Klio # 12 (120) 2016





Potapova N.V. (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk). The specificity of the representations of local history information on pages of the «Kamchatka Diocesan Bulletin» (1894–1899)………………………………………………………13


NATALIA VLADIMIROVNA POTAPOVA — Doctor in History, Professor of Sakhalin State University, Department of Russian and World History. 693008, Russian Federation, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Lenina str., 290. E-mail: napotapova@yandex.ru


In the article was researched the first Far Eastern Orthodox diocesan periodical publication — «Kamchatka Diocesan Bulletin» (organ of the Kuril-Kamchatka-Blagoveshchensk Diocese), published from 1894 to 1899 in Blagoveshchensk, in terms of the presence in it of publications local history character. Publications diocesan printing represents unique historical sources, allowing to reconstruct the various aspects of the history of the Far East of the Russian Empire: Orthodox life history of the population, the missionary work of priests, parishes everyday life, the activities of the bishops, the relationship of the Orthodox Church with the Old Believers and sectarians. The article reveals the main sections of the Bulletin, groups and genres of published material, authors of the most significant historical and natural history research. It is important to publishing in the Bulletin of the diocesan complex historical sources as official diocesan documents.

Keywords: diocesan bulletins, the Far East, the Russian Empire, the Russian Orthodox Church, the local history, the church press, Blagoveshchensk, missionary.






Alekseeva L.V. (Nizhnevartovsk), Feoktistova Y.V. (Noyabrsk, Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug). History of cooperative construction of Yugra and Yamal the 1920–1930s, in complex works of the 1970s and 1980s……………………………………………………………..18


LUBOV VASILJEVNA ALEKSEEVA — Ph.D. in History, Professor, Nizhnevartovsk State University. 628602, Russian Federation, Nizhnevartovsk, ul. Mira, 3-B. E-mail: lvalexeeva@mail.ru


YULIA VLADIMIROVNA FEOKTISTOVA — History teacher of Municipal budgetary secondary school № 8. 629804, Russian Federation, Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Noyabrsk, Muravlenko Street, h. 8, fl. 24. E-mail: yulia_7407@mail.ru


The article discusses the history of cooperative construction in the North of Western Siberia, reflected in the works of Soviet historians of the 1970s and 1980s. The authors, analyzing mainly complex works of E.M. Budarin, V.A. Zibarev, I.P. Clethenok and other historians, reveal the article with their views on the problem of cooperative construction in the region, map positions, outsource database, which is accessed historians to reveal the history of Soviet cooperation in the region. The authors found that the position of Soviet historians on the key issues of cooperative construction coincided. They concerned mainly species and forms of cooperation, its functions, values of the integral cooperation to a new stage of development in the life of the indigenous peoples of the North. The differences were, first of all, assessment of the role of a particular form of cooperation in the lives of the peoples of the North, periodization cooperative construction or the lack of it, as well as disclosure or concealment of problems in the functioning of the cooperatives.

Keywords: history, historiography, historians, cooperative construction, cooperation, trade, logistics, procurement.






Variash I.I. (Moscow). The homage of Muslims of the Crown of Aragon in the XIV century……………23


IRINA IGOREVNA VARIASH — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Department of History of Middle Age, History faculty, Moscow State University. 119991, Russian Federation, Moscow, Lomonosov pr. 27/4. E-mail: variashi@gmail.com


The article is devoted to such specifically medieval phenomenon as homage. In the center of a small study is a problem of the sacredness of the oath in those cases when the future overlord and his vassals belong to different confessions. The author focuses on the legal, rather than social or political side of the issue, and analyzes the text of the oath and the procedure of homage. In the Crown of Aragon of the XIV century the homage of Muslims to the Christian King or to Christian lord sovereign was not an exceptional phenomenon. Homage was a conventional form of establishing the feudal allegiance, which found reflection in the documentary sources. The author notes that the Islamic tradition is not always explicitly refers to the fact of citizenship of Muslims to Christian rulers. At the same time, in practice, it is homage, with its formal and sacred formulas recognized by both parties and indeed reinforcing the relationship of a particular type. The Muslim side often initiated drafting two-parties acts where offering of homage or concluding vassal relationships were prescribed. These documents provided legitimacy Saracens citizenship not only in the framework of the new relationship with the Christian authorities, but also from the point of view of Islamic legal tradition. Homage existed in a multidimensional legal space of the Christian Kingdom. This space was treated as a combination of different systems, each of which had its own legitimacy. In such a structure is clearly visible the functionality of multidimensional legal space, which is typical for the medieval perception of right and law. Neighboring systems are in hierarchical relations with each other, and the legitimacy of any system that is included in the total hierarchically organized space, should be supported by efforts and agreements of all parties, by political authority and by law itself.

Keywords: history of law, Crown of Aragon, Islamic law, saracens, capitulations, privileges, homage, Islam.



Danilov I.A. (Saint Petersburg). Nomen est omen. Onomasticon a Saxon knightly kinship of Schoenberg in the era of the religious schism…………………………………………………………………………………29


IGOR ALEKSEEVICH DANILOV — Postgraduate Student, Institute of History, Chair of medieval history, Saint Petersburg State University, Junior researcher at the Department of Rare Books Library of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 199034, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Mendeleev line, block 5; 199034, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Birzhevaja line, blok 1. E-mail: igordanilov1990@gmail.com


The article is devoted to the practice of naming in Saxony in XVI‒XVII centuries on the material onomasticon knightly family of Schoenberg. This noble and rich family belonged to the so-called «four pillars» («vier Stammsäulen») Electorate of Saxony. In the called era Schoenberg occupied a high position at the Saxon court and participated in the most significant political events and military conflicts, affecting the interests of the rulers not only this region, but also other involved in the religious wars states. Particularly distinguished themselves in the international arena representatives of the sideline this kinship Saxenburg-Schoenau, which thanks to the military prowess and diplomatic talent have reached a high provisions at the court of the French king Charles IX and held leading positions under Henry III and Henry IV. For his achievements they were granted the county Nanteuil and later settled in France, but continued to serve as a link between German political elites and the French crown. Representatives of other branches of this kinship prefer to meet their power ambitions within the Margravate of Meissen. Analysis of their family onomasticon allows to see how influenced the repertoire of personal names intellectual preferences of era (for example, the Renaissance fashion on antique names) and the emerging Protestant tradition.

Keywords: History of Germany, Saxony, knightly nobility, onomastics, statistics, kinship of Schoenberg, family, wedding parties, naming.



Creuzberger S. (Rostock, Germany). “Actively undertake  the Communists”:  Anti-communism and political culture in the early Bonn Republic……………………………………………………………………………………..35


STEFAN CREUZBERGER — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, University of Rostock. 18055, Germany, Rostock, Hermann str. 34b, R. 4. Tel.: + 49 (0) 381 498 2713, e-mail: stefan.creuzberger@uni-rostock.de


In the article the German anti-communism of the 1950–1970s viewed through the prism of political culture in the early Bonn Republic. According to the author, at the origins of the West German anti-communism were brothers Peter von Zahn and Friedrich von Zahn. The article notes that anti-communism was the West German government policy, rooted in the founding days of the Bonn Republic, and was a reaction to the division of the German nation. Among the active carriers of anti-communism author calls an all-German ministry, the Federal Service for Protection of the Constitution, the Federal Ministry of the Interior, the Federal Intelligence Service and the CIA. The article notes that “the resistance to Communism” was aimed at raising the opposition circles in the GDR against the government of the SPD. The author notes that in the 1970s East Berlin changed the paradigm, not aiming more at the change of the political system of Germany, which led to the anti-communist policy of its natural elimination.

Keywords: anti-communism, political culture, the early Bonn Republic, Peter von Zahn, Friedrich von Zahn, SPD, GDR, FRG, CDU, CSU, CIA.



Hoffmann D. (Berlin, Germany). Western policy of the GDR and the casual anti-communism in the Federal Republic……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….49


DIERK HOFFMANN — Doctor of History, Professor, Institut für Zeitgeschichte München — Berlin, Abteilung Berlin. 12205, Germany, Berlin, Finckensteinallee 85/87. Tel.: +49 30 84370533; Fax.: +49 30 84370520, E-mail: hoffmann@ifz-muenchen.de; Internet: http://www.ifz-muenchen.de


The article analyzes the extensive German historiography of 1947–2014, published documents, as well as archival materials relating to the GDR and the FRG relations. According to the author, both of these states from the very beginning of their education not only sought to stabilize its social system, but also were taking a continuous series of measures to discredit each other. Both countries sought to be the only full-fledged representative of Germany. The author emphasizes that the GDR and the FRG simultaneously performed two functions: integration and insulating. The article proves that anti-communism, as well as the anti-Western activities of the SED, significantly influenced the political culture in divided Germany. This was particularly noticeable in 1950–1960. It is emphasized that in the course of detente complex relationship between East and West Germany normalized slowly.

Keywords: FRG, GDR, Cold War, political culture, anti-communism, SED, KPD.






Khegai V.V. (Saratov). The significance of the reform of 1861 for Russian Germans: “theft of privilegies” and new perspectives………………………………………………………………………………………………61


Valeria Valerievna Khegai — Postgraduate student, the chair of History of Russia and Russian Culture, Yuri Gagarin Saratov State Technical University (SSTU). 410054, Russian Federation, Saratov, Politekhnicheskaya street, 77. E-mail: khegay.valery@gmail.com


The history of Russian Germans is a part of history of the state national policy, and the research of the latter remains actual as relations of the political center with national remote areas have always been a very important factor of the internal policy of Russia. This study explores the main points and significance of the reform of 4 June 1871 for Russian Germans in the context of “Great Reforms”. The term “Theft of Privileges” finds its explanation and gets criticized as an improper description of the reform through the analysis of German colonists’ privileges and the content of the law. Special attention is paid to the positive consequences of the reform, especially the right of Russian Germans to take part in political life of the country (in Zemstvos and State Duma). This paper also contains the most common evaluations of the reform given by Russian historians, as well as their German, American and French colleagues.

Keywords: Russian Germans, German colonists, the late Russian Empire, “Great Reforms”, the system of local authorities.



Ivanova N.M. (Saint Petersburg). Charity activities of Russian Orthodox Church during the First World War………………………………………………..65


NATALIA MIKHAILOVNA IVANOVA — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, St. Petersburg Institute of Law (Branch) of the Academy of Prosecutor-General’s Office. 191028, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Liteyny Prospect 44. E-mail: i-natalii@yandex.ru


The functioning of different forms of Russian Orthodox Church charity activities during the First World War and the Synod’s role in organization of this work are analyzed in this article. Two main directions of the church charity activities — care of injured people and of families of soldiers gone to the war — were planned at the first days of the war. Furthermore, widespread fund raising by the scheme of church fund raising started. The great role in rendering of assistance to beneficiaries was played by the Board of Trustees of families including individuals called up for the military service. The assistance rendered by church organizations to refugees and experience of votaresses’ and lay sisters’ of orthodox convents involvement in activities of Russian Red Cross Society of attending to injured people are investigated in the article. Spiritual assistance rendered by church to all of the population categories suffered during the war was invaluable. Its highest expression was sending to the front of the wonder-working icon of the Vladimir Mother of God from the Cathedral of the Dormition in Moscow.

Keywords: the First World War, Russian Orthodox Church, charity activities, fund raising, hospitals, the Board of Trustees.



Medvedev S.V. (Moscow). Violations of labor discipline on the railway in 1933………………………………74


SERGEY VLADIMIROVICH MEDVEDEV — Ph.D. in History, Senior Lecturer of the Department Political Science, History and Social Technologies, Humanitarian Institute of Moscow State University of Railway Engineering. 127005, Russian Federation, Moscow, Novosuschevsky street, 22. E-mail: speransky1809@yandex.ru


The article deals with the publications of the several major Soviet newspapers devoted to violations of discipline on the railways in 1933. Regular inspections on the part of political departments and the transport prosecutor’s office revealed identical problems that impeded efficient railway transportation. News reporters, the pioneers, sharp-eyed citizens and railway people’s commissariat representatives had been sent out for quality control checks. Multistep control measures led to no large-scale improvement in workplace discipline. Despite the local reporters’ attempts to pin the issue on class enemy shenanigans, the reality proved otherwise: negligent guarding of railroads and warehouses, and inadequate cargo storage conditions were to blame. The press campaign targeted alcoholism, shirking and the stop-and-go approach to work. The ‘armchair’ management by the authorities was also subjected to criticism.

Keywords: political departments, the Charter about discipline, fraudulent shock work, railroad-assistance sweeps, lubrication experts, class enemies.






Valerov V.A., Valerov A.V. (Saint Petersburg). Pskov peasants and the special features of economic land use in the North-West Russia in the XIV–XV centuries…………………………………………………………79


VALENTIN ALEKSEEVICH VALEROV — Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Russian History from Ancient Times to the XX century, Institute of History, St. Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Mendeleevskaya liniya, 5. E-mail: a.valerov@spbu.ru


ALEXEI VALENTINOVICH VALEROV — Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Theory of Credit and Financial Management, St. Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Mendeleevskaya liniya, 5. E-mail: a.valerov@spbu.ru


The article is devoted to the study of socio-economic and property-legal status of certain categories of rural and urban population of the Pskov state (hireling, izornik, smerd), their involvement in the economic system of land use during the XIV–XV centuries. Drawing on data from various sources, the authors show how the changing economic conditions and trade resulted in a change in the forms of labor employment. The transition to semi-subsistence farms led to a need for hired labor, which has been applied not only oriented to the external market structures, but also in the organization of work within rural and urban communities. The taking of farm lands and crushing household’s land became the reverse side of this process. Simultaneously it increased the role of the lease institution that embodies the traditional farming practices of the agrarian economy and largely displayed character occurred in the farms of labor-intensive processes. The legally free status was common feature of the groups of the population, as well as involvement in the pre-capitalist agrarian exploitation, various forms of which were based on economic coercion.

Keywords: Pskov, waged labor, tenure, exploitation, land use, community, hirelings, izornik, smerdy.






Rostovetskaya T.V. (Saint Petersburg). The Russian Federation and Ukraine in the Transdniestrian settlement: yesterday and nowadays (1992–2015)………………………………………………………………………89


ROSTOVETSKAYA TATIANA VALERIEVNA — Postgraduate Student, the Department of Post-Soviet studies, School of international relations, Saint Petersburg State University. 191060, Russia, St. Petersburg, Smolny str., 1/3. E-mail: rosttov@mail.ru


The long lasting process of the Transdniestrian settlement beginning in 1992 has become a kind of litmus test for diplomacy of all parties involved in the resolution of the situation from 1992 to 2015 year to fix the changes in their political positions. Up to nowadays it is a particular challenge for regional players such as Russia, Ukraine and Romania. This article will focus on the Transdniestrian settlement in, primarily, Russia’s political discourse. Changes in the political reality of the states surrounding Transdniestria potentially imply a change in the policy of the Russian Federation. By correlating and comparing the position of the Russian Federation with the steps of the other state-guarantor of Ukraine seeking to secure a regional leadership with the help of the EU and challenging this privilege of Romania, in this article we will make a try to consider the political dynamics of its growth within the regional and international context.

Keywords: Transdniestria, the policy of the Russian Federation, Ukraine, the settlement plan, the Kozak’s Plan, the Primakov’s project, the region of paramount importance, “internationalization”, Romanization, «stifling» of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.






Zakharova I.M. (Saint Petersburg). Gifts to the Imperial Hermitage Museum during the reign of Alexander I……….97


IRINA MIKHAILOVNA ZAKHAROVA — Ph.D. in Нistory, Leading researcher, Chief curator of the Russian Department of the State Hermitage. 190000, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Dvortsovaya nab., 34. E-mail: zakharovairina@mail.ru


The article presents an overview of some of the gifts to the Imperial Hermitage Museum during the reign of Alexander I. On the basis of the analysis of printed and archival sources it describes a characteristic of diplomatic gifts, the appearance of which is shown in the context of foreign policy of Russia in the first quarter of the nineteenth century. Some archival materials introduced into scientific circulation for the first time. Great attention is paid to the gifts of Russian and foreign artists, for whom the giving the Emperor his works were often the only way to attract the attention of the government and to provide sources of funding. For example, attitude to brought gifts shows the view of the Emperor in the art, including the Russian collection, which begins its formation in the reign of Alexander I.

Keywords: Alexander I, the Imperial Hermitage Museum, gifts to the Imperial Hermitage Museum, diplomatic gifts, Napoleon, A.K. Psaro, A.E. Martynov, V.P. Langer, K. Novoselov, F. Vendramini, G.F. Vekler.



Sadykhova A.A. (Poznan, Poland). The rise of early Islamic modernism in Europe………………………103


ARZU AKHMEDOVNA SADYKHOVA — Habilitated Doctor of Philology, Professor of Arabic and Arabic Literature, the Head of Arabic and Islamic Studies of Asian Studies department at Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Poland. Zakład Arabistyki i Islamistyki, Katedra Studiów zjatyckich, Uniwersytet im. A. Mickiewicza, Niepodległości 24, Poznań 61-714, Polska. Tel.: +4861 829 39 26, e-mail: arzsad@amu.edu.pl


The present article is an attempt to analyze the ideas of the early Islamic modernists Jamal ad-Din al-Afghani (1839–1897) and Muhammad Abduh (1849–1905) basing on the original articles of the newspaper “al-Urwa al-Wuthqa” (“The Indissoluble Bond”) printed in Paris from March up to October 1884 when it was banned and closed.

Taking into consideration the numerous attempts of contemporary European Muslim intellectuals to interpret anew the Islamic norms, a detailed study of printed materials with early ideas of Islamic modernism is considered to be very important.

The study revealed that the main articles of the Parisian newspaper were supported by the readers because the authors knew perfectly Islamic theology, philosophy, and the history of Western and Islamic civilizations; using the main sources — the Quran and the Hadith they argued their views, that later transformed into the complete conceptions of Islamic modernism and Pan-Islamism.

Publishing and journalistic activity of these two thinkers in Paris led to the fact that the Muslim world, hitherto hopelessly lagged behind Europe, began to develop rapidly, quickly absorbing the achievements of Western science and technology.

Keywords: Jamal ad-Din al-Afghani, Muhammad Abduh, “al-Urwa al-Wuthqa”, “The Indissoluble Bond”, Pan-Islamism, Islamic modernism, journalism, the Quran, Islam, Arabic.



Shapovalova N.V. (Moscow). Poetic echo of Crimean war…………………………………………………………110


NATALIE VITALIEVA SHAPOVALOVA — Postgraduate student of the Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 119234, Russia, Moscow, Leninskie gory 1, Sektor B, Room no. 967. E-mail: shapovalovanv1993@gmail.com


The article analyzes poetry dedicated to the Crimean war (1853–1856). It is examined as an example of perception of this military conflict in Russian society. Sources are resided in package of poems written during warfare and published in periodicals, collected books and occasional publications.

The article presents results of overview of the poem’s authors. The main emphasis is focused on themes in poems and their transformation influenced by success and failure of Russian army and alteration of social sentiment. The poems are investigated as conventional part of Russian heroics poetry. The article gives accent to variegated nature of poetry about Crimean war which images all theatres of war operations: Crimean Peninsula, Caucasus, Black Sea, Baltic Sea, White Sea, Far East. Also it puts emphasis on fiction as historical source.

Keywords: Crimean war, the Siege of Sevastopol (1854–1855), poetry, social mind, primary source, Sevastopol.



Kozlenkova A.S. (Moscow). England, its life and customs in 1930–1940-ies through the eyes of the Soviet Ambassador I.M. Maisky…………………………………………………………………………………………………118


ANNA SERGEYEVNA KOZLENKOVA — research assistant, Faculty of history, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 119991, Russian Federation, Moscow, GSP-1, Leninskie Gory, 1. E-mail: kozlenkova.as@yandex.ru


The focus of the article discusses some features of the life and customs of the inhabitants of the foggy Albion in 30–40-ies of the XX century, presented in the diaries, letters and memoirs of the Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Ambassador of the USSR in Great Britain I.M. Maisky (1932–1943). Particular emphasis in the article is placed upon the coverage of the British character and mentality, traditions, everyday lifestyle, and provided description of typical English houses and their interiors — all that is the so-called “English way of life”, which is shown in the context of bilateral relations between the USSR and Great Britain in the interwar period. The article uses archival documents for the first time introduced into scientific discourse.

Keywords: I.M. Maisky, the United Kingdom of Great Britain, way of life, customs, traditions, culture, diplomacy, the anglo-soviet relations.






Suryaev V.N. (Minsk, Republic of Belarus). Morale and fighting qualities of the Russian officers of the early XX century……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….123


VALERY NIKOLAEVICH SURYAEV — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Leading researcher of the State Institution «Research Institute of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Belarus». 220020, the Republic of Belarus, Minsk, st. Rainbow, 6–384. E-mail: sverbihin7@mail.ru


Analysis of the character of wars and armed conflicts taking place in the XXI century, shows that the role of the moral factor in the life and activity of the army is not diminished, on the contrary, it is even more increased. This fact encourages the study of the problems of military and historical anthropology, the more that up to the present day moral and psychological component of the Russian army’s combat potential is almost not studied. Meanwhile, the formation of moral and fighting qualities of the commanders of the Russian Armed Forces is a very urgent problem, the solution of which involves using of the historical heritage of past eras. This article focuses on morale of the Russian army officers during the wars of the early twentieth century, to enable them to perform their duty in a complex domestic and military-political situation. Sources for this writing are archival documents, orders of commanders and chiefs of different ranks, the materials published in the military press of the early twentieth century, the scientific works of representatives of Russian military emigration, memoirs and memories of participants in the events of those years, the works of modern historians.

Keywords: war, officers, military duty, moral and fighting qualities, attack, loss of personnel, fear, courage.



Cherentsova K.V. (Saint Petersburg). Activity of Leningrad enterprises engaged in the creation of artillery delivery systems of chemical weapons in the 1920s…………………………………………………………133


KSENIYA VLADIMIROVNA CHERENTSOVA — Head of Group of Department of Organization and Support of Scientific Activity, FSUE DB Arsеnal. 195009, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Komsomola st. 1-3. E-mail: arsenal-book@yandex.ru


Written on the basis of archive documents from Military-Historical Museum of Artillery, Engineer and Signal Corps (St. Petersburg), the article is devoted to the little-investigated historical issues of the development of the samples of short-range artillery, namely, gas mortars as the means of carrying chemical weapons.

The article details the process of developing new weapon samples for RKKA (the Workers’ and Peasants’ Red Army), including research and preproduction work as well as using profile production capacities and ground tests according to the actual requirements of the given historical period. The author of the article draws special attention to the participation of Petrograd-Leningrad military plants in the production of gas mortars. In particular, the article is the first to cover in detail the activities of one of the oldest national defence plants, namely, the Petrograd Arsenal — the Leningrad mechanical artillery plant «Red Arsenal» producing prototype samples of artillery weapons using chemical warfare means in close combat during the twenties.

Keywords: chemical weapons, gas mortars, Kosartop, commission on artillery, chemical commission, the Izhora plant, the «Red Arsenal» plant.



Sokirkin D.N. (Saint Petersburg). Discussion on the Royal Navy disposition problem (1894–1904)………………142


DMITRII NIKOLAEVICH SOKIRKIN — Senior Lecturer, Chair of History and Philosophy, Saint Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering. 197348, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Bogatirskiy pr., 6, 77. E-mail: sokirkin1976@mail.ru


The article describes one of the most important aspects of British foreign policy — naval policy. Principles of the Royal Navy disposition at European seas are researched. This problem was important because on the one hand England as an island state defended itself and its foreign police interests by the Navy and not land forces. On the other hand at the close of the XIX century and at the beginning of the XX century politicians and seamen reflected on what potential seat of war to attend mainly — the North Sea or the Mediterranean. Political, strategic and economic importance of the Mediterranean communications (figuratively called “Suez road”) for England is emphasized. Principled turn of British foreign policy when partners and potential enemies changed places is analyzed. Cardinal influence to the Royal Navy disposition of Germany, a new strong enemy, is told. Periodical discussion on strategic problems is researched because the public opinion strongly influenced to the Foreign Office and Admiralty officials. Opposite points of view to “the Mediterranean problem” are analyzed. Political, naval and public leaders opinions are supplemented with numerical data. Archive documents, periodical information, memoirs are used as sources. These problems have not researched in the context of the domestic historiography.

Keywords: Great Britain, Mediterranean, Suez road, North Sea, disposition, Navy, Admiralty, squadron.



Bochinin D.A., Losik A.V. (Saint Petersburg). Combat employment of aviation of the Baltic Fleet in the Great Patriotic War of 1941–1945…………………………………………………………………….147


DMITRY ANATOLYEVICH BOCHININ — Doctor of military Sciences, Associate Professor of social and economic disciplines of Mozhaisky Military Space Academy. 197198, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Zhdanovskaya st., 13. E-mail: bochinin49@mail. ru


ALEXANDR VITALIEVICH LOSIK — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Deputy chief editor of the journal «Klio». 195220, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Grazhdanskiyj pr., 11. E-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru


The article analyzes the experience of combat employment of aviation of the Baltic Fleet during the Great Patriotic War. It is noteworthy that on the eve of war naval aviation fleet had experience in warfare, obtained in the «winter» war on Finland. The participation of the Air Force fleet in the battles on the Baltic maritime theater of military operations revealed a serious lag in soviet aircraft from enemy aircraft, not only on the basic flight characteristics, but also their airfield services in the combat training of pilots and navigators.

In 1939 the Soviet leadership to take urgent measures to eliminate shortcomings, but by the beginning of Great Patriotic War naval aviation fleet consisted of almost all types of obsolete machines. There were no assault aircraft and anti-submarine aircraft. However the Great Patriotic War fighter, assault and mine-torpedo division of Baltic Fleet were armed with aircraft such as the Yak-7 and Yak-9, La-5 and La-7, LaGG-3, Il-2, Pe-2 and other. According to its flight characteristics new planes naval aviation began confidently able to resist the enemy plans and win them.

Combat employment of aviation of the Baltic Fleet in the different periods of the war of 1941–1945 it had its own peculiarities. With the entry into the fleet of now aircraft equipment samples varied tactics of their application. If in the initial period of the war naval aviation was used mainly to support the ground forces, then in 1944–1945 the main efforts of aviation of the Baltic Fleet began to be sent to the fighting on the sea areas and airspace to ensure offensive operations troops seaside fronts. The experience of the Baltic Fleet combat use of naval aviation in the Great Patriotic War is a special military-historical value as an indicator of the effectiveness of early development of advanced power and means of warfare in the maritime theater of military operations.

Keywords: Baltic Fleet, combat use, bomb-attack strike, naval commander, Great Patriotic War, seaplane, group attack, enemy communications, flight performance, naval aviation, fleet.






Barkova O.N. (Moscow). «They could not go just into science …»: women Russian scientists abroad in 1917–1939…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..153


OL’GA NIKOLAEVNA BARKOVA — Ph.D. in History, associate professor, Assistant professor of legal disciplines department Supreme State Audit School (Faculty) of Lomonosov Moscow State University. 119991, Moscow,GSP-1, Leninskiye Gory d. 1, str. 13-14. E-mail: olgabarkova@list.ru


The article is dedicated to the contribution of Russian female scientists abroad in 1917–1939, such as T.A. Bakunina, A.M. Burgina, A.M. Gelen, T.V. Dembo, N.A. Dobrovolskaya-Zavadzkaya, E.N. Telegina, E.A. Shamye and others, in the establishment and development of the Russian scientific community in emigration and its institutions. Special attention is paid to controversial issues of the total number of Russian emigrant scientific community and its gender factor, in particular; problems of social adaptation of representatives of scientific emigration in 1917–1939 in the context of “personal history”, etc. The article attempts to personalise female researchers abroad 1917–1939 and to estimate their number. Particular attention is paid to certain aspects of the daily life of the Russian emigrant scientific community, communicative practices of scientists and the system of values prevailing among emigrants of 1917 – 1939 in the preservation of the national and cultural identity and historical memory of the Russian diaspora.

Keywords: Russian emigrant scientific community, Russian female scientists abroad 1917–1939, number, problem of personification.






Panichkin A.Ph. (Saint Petersburg). Bishop of St. Petersburg Nicodemus (Srebnitsky) (1742–1745) and his Time………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..163


ALEXANDER PHILIPPOVICH PANICHKIN — Candidate of Theology, Assistant Chief of Federal State Higher Military Educational Institution The Military Educational and Scientific Center of the Navy “The Naval Academy named after Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union N.G. Kuznetsov”, Senior priest of the St. Paul the Confessor and St. Righteous Warrior Feodor Ushakov Church in the Peter the Great Naval Corps (St. Petersburg). 192023, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, prospect Elizarova, 10, apt. 282. E-mail: alpriest13@yandex.ru


The article tells about Bishop Nicodemus (Srebnitsky), who for nearly two years, nominally occupied the chair of the Metropolitan of Tobolsk and all Siberia, but never reached his diocese, because of a serious illness that detained him in Moscow. While in Moscow, being seriously ill and realizing that he would be unable to get to the Tobolsk diocese, the bishop appealed to the Holy Synod with a petition for the dismissal from his office, which was granted by the Synod. After his recovery, Bishop Nicodemus was appointed to the newly established diocese in St. Petersburg. Having held the office for three years, Bishop Nicodemus appealed to the Synod for his reassignment to Ukraine and was transferred to Pereyaslavl where he ended his days. Above all, the biography of the bishop is of interest as it vividly exemplifies the internal church and political situation that existed in the Biron era during the reign of Anna Ioannovna, and later in the first half of Elizaveta Petrovna’s reign, when the bishop happened to live and act, rather than for the bishop’s own personality. From the historical point of view, Bishop Nicodemus is interesting due to the fact that he was destined to become the first bishop of St. Petersburg.

Keywords: Nicodemus (Srebnitsky), Metropolitans of Tobolsk, Saint Petersburg diocese bishops, Chernigov diocese bishops, Pereyaslavl diocese bishops, Tobolsk diocese history, St. Petersburg diocese history, Chernigov diocese history, Pereyaslavl diocese history, Epiphanius (Tihansky), Dosifei (Bogdanovich-Lyubimskiy), Orthodox Church in the reign of Anna Ioannovna, Orthodox Church in the time of Biron.



Ovchinnikov V.D. (Moscow). Admiral Ushakov’s personal input into development of naval combat art……………172


VLADIMIR DMITRIEVICH OVCHINNIKOV — Ph.D. in History, Captain 1st rank, Leading Researcher of Military History Research Institute of the Military Academy of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. 119330, Russian Federation, Moscow, Universitetsky Pr., 14. E-mail: ushak_pasha@ mail.ru


Actuality of this article is obvious due to the need of detailed research of Admiral Ushakov’s personal input into development of naval combat art which will help to resolve existing contradiction. It is based on different understanding of this issue which is native to Russian history. Evaluation of Admiral Ushakov’s military activities seems needed to shape consolidated position over this issue within scholarly society. Originality of this article is clear due to use of the previously unknown sources and research papers of Russian historians widely competent in the sphere of naval military history: М. Мazyukevich, N. Klado, М. Petrov, А. Bubnov and others. Admiral Ushakov’s naval commanding activities have undergone deep analysis while resolving wide spectrum of problems and its influence on further development of naval combat art. Some conclusions supported author’s evaluation of Ushakov’s naval commanding activities and his input into establishment of his special system of naval tactics and Russian school of naval combat art in common. Author invented and firstly used a new definition «Russian school of naval combat art».

Keywords: F.F. Ushakov, N.L. Klado, M.A. Petrov, Navy, tactics, sea battle order, offensive, variety of activities in combat action, school of naval combat art.



Bruk P.S. (Saint Petersburg). Alexey Remizov in Vologda: family of Segal – Ruzhzhe……………………176


PAVEL SEMENOVICH BRUK Ph.D. in Engineering, Board member of Translators Union of Russia (UTR), Editorial board member of the «World of Translation» UTR journal. 195112, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Zanevskiy Ave., 28, ap. 81. E-mail: palbrik@yandex.ru


The article is concerned with unknown materials associated with the writer Alexei Mikhailovich Remizov (1877, Moscow — 1957, Paris) during his exile to Vologda (finished in 1903). There A. Remizov worked as an accountant in the watch shop, the owner of the shop was Mr. Solomon Segal. Alexei Mikhailovich and his wife established friendly relationship with Solomon Segal and his wife Anna Ruzhzhe and their children. The article refers to the novel «The Clock» and real family S. Segal — A. Ruzhzhe and to their son Arkady Segal as the prototype of the hero of the story. Summary the article gives a background description of Vologda and the social environment in which the future writer A. Remizov lived.

Keywords: Remizov, Solomon Segal, Anna Ruzhzhe, Arkady Segal, Vologda, «The Clock».






Poltorak S.N. (Saint Petersburg). Aksakov: the successful experience of encyclopedic edition (Review of the book: Aksakov: Family encyclopedia /edition by Kashtanov S.M.)…………………………………………187


SERGEYI NIKOLAEVICH POLTORAK — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Editor-in-Chief of journal «Klio», Professor of Department of History and Regional Studies, The Bonch-Bruevich Saint Petersburg State University of Telecommunications. 195220, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Grazhdanskiyj pr., 11. E-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru


The review provides an assessment of the family encyclopedia dedicated to Aksakov family and published in 2015. It is noted that it has no analogues edition prepared by well-known historians S.M. Kashtanov, V.G. Burkov, V.V. Zhuravlev, A.S. Kuleshov, A.Y. Morozov, O.N. Naumov, I.A. Sokolov and V.V. Shelohaev. It is emphasized that the authors of the articles included in the encyclopedia, using a rich historiography, as well as numerous documents stored in the Russian State Historical Archive (RSHA), Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts, Russian State Military and History Archive, Central State Archive in Moscow, State archive of the Ryazan region and many other archives. Attention is drawn to the breadth of approaches to the study of Aksakov family history — the use of numerous toponymic information, personnel data relating to different periods of the family, the use of information about military schools, military units, convents, military awards, family coat of arms. The conclusion is that the publication is made at a high scholarly level and a superb printing performance.

Keywords: Aksakov family, Abramtsevo, Grigory Sergeevich Aksakov, Ivan Alekseevich Aksakov, Ivan Sergeevich Aksakov, the newspaper «Parus», the newspaper «Duma», the newspaper «Den’», a fairy tale «The Scarlet Flower».



Alpeev O.E. (Moscow). The first monographic study of the history of the Nikolas military Academy in the epoch of the First World and Civil Wars, 1914–1922 (Review of the monograph of Ganin A.V. «The decline of the Nicholas Military Academy 1914–1922»)………………………………………………………………190


OLEG EVGEN’EVICH ALPEEV — Ph.D. in History, Research fellow, Military History Research Institute of the General Staff Military Academy of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. 121170, Russian Federation, Moscow, Denisa Davydova st., 6, 183. E-mail: oalpeev@yandex.ru


The book review deals with the monograph of A.V. Ganin on the history of the Nicholas military academy in 1914–1922. The main achievement of the author of the reviewed book could be regarded as the reconstruction of activities of the academy during the World War I and the Civil War in Russia. For this purpose the author used a large number of primary sources from 17 archives of Russia, the Ukraine, Poland, the Czech Republic, France and the United States, including the archives of the secret services and documents from private collections. Some of the unique primary sources, including fragments of memories from Hoover Institution Archives, were placed in the appendix of the book. The author states, that the academy became strongly politicized in the years of the Civil War. Also A.V. Ganin describes the activities of the last superintendant of the academy A.I. Andogskii and shows his role in saving academic property. A notable feature of the monograph is the close attention paid to details that characterize the daily activities of the academy. The reviewed book is an important study on the history of the Russian military high school and could be recognized as a great contribution to the modern historical science.

Keywords: the Nicholas military academy, military education, primary sources, the World War I, the Civil War in Russia.



Mityaeva O.M. (Moscow). Book review: Shutov A.Yu. “The Overridden Alternative. Rural and Urban Self-government in Russia, 1917 – early 1918………………………………………………………………………………193


OLGA IVANOVNA MITYAEVA — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, History and Theory of Policy Department, Faculty of Political Science, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 121433, Russian Federation, Moscow, Bolshaya Filevskaya str., 57/1, apart. 47. E-mail: mitya_one_2002@rambler.ru


The book review is devoted to the newest study of the Zemstvos. The Zemstvos were founded in 1864 as a result of long evolution of the local self-government system in Russian Empire. After February Revolution of 1917 the Provisional government wanted the Zemstvos to become the main level of local government and self-government. The author uses wide documentary material and studies the reelection process of the Zemstvos. He indentifies the political state of Russia as «polyarchy». But in 1918 the Soviet government led by Bolsheviks made Soviets as the system of state power. Scholarly analysis оf civil society and self-government institutions significance makes this study actual.

Keywords: zemstvo, urban self-government, local authorities, the Provisional government, Soviets, Bolsheviks, Bolshevik party, 1917.




Alphabetical list of authors of articles published in the journal Klio in 2016……………………………………197