives of such important Russian scholars as L. M. Savelov and V. I. Bovykin, P.K. Simoni. The problem of scientific ethics and culture of using scientific archives and research experience of our predecessors is posed.

Keywords: archive of the historian, laboratory, State historical Museum, collection, L.M. Savelov, V.I. Bovykin, P.K. Simoni.


Marklund C. (Stockholm, Sweden). A Swedish Drang nach Osten? Baltic-Nordic pendulums wings and Swedish conservative geopolitics…………….. 44



PHD in history

Centre for Baltic and East European Studies,

 Södertörn University

Stockholm, Alfred Nobels allé 7 Flemingsberg;

141 89 Huddinge

+46 (0) 8-608 40 00


This article analyzes Swedish political scientist and conservative politician Rudolf Kjellén’s advocacy in favour of a Swedish “Baltic program” directed at the Baltic Sea region and Russia in the decades preceding the First World War. These Baltic ambitions as well as their legacy in the interwar period are studied as a series of exercises in “para-diplomacy” on three different levels: 1) as a geopolitical reconstruction of a Baltic-Nordic “space of expectation;” 2) as a kind of  Baltic-Nordic regionalism based upon early notions of “soft power;” and 3) as an inspiration to the geopolitical outlook of the Swedish military elite, business circles and trade policy-makers in the time period from the First World War up to the Second World War. This “region-work in the margins” contributed to modernizing Swedish conservative elites’ geopolitical outlook into an ostensibly less aggressive vision of Swedish international influence through cultural, economic, and technological prowess.

Keywords: Baltic-Nordic regionalism, geopolitics, para-diplomacy, Rudolf Kjellén, Russian-Swedish relations.


Vasilyev A.V. (Moscow). The Deportation of Mexican Workers as a Remedy for the Great Depression…………. 49



Postgraduate Student,

The Chair of the Modern and Contemporary History,

The Faculty of History,

Moscow State University,

Russia, Moscow, Lomonosovskiy ave. 27, bld. 4.

E-mail: uzh39410@mail.ru


The submitted work is devoted to the research of one of the elements of anti-crisis policy in the USA – the Mexican repatriation. The strategy of this measure was to return Mexican families to their homeland and, as a consequence of this, to release job openings for Americans. During writing the article author relied on US press and official statistics. Including, number of living, arriving and leaving the USA Mexicans, number of American citizens whose parents were immigrants, employment statistics and profit data for the US railway companies. This article gives an idea of the presence of direct and indirect measures of influence on Mexican workers in 1930-1932. The result of which was a sharp decrease in the Mexican population in the United States during the Great Depression. Also, this article presents examples of the participation of the American newspapers in the promotion of a return to Mexico.

Keywords: the USA, the Great Depression, deportation of members of the Mexican people, labor migrants, unemployment problem, migration policy, statistics.


Sirota N.M., Mokhorov G.A. (St. Petersburg). The emergence of a «new normality»

in the global world system: the confrontation between the US and China………………………………………. 55


Naum Mihaylovich SIROTA

Doctor of Political Sciences,

Professor of History and Philosophy Department,

Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation.

190000, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Bolshaya Morskaya St., 67A.

E-mail: sirotanm@mail.ru


Gennadiy Anatolievich MOKHOROV

Doctor of Historical Sciences,

Professor of Humanitarian and Socio-Economic Disciplines Department,

Military Academy of the Signal Corps named after S.M. Budyonny.

194064, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Tikhoretskiy Ave., 3.

E-mail: g.mohorov@gmail.com


The author’s vision of the characteristic features of the emerging “new normality” in the global world system is presented. In this context, the determinants and main directions of the US-China military-political rivalry are analyzed and its prospects are evaluated. The recommendations of American experts on the ways and means of destroying the Russian-Chinese partnership are considered. The author expresses his opinion on the optimal strategy of Russia in the situation of rivalry between the United States and China. The polycentric model of the future world order is assessed as the most appropriate to the national interests of Russia. Since the success of neutralizing global challenges largely depends on reducing the severity of rivalry between the United States, China, and Russia. The authors conclude that the polycentric model of the future world order is most consistent with the national interests of Russia. The authors also note that in modern conditions a military, including nuclear, conflict is possible between the most influential countries of the world. Of course, this can lead to disastrous consequences for the global society.

Keywords: Russia, USA, China, new cold war, the new normality of the world system, balance of forces, polycentric world order.


Rysakova P.I. (St. Petersburg). The Images of Russia and the Western Countries in Taiwanese History Textbooks for secondary school in the 1990–2010s……………. 62



Candidate of sociological studies

Associate Professor of Department of Theory of Social Development

of Asian and African Countries

Saint-Petersburg State University

Russia, St.Petersburg, Universitetskaya emb., 11.



The article deals with the analysis of the Western countries and Russia’s presentations in Taiwanese history textbooks for a secondary school in 1990-2010s. The reconstruction of these presentations aims to demonstrate that the content of these texts reflects the complex and multidirectional trends in the academic and political environment of the Taiwanese society after the democratization process started in the late 1980s. In recent decades the image of the Western countries has been defined by Taiwanese political and economic policies aimed at the integration of Taiwan into the world’s global system and separation from China. From that perspective, Taiwan became considered to be an integrative part of the global historical process led by the West and the West received a much more positive appraisal as it contributed much to the modernization process in Taiwan. However, Russia’s image is still bearing many features from previous times, showing the aggressive character of Russia.

Keywords: history textbooks, modernization, colonization, globalization, global history, Taiwan’s island history, Russia.


Magomedkhanov M.М., Bakanov A.V., Garunova S.M., Emirova M.N. (Makhachkala). Russian-Dagestan trade and economic communications during the existence of the Moscow Kingdom (Part one)………………… 74



D.Sc. (in History), Prof., Head of Dept. of Ethnography

The Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the

Daghestan Scientific Centre of RAS

Russia, Makhachkala, M. Yaragskogo 75 st.




Junior Researcher

The Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography of the

Daghestan Scientific Centre of RAS

Russia, Makhachkala, M. Yaragskogo 75 st.




Junior Researcher

The G. Tsadasa Institute of  Language, Literature and Art of the

Daghestan Scientific Centre of  RAS,

Russia, Makhachkala, M.Gadzhieva 45 st. 




Ph.D., Professor, Department of General history

Dagestan State Pedagogical University

Russia, Makhachkala, M. Yaragskogo 53 st.



In the era of great geographical discoveries, which lasted from the second half of the 15th century until the end of the 17th century, the Caucasus, as before, was a geostrategic hub within which numerous trade and transport routes converged and intertwined and, consequently, the interests and aspirations of leading world powers. The Caspian lowland remained to be a geostrategic intersection of the West and the East, the North and the South. The leading world powers fought against each other for the logistic resources possessed by Dagestan. The “Country of the Mountains” and its communications during the period of great geographical discoveries were in the sphere of interests of the Moscow Kingdom, England, Safavid Iran, and Ottoman Turkey. After the territories of the Kazan and Astrakhan Khanates joined the Russian State and concentrated in the hands of Moscow all the communication resources of the Volga-Caspian trade and transport artery, Russian-Dagestan trade and economic relations began to develop relatively faster than before. However, in the period of the second half of the 16th century, Russia was not, in any way, considered the main market for the “Land of Mountains”. At that time, the Moscow Kingdom defended Astrakhan and waged a desperate struggle for logistic resources located within the lowlands of Dagestan. Russian trade in the Caspian and Russian-Dagestan trade and economic relations will develop and increase from year to year only in the 17th century.

Keywords: Moscow Kingdom, the Caspian region, handicraft production, raw materials, the Ottoman Empire, Safavid Iran, England.


Balandina O.A. (St. Petersburg). The Activities of the Soviet information Bureau in the United States in Years of the Great Patriotic War…………………. 87



postgraduate student of Herzen state Pedagogical university of Russia,

191186, Russia, St. Petersburg, Moika Emb., 48. Contact:

+7 (812) 643-77-67, e-mail: olesya.balandina@inbox.ru


In this article, an attempt has been made to trace the process of development of information and propaganda activities of the Soviet Information Bureau (SIB) in the United States during the Great Patriotic war. The topic differs in relevance. Special studies on its development have not appeared yet. Meanwhile, a deep analysis of the problem will be a condition for the creation of a holistic view of the international direction of the main Stalinist propaganda institution of wartime-Sovinformburo. The article draws attention to the most important function of the latter – the formation of a positive image of the Soviet Union abroad, primarily through the dissemination of information materials about the achievements of the USSR. The author concludes that the SIB failed to achieve significant results in the struggle for the US media. The article focuses on emphasis on identifying the causes of its failure. At the same time, official documents of the Soviet Information Bureau from funds (GA RF, RGASPI, AVP RF) were involved and studied (including – not used earlier) by the author.

Keywords: The Great Patriotic War, Soviet Information Bureau, United States of America, information and propaganda activities, American media, the Embassy of the USSR in Washington.


Khasyanovа A.D. (Moscow). Long-liver of the provincial periodicals of the Tauride province: the newspaper «Crimean Herald» (1888–1920)…………………….. 94



3-year graduate student of the faculty of public administration,

Moscow State University,

Russia, Moscow, Lomonosovskiy ave. 27, bld. 4.

Tel.: +79199659528



One of the oldest and most popular newspapers in Crimea is the “Crimean Herald”. This daily political, social, literary and scientific newspaper was published in Sevastopol in 1888-1920. The increased attention to the issues of cultural life makes the “Crimean Herald” an indispensable source in the study of the history of intelligentsia, science, culture and education in Crimea. The article examined the activities and stages of the formation of the newspaper “Crimean Herald”. On the basis of archival data, reference-bibliographic and historiographic literature, materials of the local periodical press itself, the main stages of the development of the newspaper “Crimean Herald” are highlighted. The work is an attempt to consider the periodical press of the Tauride province as a source on social history, using the example of the Crimean Bulletin as one of the leading pre-revolutionary periodicals in Crimea.

Кeywords: Periodical press, newspaper, Crimean Herald, The Taurida province, evolution, formation.


Pustovalova А.А. (Nizhny Novgorod). Cultural institutions of the Gorky region at the beginning of the Great Patriotic war………………….. 99



Researcher, 603122, Russia, Nizhnij Novgorod,

Shishkova st., 6/2, 61,


E-mail: anna-nn@mail.ru


The article analyzes the restructuring of the cultural life of the Gorky region at the beginning of the Great Patriotic War. Many employees of Gorky libraries, museums and theaters went to the front immediately after the beginning of the war. The main goal for those who remained was the formation of public opinion in the manner prescribed by the state, the maintenance of morale and the upbringing of patriotism. An important role in organizing this work was played by the Committee on Arts and the People’s Commissariat of Education. The activities of cultural institutions have undergone significant changes since wartime posed completely new challenges for them. In order to effectively carry them out, it was necessary to master new working methods: readings in factories, traveling exhibitions and libraries, book-keeping, visiting theater and concert performances. All this allowed to cover a larger number of people and at the same time not to distract them from production work. The article uses archival materials, memoirs of contemporaries, as well as texts of program documents of party bodies.

Keywords: Great Patriotic war, culture, Gorky, Gorky region, theaters, museums, libraries, military everyday life.


Dorokhov V.Zh. (Khabarovsk). Military mobilization work in Far East internal affairs unit in 1955–1962………. 104


 the deputy chief of faculty of socially-humanitarian and economic disciplines of Far East legal institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia,

the colonel of police, the candidate of historical sciences, docent,

Khabarovsk, Baikal lane 4, apt. 10

+7 924 207 64 38

e-mail: dorohova_elen@mail.ru


The article provides an overview of the activities carried out by the internal affairs bodies of the Far East through the Local Air Defense (MPVO), and since 1961 through military mobilization work and civil defense. It is noted that in the previous period 1945-1955 Local Air Defense activities were practically not implemented. The incentive to restore this direction was the difficult international situation, as well as the results of the exercises at the Totsky training ground using nuclear weapons. During the “reset” of the military-mobilization area in the Far East, it turned out that the local internal affairs bodies were not capable of fulfilling the full list of activities of the “Special Period” due to the weak level of material, technical and personnel support.

Keywords: Far East, USSR, China, Ministry of Internal Affairs, “Special Period”, Local Air Defense (MPVO), military mobilization work, civil defense (GO).


Andreeva T.V. (Voronezh). Digital color restoration of the apse of the Basilica of Julius Caesar on the Acropolis of Ancient Corinth. 1 A.D…………….. 109



Voronezh state University.

Postgraduate, Department of archaeology and history of the ancient world

1 Universitetskaya pl., Voronezh, 394018, Russia, Tel: +7 (473) 266-16-16

e-mail: tatiana.aspasia@gmail.com


Ancient Corinth, destroyed to the ground in the 2nd century BC, has been studied by archaeologists for two centuries. Among the remarkable monuments, which gave more than a dozen sculptural portraits, stands out a small building of the early Imperial time-the Basilica of Julius. From there come world-famous monuments, like the statue of Augustus the priest, and the two Nude monuments of Gaius and Lucius Caesar. The advent of digital technology provides new opportunities for probabilistic reproduction of the original location of some of the statue monuments. We offer a variant of the restoration of the sculptural decoration of the Basilica of the first years of its existence during the late period of the reign of Princeps Augustus-about 10 ad. the Author believes that two full-figured statues of naked Gaius and Lucius were located on the sides of the impressive image of Jupiter. Choosing the color for the figures, we focused on preserved from Antiquity frescoes and mosaics.

Keywords: ancient Rome, early Roman Empire, color Antiquity, Basilica of Julius, Acropolis of old Corinth, archeology of ancient Greece, antiquities of Peloponnese.


Zakharko K.I. (St. Petersburg). The development of university idea in the Russian Empire (XVIII – first half XIX centuries)…………….. 116



postgraduate student of St. Petersburg State University,

199034, Russia, St. Petersburg, Mendeleev Line, 5.

e-mail: zakharko.ks@gmail.com


Analysis of the features of the development of university ideas and models of its implementation in the Russian Empire in the XVIII – first half of the XIX century is an actual direction of research on the formation of higher education. Based on the analysis of legislative acts and representative sources, the transformations carried out concerning to higher education and their consequences were identified, which led to the transformation of the university system and the formation of the academic corporation of Russian professors. The question of studying the Russian model of University education occupies an important place in the framework of modern works in the field of intellectual history. The main research field of this article is the analysis of the most significant projects and reforms of the Russian higher school in the XVIII – first half of the XIX century and the definition of the main characteristics of the University idea on the Russian soil. Projects and reforms of the Russian higher school are considered in the socio-political context. The central problem for the article is the problem of adaptation of the University idea in the Russian cultural and educational space. The study identified the features of the “Russian” University model and made reasoned assumptions about the role of the state in the history of higher education.

Keywords: the University’s idea, high school, classical university model, professor, academic corporation.


Kan S. (Lebanon, USA). The «Dreyfus Affair» of L.Ia. Shternberg, Kunstkamera’s senior ethnographer……….. 122



Ph.D., Professor, Department of Anthropology, Dartmouth College,

Hanover, NH, 03755, USA




The article deals with a conflict, which took place in 1908-1911 between the leadership of Kunstkamera (Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography, MAE) and A. V. Zhuravskii, a natural scientist, ethnographer and collector of artifacts in the Pechora region for the MAE and several other Russian museums. In 1908 Zhuravskii publicly accused the museum’s director V. V. Radlov and its senior ethnologist L. Ia. Shternberg of unethical actions involving the artifacts he had collected and turned over to the MAE. An ordinary museum conflict quickly turned into a political affairs thanks to the rhetoric used by Zhuravskii in his accusations. In addition, his cause was taken up by M. O. Menshikov, an editorial writer of a right-wing newspaper “Novoe Vremia,” who was known for his nationalist and antisemitic views. Special attention in this article is paid to the role of Russian nationalism and antisemitism in Zhuravskii’s views on this conflict and its participants. “The Zhuravskii Affair” should be of interest not only to the scholars studying the history of museums in pre-1917 Russia, but also those specializing in the study of nationalism and antisemitism among Russian scientists of the early XX century.

Keywords: history of museums in pre-1917 Russia; ethnographic collecting; Russian nationalism; antisemitism; Imperial Academy of Sciences.


Makhlina S.T. (St. Petersburg). The semiotics of «cleverness» by Velimir Khlebnikov…………………………….. 126



Doctor of Philosophy, Professor,

St. Petersburg State Institute of Culture

191186, St. Petersburg, Palace Embankment, 2,

Tel: +7 (812) 318–97–97

E-mail: dp@spbgik.ru



Velimir Khlebnikov is widely known not only in Russia but also in the world. It is significant that on May 29, 2017, the personal exhibition of Anselm Kiefer dedicated to Velimir Khlebnikov opened in the State Hermitage. However, neither during his life nor until now he is not fully understood and known in all the facets of his work. Khlebnikov’s ideas took their way as long as his kindred ideas of A. L. Chizhevsky. His poetic mind can be regarded as a linguistic and poetic experiment. Khlebnikov’s work is much wider than futurism, to which he is usually ranked. Often Khlebnikov used a parody. For him, the installation on a “sound-image” and the tight texture of futuristic writing is important. Khlebnikov himself believed that the fact that the abstruse language dominates in spells and conspiracies shows his special power over consciousness. Among the methods of expressiveness of Khlebnikov, his palindromes attract attention. His language is “Einstein’s shirt numbers”. He believed that “in different faiths of the earth” good coincides with time, and space – with evil. “Number” is one of the key images of Khlebnikov’s style. It was thanks to numerology that he predicted the revolution in Russia 5 years before its completion, as well as many other social phenomena. Everyone knows about the “Bradbury Butterfly” effect. But few are dedicated to the fact that for the first time this situation was also described using the image of a butterfly, by Khlebnikov, thanks to his encyclopedic knowledge. Among other things, Khlebnikov anticipated the theater of the absurd. In general, we can assume that he stood on the threshold of modern discoveries in many natural sciences.

Keywords: Velimir Khlebnikov, “cleverness”, futurism, palindromes, numerology, theater of the absurd.


Rychkova M.V. (Moscow). Sociocultural portrait of a student of the 1980s (on the example of Moscow State University)………………….. 139



post-graduate student of the public administration history department MSU School of Public Administration

Russian Federation, Moscow, 142600, Moscow Region,

Orekhovo-Zuevo, Madonskaya st., 12-26.

Tel: +7 915 055 95 58

E-mail: evrychkova@rambler.ru


The 1980s is a difficult period in Russian history. Its first half is connected with stagnation, and the second – with perestroika. The systemic economic crisis and the ideologization of socio-political life, on the one hand, the policy of accelerating socio-economic development and the policy of transparency on the other. All these and other contradictions created a crisis of consciousness, which led to a reappraisal of values, including among young people. The article attempts to reproduce a complex and contradictory sociocultural portrait of a Soviet student of the 1980s generation. The priority of public interests over private ones, orientation toward meeting the needs of the collective served as the basis for educating students of the 1980s generation. Therefore, an active life position, constant participation in extracurricular and voluntary events were characteristics of the student. Membership in the Komsomol, the mass of student construction teams, the collective spirit of the hostels gave a clear guide to the formation of a worldview. Reforming the economic and political system of the perestroika period contributed to the reassessment of student values, the growth of protest sentiments.

Keywords: Moscow State University, student society, sociocultural portrait, volunteering, subculture, youth policy, education, worldview crisis.


Salkova О.А. (Moscow). Creativity of the great poetess was illustrated by graphics……………………………….. 144



Journal for scientists “Klio”

195220, St. Petersburg, Grazhdansky pr., 11



The article reveals some areas of creativity of the talented artist Evgenia Kokareva. She with great love for a number of years successfully working on graphics dedicated to the work of the poet Marina Tsvetaeva. In a large number of graphic works presented at various exhibitions, the artist soulfully and convincingly reveals the multifaceted talent of the great poetess, her life philosophy, the laws of the meaning of human existence. This artist is carried out through the visual perception of the poems of Marina Tsvetaeva in the 20-years ХХ century, in the Prague period of her work. In Tsvetaeva’s poems, two universes collide: the universe of the soul and life, in which “nothing is possible”. This opposition finds expression in romantic oppositions: love is life. Tsvetaeva freely combined biblical, ancient and many other (Slavic, Germanic…) mythological motifs. Like a modern researcher, she revealed their similarities and kinship, which was inspired to reproduce Eugene Kokorin.

Keywords. Poem, “My Pushkin”, “pied Piper”, “Poem of the end”, graphics, exhibition, exposition.


Pilishvili G.D. (Kursk) General principles and methods of organizing NKVD fighter battalions in 1941 on the territory of the USSR……………………….. 147



Candidate of Historical Science, Associate Professor,

Associate Professor of the Department of State and Municipal Administration,

Kursk State University.

305000, Russian Federation, Kursk,ul. Kirova, 5. 59-b.

E-mail: pilishvili.georg@yandex.ru


In the article, the author, using archival material and scientific literature, analyzed the creation of the NKVD fighter battalions in the USSR. The time of their creation the first months of 1941. In order to give the effectiveness of the activities of the fighter battalions during the Great Patriotic War, it is necessary to identify the basic principles of their formation, because from the tasks and methods for solving them, you can judge the result. The author shows a picture of the first months of hostilities in the USSR. The retreat of the Red Army, leaving the enemy large territories. It was during this period that the restructuring of the Soviet and administrative bodies of power took place on a war footing. Together with the NKVD bodies, they had to protect the rear, evacuate both the population and industrial enterprises, and be responsible for the safety of strategically important facilities. The NKVD bodies could not fully cope with all these tasks on their own. Therefore, a decision arises to create fighter battalions to help the NKVD bodies throughout the frontline areas from the local population. The article shows the difficulties that the NKVD and administrative bodies had to face in the formation, training, as well as supplying them with weapons, ammunition, uniforms. Many problems had to be solved on their own at the local level. However, by August 1941, fighter battalions were formed in all front-line regions and began to fulfill their immediate duties – the fight against enemy landing forces and saboteurs, as well as the protection of the rear.

Keywords: extermination battalions, World War II, People’s Commissariat of Internal Affairs of the USSR, combat activities, service activities.


Kuzinets I.M. (St. Petersburg). On the concept of naval engineering education in Russia and the role in it of the patriotic education of cadets – future military engineers of the fleet……………………………… 155



Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor

Professor at the Inter-University Center for Education in

history and philosophy of science and technology SPbGMTU

198260, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Prospect Veteranov, 84.

e-mail: isay_kuzinez@mail.ru


This article covers 220 years of experience of Russian naval engineering education, including the practice of learning and education in the World’s first higher naval engineering educational institution: St. Petersburg School of Naval Architecture (1798), Naval Engineering School of Emperor Nicholas I (1898), F.E. Dzerzhinsky Higher Naval Engineering School (1927), Naval Engineering Institute (1998), Military (Naval Polytechnic) Institute of the Military Educational and Scientific Navy Center “Naval Academy” (2012). It draws more attention to the importance of fundamental scientific research, as proven by more than two centuries of experience of naval engineering education, it emphasizes the importance of studying higher mathematics in engineering education, it substantiates the need for preparing not only a professional  naval engineer, but also a citizen, a true patriot of his country, ready to defend his motherland to its orders, it analyzes in detail not only the centuries – old historical experience of the national naval engineering education, but, most importantly, the significance of its use in the 21st century, in terms of modern development of the country’s Navy, when its role has increased dramatically and its objectives have expanded.

Keywords: Concept, naval engineering education, practical knowledge and skills, training, material base, officer, patriotism.


Sudarikov А.М., Spiridonova V.А. (St. Petersburg). Meteorologist – I.V. Stalin’s first profession…………….. 163



Doctor of historical Sciences, docent,

Head of the Department of Social and Humanitarian Sciences

of the Russian State Hydrometeorological University

195196, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Malookhtinsky pr., 98.

e-mail: a.m.sudarikov@gmail.com


Candidate of sociological Sciences, docent

of the Department of Social and Humanitarian Sciences

of the Russian State Hydrometeorological University

195196, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Malookhtinsky pr., 98.

e-mail: kafedra_sgn@rshu.ru   


The article deals with the history of Stalin’s first profession-meteorologist. On the basis of a large number of facts is shown the formation of his professional consciousness, as well as the experience of the first (and last) «non-political» work. The article shows that the Tiflis physical Observatory at the turn of the century was an advanced scientific institution, and the Russian weather service was considered the best in the world. A brief outline of the development of meteorological observations in Russia is given. It describes the creation of the Tiflis physical Observatory and the work of its staff. It is shown that the work of the observer-calculator of the Tiflis physical Observatory had a significant impact on the style of further state activity of I.V. Stalin. The qualities, skills and abilities that Iosif Dzhugashvili acquired while working in a scientific meteorological institution are considered. It is shown how the acquired skills and abilities were implemented by I. V. Stalin in further political and social activities. This article is interesting by combining two spheres of activity of the leader – civil and political.

Keywords: meteorology, first profession, Tiflis Physical Observatory, Dzhugashvili, I.V. Stalin, scientific skills, political work.


Alekseev T.V., Losik A.V. (St. Petersburg). Leningrad is a battle front city. The third year of the war with Germany. Monograph Review: B.P. Belozerov. Leningrad is fighting. 1943. St. Petersburg: Knowledge Society Publ., 2018, 246 p………….. 173



Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor

Professor of the Military Space Academy named after A.F. Mozhaysky

197198, Russia, St. Petersburg, Zhdanovskaya str., 13.

Tel.:   7 (911) 273-96-44; e-mail: timofey1967@mail.ru


Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor

Deputy Editor-in-Chief of the Journal for Scientists “Clio”

197374, Russia, St. Petersburg, School Str., 88, 2, sq. 81.

Тел.:  7 (812) 534-28-28, e-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru


The book under review analyzes the work of the Military Council of the Leningrad Front, the city party committee and the Leningrad Council on organizing events related to the preparation of two front operations (the Leningrad and Volkhov fronts) to break through the enemy blockade of Leningrad in January 1943. Attention is paid to the work of labor collectives of the city on the Neva for the production of weapons and ammunition for the front, as well as the food problem of Leningrad and front-line soldiers associated with the use of the Road of Life. New opportunities in the life and work of the fighting Leningrad, which opened after the construction of the Victory Road, a railway line south of Lake Ladoga that appeared after the breakthrough of the enemy blockade, are also highlighted.

Keywords: Leningrad fighting, Leonid Govorov, breaking the blockade, seizing the bridgehead, offensive battle, fascist occupation, victory road.


Khandorin V.G. (Moscow). To the question of the succession of domestic special services. Article review of A.I. Pozharov and N.S. Kirmel «Methodological approaches to the study of the succession of domestic special services» («Klio». 2019. No. 10 (154). Pp. 118–126)……………… 179


Doctor of Historical Sciences, professor of Moscow State Institute of Culture and Orthodox St. Tikhon Humanitarian University.

Moscow, Kotelnicheskaya embankment, 33-1-346, 115172.

 Tel. 8-916-854-67-31, E-mail khandorin@mail.ru


The review is devoted to the analysis of the article by A.I. Pozharov and N.S. Kirmel «Methodological approaches to the study of the domestic special services succession», representing the first experience of argumentation of pre-revolutionary and Soviet special services succession of Russia from the perspective of methodology. Based on the factual data of their predecessors, from among departmental historians, indicating the presence of succession trends, the authors tried to generalize and theoretically justify them from the point of view of a civilizational approach, contrary to the formation (Marxist-Leninist) approach. The presented review of the article, analyzing its content and paying tribute to the novelty of the author’s approach in applying the research topic (which allows us to consider the article a new theme in the historiography of  Russian special services), on the one hand, highlights its strengths and confirms the validity of the main authors’ conclusions, on the other hand, cause doubts on certain controversial findings.

Keywords: historiography, special services, mentality, civilizational approach, formational approach.


Shabelnikova N.A., Usov А.V. (Vladivostok). Scientist, manager, friend: to the 80th anniversary of professor A. P. Derevyanko……………….. 182



Doctor of Historical Sciences, Full Professor,

Department of Humanitarian Disciplines 

Vladivostok branch of Far Eastern Judicial Institute

of Russian Ministry of the Interior

690087, Russian Federation, Vladivostok, Kotelnikova st., 21,

89147206191, e-mail: nhistorik@mail.ru



associate Professor of the Department of state law and civil law disciplines

Vladivostok branch of Far Eastern Judicial Institute

of Russian Ministry of the Interior

690087, Russian Federation, Vladivostok, Kotelnikova st., 21,

89502823761, e-mail: 101-mvd@mail.ru


The article deals with the creative path of A.P. Derevyanko – a doctor of historical sciences, professor, honored worker of science of the Russian Federation, who devoted more than three decades to studying the history of the Far Eastern region. It is noted that the 1990s for the researcher were the most fruitful. The main attention was focused on studying the history of the development of the Far East. He wrote the monograph “Border Conflict in the Area of Lake Hassan in 1938” in 1998. Also, A.P. Derevyanko published two collective monographs on the history of the coal industry in the Far East and Eastern Siberia. The collective monograph co-authored with A.P. Derevyanko “Russian Primorye at the Turn of the Third Millennium” (1999) is of great importance for researchers. The article analyzes the contribution of Alexey Panteleevich, a scientist, teacher, a skilled organizer of science, in the development of history and education in the Russian Far East.

Keywords: A. P. Derevyanko, science, education, history, Far East, Russia.