Klio # 12 (144) 2018





Nazipov I.I. (Perm). The formal sovereignty of the Horde over the lands of North-Eastern Russia, manifested in the Russian coinage of the 14th–15th centuries…………………………………………………………………………………13

ILGIZ ILDAROVICH NAZIPOV — Ph.D. in History, Head of the Department of Theory and History, Perm Institute (branch) of Plekhanov Russian University of Economics. 614068, Russian Federation, Perm, Milchakov St., 30-A, apt. 9. E-mail: nazipoff@mail.ru

One of the most controversial issues of the home state and national law is a characteristic of political and legal relations of the Horde and Russia – if Russia was a part of the state of the Horde or it only depended on the Horde. In order to prove any of the ideas we should reveal signs of the state across Russian lands of the 13th–15th centuries – if they were a part of the Horde or Russia. Such sign as formal sovereignty is shown among other things through the emblems of Russian coins. Objective: To find out the presence or absence of formal sovereignty signs of the Horde over Russian lands in special aspects of Russian coinage during the period of Russian-Horde relations. Methods: The methodological basis for the study is formed by the complex of methods of scientific knowledge. Among them the main place is occupied by the method of historicism and a systematic approach. Results: It was found out that Russian coins of the Russian-Horde relations period kept on the one side the Arabic inscriptions, imitating the text shown on the Horde dirhams, tamgas оf the Horde Khans and also sometimes the name and title of the Khan. Gradually, in the 14th–15th centuries there were fewer such coins as a percentage of their total number in favor of coins only with Russian characters. And at the end of the 15th century their coinage was stopped at all. Conclusion: The emblems of Russian coins of the 14th–15th centuries contain signs of political affiliation of Russian lands to the state system of the Horde. In general, coins give a picture of gradual, smooth Russian ascension from the greatest forms of manifestation of formal sovereignty of the Horde over Russia to the lack of sovereignty and its signs in the 14th–15th centuries.

Keywords: Russian coins, the Horde signs, tamga, the Horde dirham, Arabic inscriptions, the Horde, formal sovereignty, signs of the state.





Mikheev D.V. (Pskov). Evidences of contemporaries about Drake’s Circumnavigation……………………………….20

DMITRY VLADIMIROVICH MIKHEEV — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Department of World History and Area Studies, Pskov State University. 180020, Russian Federation, Pskov, Izhorskogo Battalyona St., 11–101. E-mail: Tankred85@mail.ru

The article is devoted to the analysis of the main sources of the course of the second Circumnavigation, accomplished by the English under the leadership of Francis Drake, followed the expedition of Magellan became one of the most famous enterprises of the era of the Age of Discovery. The expedition of the famous corsair combined the features of trade and reconnaissance expedition and piracy raid designed to enrich the travel organizers and demonstrate the English power to Spain. Despite the presence of a numerous evidence, the goals of the expedition and the course of the voyage itself still cause controversy among the specialists. Analysis of the whole complex of available sources allows us to present a detailed and objective picture of events. Important information is provided in English and Spanish official documents. The most detailed account of the events of the Circumnavigation is given by its direct participants Francis Fletcher, John Cook, Edward Cliff, Francis Pretty, Portuguese navigator Nuño da Silva. Their writings had descriptions of the geographic and ethnographic nature. However, no less valuable are the Spanish testimony left about the course of the English Circumnavigation. They shed light on many details of the journey, which for various reasons were silent about its participants. This is the numerous testimonies of the Spanish prisoners of Drake, reports of the Spanish military and officials who witnessed the consequences of the English raid.

Keywords: Circumnavigation, Spanish colonies, New World, Francis Drake, Francis Fletcher, Bernardino de Mendoza, Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa, Nuño da Silva.


Rostovtsev E.A., Barinov D.A. (Saint Petersburg). The image of a stranger: “damned gypsy” (L.A. Kasso in the memoirs of contemporaries)……………………………………………………………27

EUGENY ANATOLIEVICH ROSTOVTSEV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Institute of History, Saint Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Universitetskaya emb., 7–9. E-mail: e.rostovtsev@spbu.ru

DMITRIY ANDREEVICH BARINOV — Ph.D. in History, Researcher, Institute of History, Saint Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Universitetskaya emb., 7–9. E-mail: d.barinov@spbu.ru

Lev Kasso is one of the most controversial figures who ever headed the Ministry of Public Education of the Russian Empire. In the short period of his leadership of the ministry, student unrest of 1910–1911 occurred, the “defeat” of Moscow University, the intensification of confrontation between professors and the government, the return of the practice of sending graduates to continue their education abroad. All these events and the reaction to them of LA Kassau led to an active response to the activities of the minister in sources of personal origin — memoirs and correspondence. For greater completeness, the authors of the article reviewed letters, diaries, and memories of both political figures and representatives of the faculty of various higher educational institutions of the country. The analysis made it possible to come to an observation about how the image of L.А. Кasso in the minds of the bureaucratic and intellectual elite of the empire. The study revealed the main discourses associated with the figure of the minister and broadcast among his contemporaries, an attempt is made to show how the public view of L.A. Кasso was formed, the main content of which was the conviction that the minister is an odious person and does not correspond to his position.

Keywords: L.A. Kasso, memoirs, the crisis of 1911, the Higher School of the Russian Empire.


Ignatyeva V.B. (Yakutsk). Personal texts of history as a source of reconstruction of the early Soviet Yakut society in the first quarter of the 20th century…………………………………………………….37

VANDA BORISOVNA IGNATYEVA — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Leading Researcher of the History and Ethnosociology of the Arctic Department by Institute for Humanities Research and Indigenous Studies of the North, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 677027, Russian Federation, Yakutsk, Petrovskogo St., 1. E-mail: V_Ignat@mail.ru

The article discusses the archival ego-documents of V.V. Nikiforov-Kulumnyur, a demographic statistician of the Vilyui-Olekminsky medical-sanitary and statistical-economic team of the Yakut complex expedition of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1925-1930). The field diary, travel notes and correspondence which he wrote during his expeditionary work, as well as the manuscripts of the unfinished «Report on the demographic and dasimetric survey of the Vilyui and Olekminsky districts of the Yakut Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in 1925-1926» are personal narratives of lengthy participant observation included, which makes it possible to emphasize their analytical value for interpreting the events of the first quarter of the 20th century. With specific examples, based on the concepts of social design, various thematic aspects of the “indigenization” policy in the Yakutsk Autonomous Republic, microhistory and everyday life of the rural population are being manifested, immersing the first years of the socialist modernization of traditional Yakut society in the socio-cultural context.

Кeywords: Nikiforov V.V., Yakut complex expedition, egodocuments, participant observation, personal narrative.





Zarudniy D.B. (Vladivostok). China. First third of the 20th century. Creating the first intelligence and security service of communists………………………………………………………………………………….44

DENIS BORISOVICH ZARUDNIY — Graduated of the postgraduate studies from the Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, Russian Academy of Sciences Far Eastern Branch. 690001, Russian Federation, Vladivostok, Pushkin St., 89. E-mail: denis.zarudniy@gmail.com

The article explores the process of the forming in the 1920s Special department – the first intelligence and security service of the Communist Party of China (CPC). A brief description gives analysis of the internal political situation in that historical period. It is emphasized that one of the main prerequisites for its creation was a sharp relationship with the Nationalist Party of China – the Kuomintang, which led to massacres of the communists in April 1927. The author shows that at an early stage the main functions of this structural unit, directly subordinated to the CPC Central Committee, were protection the party leaders and obtaining information about plans of the enemies. The article also traces the reasons for unit formation, internal construction, describes some forms and methods of its secret work, as well as the process of training the first operatives to conduct special work in the underground conditions.

Keywords: Communist Party of China, Special department of the CPC Central Сommittee, confrontation with Kuomintang, security, intelligence.


Schmidt W. (Regensburg, Germany). Polish anti-Semitism: „The Madagascar Plan“ and its realization in the pre-war Poland from 1936–1939………………………………………………………………50 

WALDEMAR SCHMIDT — Magister of History, University of Regensburg, Humboldt street 48 a, 93053 Regensburg, Germany. E-mail: wolodjaschmidt@gmx.de

In the article the author tried to analyze a range of issues related to the development of Polish antisemitism in the years before the Second World War.

The chronological framework of the article refers to the period from 1936 to 1939 when very powerful anti-Semitic tendencies came up in Poland. However, the author also touches historical issues of the origin of the Polish state and its position towards the Jews. In the article, the role of different social and political organizations in pre-war Poland for the solution of the “Jewish question” is shown. In addition, the phases of the development of Polish anti-Semitism and its role for the formation of the public opinion towards the Jewish population are shown. It also touches issues related to the reaction of the Jewish press of Europe to the Polish variation of the solution of the “Jewish question” in pre-war Poland. The author tried to give insight into the activities of European states and their attitude to this problem as well.

Keywords: anti-Semitism, Poland before the beginning of the Second World War, Polish Jews, Pilsudski, Beck, France, Polish plan to resettle Jews on Madagascar, colonial ambitions.





Belousov M.S. (Saint Petersburg). On the Problem of Creating of the Charter of the Union of Welfare………………57

MIKHAIL SERGEEVICH BELOUSOV — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Saint Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya Emb., 7–9. E-mail: m.belousov@spbu.ru

The article deals with one of the most important plots in the history of the Decembrist movement – the creation of the Charter of the Union of Welfare. Existing opinions presented in the literature on this issue are analyzed. It is shown that the analysis of sources makes it necessary to abandon the thesis that exists in historiography about the existence of factional struggles during the process of writing the Green Book. The article examines the problem of the influence of the German patriotic society Tugendbund experience on the Decembrists during the existence of the Union of Welfare. Reflection of this in the main sources makes it possible to talk about the desire of the Decembrists to create an organization that would unite the Russians “Gneisenau and Steins”, i.e. people capable in the future to occupy key positions in government and to carry out the necessary reforms. The problem of the content of the second part of the Green Book is touched upon. An analysis of historiographic stereotypes pushes one to abandon the traditional view of the “revolutionism” of the content of the second part of the Charter. It was hypothesized that the main content of the second part of the Green Book was the question of how the organization of the Union of Welfare would change if society grew.

Keywords: Decembrists, history of the Decembrists, Union of Welfare, Charter of the Union of Welfare, Green Book, S.P. Trubetskoy, Tugenbund.


Barinov D.A. (Saint Petersburg). Belorussian Student Movement of the beginning of the 20th century in St. Petersburg University…………………………………………………………………………………66

DMITRIY ANDREEVICH BARINOV — Ph.D. in History, Researcher, Institute of History, Saint Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Universitetskaya Emb., 7–9. E-mail: d.barinov@spbu.ru

St. Petersburg University in the time of the Russian Empire was recognized as the center of the student movement. The combination of diverse national composition, wide territorial representation, and proximity to major political movements constituted favorable conditions for the emergence of various social and student self-organizations — corporations, fraternities, and cash departments. One of the most striking and representative movements within the walls of the capital university was the Belarusian movement. The first organizations of Belorussian students were created in the 1890s, the last just before the end of the Russian Empire. One of the tasks set before the article is to reconstruct the university movement of the Belarusians, identify its main leaders, their political biography and place in the formation of the national elite.

Keywords: national liberation struggle, St. Petersburg University, student movement, history of Belarus.


Logvenkov I.S. (Moscow). Russian government policy on the transformation of the Soviet Union’s economic management system in August-September 1991…………………………………………………………………………….72

ILYA SERGEEVICH LOGVENKOV — Postgraduate student, Department of State and Municipal Government, Faculty of Public Administration, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 119991, Russian Federation, Moscow, GSP-1, Lomonosovskiy pr.t, 27/4. E-mail: ilya.logvenkov@gmail.com

The article studies the policy of the Russian government to transform the management system of the Soviet Union’s economy in order to prevent its collapse in August-December 1991. Two main directions of this policy are highlighted: the actualization of the negotiation process with other republics at the ministerial level on the division of property and the elaboration of new principles of economic management and the elimination of all-union property through transferring it under the jurisdiction of the RSFSR using «soft» and «hard» mechanisms. On the basis of an analysis of the previous course of reforms in the system of managing the economy of the USSR, the process of actualization of the conditions for pursuing this policy has been revealed. The results of the study showed that the outcome of the policy of the Council of Ministers of the RSFSR was the formation of the basis of the economic sovereignty of the RSFSR, but it did not succeed in restoring the economic management system destroyed during the reforms and political struggle.

Keywords: USSR, RSFSR, government, Council of Ministers, economic management system, interrepublican negotiations, management crisis, all-union property, dismantling the USSR.





Magomedhan M. M., Bakanov A.V., Garunova S.M. (Makhachkala, Daghestan). To the prehistory of the Russian governance of the north-eastern Caucasus………………………………………………………………………………….80

MAGOMEDHAN MAGOMEDOVICH MAGOMEDHANOV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Head of the Department of Ethnography, The Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Daghestan Scientific Centre of RAS. 367030, Russian Federation, Makhachkala, M. Yaragskogo St., 75. E-mail: mkhan@yandex.ru

ALEXANDER VLADIMIROV BAKANOV — Postgraduate student, Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography, Daghestan Scientific Centre RAS. 367030, Russian Federation, Makhachkala, M. Yaragskogo St., 75. E-mail: mr.bakanov85@mail.ru

SAIDA MAGOMEDHANOVNA GARUNOVA — Junior Researcher, The G. Tsadasa Institute of Language, Literature and Art of the Daghestan Scientific Centre of RAS. 367023, Russian Federation, Makhachkala, M. Gadzhieva St., 45. E-mail: saida-mag@yandex.ru

The article analyzes the use in the north-eastern Caucasus of military-political and trade-economic resources as well as the experience of governing the countries, conquered or voluntarily joined to the Empire. The mentioned experience was based on Russian Imperial practice or borrowed from Byzantium, the Golden Horde and other countries. In this context are reviewed: the policy and practice of adoption by the rulers, representatives of the unions of rural communities, the oath of allegiance to Russia; integration of local elites with the Russian estate hierarchy through economic privileges, assignment of ranks and titles. Attention is drawn to the fact that the experience accumulated by Russia for almost three centuries of the history of the state administration of the Volga region and Siberia was used in the northeastern Caucasus in all its diversity and with some minor corrections.

Keywords: Russian governance of the Caucasus, Caucasian politics, Russian – Caucasian relations.


Burlutskaya (Bannikova) E.V., Abdrakhmanov K.A. (Orenburg). Promenade as a version of the leisure in everyday life of the citizens of Orenburg in the second half of the 19th century……………………………………………………87

ELENA VADIMOVNA BURLUTSKAYA (BANNIKOVA) — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Vice-Rector for Research Management, Orenburg State Pedagogical University. 460014, Russian Federation, Orenburg, Sovetskaya St., 19. E-mail: ida777@yandex.ru

KONSTANTIN ALEKSEEVICH ABDRAKHMANOV — Postgraduate Student of the Department of Russian History, Orenburg State Pedagogical University. 460014, Russian Federation, Orenburg, Sovetskaya St., 19. E-mail: kostya.abdrakhmanov@mail.ru

The article is focused on the analysis of a promenade as a leisure activity in the everyday life of Orenburg citizens. The author studies what places were suitable for leisure walking, which recreational activities were available and how people from different estates were interacting during those strolls. The author studies the influence of the urban space on the habits of the citizens of Orenburg. In the second half of the 19th century there were not enough accessible and comfortable places for recreation of the citizens in Orenburg. Due to some unpleasant characteristics of the local climate, walking around the city was not the most appealing kind of leisure activity for the residents of the provincial capital. It was possible to enjoy the promenade only if the weather was favorable, which led to crowded streets on the nice days. The difference in the well-being of the citizens affected their recreational activities: wealthy groups had access to a variety of leisure options, for the middle and lower strata the choice was limited. To solve those problems the city government tried to build additional recreation areas in the form of public parks and gardens.

Keywords: everyday life, leisure, citizens, Orenburg, post-reform period.


Karapetyan L.A. (Krasnodar). To the question of the attitude of political parties and organizations of the North Caucasus to the Constituent Assembly in 1917……………………………………………93

LEVA ALEKSANDROVICH KARAPETYAN — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the Department of history, cultural studies and museology, Krasnodar State Institute of Culture. 350072, Russian Federation, Krasnodar, 40 let Pobedy St., 33. E-mail: leva.karapetyan.53@mail.ru

The article revealed that the Constituent Assembly was in the center of attention of political and socio-political entities, interested in different social strata of the population. He was associated with the solution of pressing political and socio-economic issues, the achievement of civil accord and the legitimization of power. The election campaign of party organizations and electoral associations, election blocs, primarily in national areas, testify to the synthesis of socialist, democratic and neoliberal ideas here, which was associated with the specific conditions of the region. Elections in the region, except for the Stavropol electoral district, were not completed and there is no complete data. The Social Revolutionaries dominated the Stavropol district, which largely determined the advantage of the moderate socialists in the region. But the Bolsheviks were not far behind them, they were ahead of them in the cities where the Cadets followed the Bolsheviks. Electoral associations of Cossacks and Highlanders enjoyed support in the Cossack regions, and the Dagestan Socialist Group and the Muslim Election Committee in the Dagestan Region, in which the Socialists were represented. In general, according to incomplete data, elections in the region showed that the voter preferred the moderate socialists, who represented a different, compared to the Bolshevik, model of socialism.

Keywords: Constituent Assembly, electoral law, party, electoral association, election blocs, election results.


Tsintsadze N.S. (Tambov). Transformation of the peasant perception of socio-natural processes in European Russia in the first third of the 20th century……………………………………………………101

NINA SERGEEVNA TSINTSADZE — Ph.D. in History, Assistant Professor, Associate Professor of the Department of Theory and History of State and Law, Institute of Law and National Security of the G.R. Derzhavin Tambov State University. 392018, Russian Federation, Tambov, Michurinskaya st., 110, apt. 114. E-mail: NinaTsintsadze2010@yandex.ru

The article is prepared in line with the modern scientific direction –  Environmental History. In the article, based on the analysis of peasant’ community solutions, «letters to power», documents of personal origin, oral history materials, archival documents introduced for the first time in scientific circulation, the peculiarities of the perception by the peasantry of the first third of the 20th century of socio-natural problems of the use of natural resources in agricultural practice in European Russia were studied. The issue of peasant eco-mentality in the first third of the 20th century in the context of Russian eco-history is one of lacunar. The purpose of the study is to study the peculiarities of peasant reflection on the depletion of natural resources, because the peasantry was the main actor of interaction between nature and the late agrarian society of Russia. Knowledge of the specifics of the transformation of peasant eco-mentality in the first third of the 20th century will help to understand the origins of modern eco-problems and, in the long term, to solve them. Identified in the sources of socio-natural problems, which attracted the attention of peasants, are united in the following groups: 1) agrarian overpopulation, shortage of land, depletion of soils, general decline in agriculture; 2) incomplete land management, land use problems; 3) agricultural management measures; 4) lack of forest, hayfields and pasture lands; 5) weakening and lack of livestock; 6) pollution of water resources. At the same time, land-use problems dominated the peasant perception of economic nature management. The transforming influence on the peasant eco-mentality had the collectivization, industrialization of the country, as well as devastating droughts of 1921, 1924, 1933s. Despite the limited set of peasant methods of influencing on the government policy in the sphere of economic use of natural resources in agriculture, it is nevertheless necessary to recognize some influence of peasant proposals and statements of the 1920s in terms of environmental management.

Keywords: Environmental History of Russia; traditional agrarian society; ecological crisis; anthropogenic pressure on natural resources; peasantry; ecological mentality; transformation.





Gusev A.A. (Moscow). Victor Serge about the prewar political crisis (March – August 1939)………………………109

ANTON ALEXEEVICH GUSEV — Postgraduate student, Department of History of Russia of the 20th–21st centuries, Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 119991, Russian Federation, Moscow, Lomonosovskiy pr., 27–4. E-mail: antibulo4ka@gmail.com

The article is devoted to the relevant issue: analysis of the prewar political crisis (March – August 1939), undertaken by one of the most informed and original French political analysts of the time – Victor Serge, who had lived in the USSR for many years and was familiar with the mechanisms of political decision-making in the Soviet leadership. The ambiguity of the foreign policy of the leading world powers during this period seriously affected the situation in Europe. England and France in fact untied the hands of Germany, which easily pursued an aggressive policy in Western Europe. England and France tried to establish diplomatic contact with the USSR, but due to a number of by Victor Serge, an attempt to conclude a trilateral agreement failed. Germany took advantage of this situation and on August 23, 1939 concluded a non-aggression Pact with the USSR. Victor Serge scrupulously examines the main aspects of the crisis and assesses its consequences, which for the most part justified itself.

Keywords: Serge, foreign policy, England, France, Germany, crisis, international agreements.


Klimova A.A. (Moscow). The position of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Jerusalem against the backdrop of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War………………………………………………………………………117

ANASTASIIA ALEXEYEVNA KLIMOVA — Postgraduate student of the Department of Church History, Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University, First category specialist, State Archive of the Russian Federation. 119435, Russian Federation, Moscow, Bolshaya Pirogovskaya St., 17. E-mail: u_naskitty@mail.ru

This article deals with the position of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Jerusalem against the backdrop of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. Particular attention is paid to the issue of property rights of the Moscow Patriarchate in Palestine and the problem of protection of the Holy Places. Based on the sources which had not been previously published in the other scholarly publications, the author analyzes the process of renewal international contacts between the Moscow Patriarchate and the Jerusalem Orthodox Church after the Second World War. The main topic of the article is about the process of preparing the appointment of the head of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Jerusalem from the Russian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate). The solution of this task took place during difficult foreign policy events: the formation of the State of Israel, the aggravation of the situation on the border with Transjordan, and also against the backdrop of the confrontation of the Moscow Patriarchate with the Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia.

Keywords: the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, the Russian Orthodox Ecclesiastical Mission in Jerusalem, the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem, the Russian Orthodox Church, the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia, the State of Israel, Transjordan, Jerusalem, the Holy Places.


Kostiuk R.V., Katkova E.P. (Saint Petersburg). The development of the Soviet-Yugoslav relations in the 1970s………………………………………………………..122

ROUSLAN VASILEVICH KOSTIUK — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Saint Petersburg State University, 199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Universitetskaya Emb., 7/9. E-mail: rouslan_k@mail.ru

EKATERINA PETROVNA KATKOVA — Postgraduate student, 1st postgraduate course, Faculty of International Relations, Saint Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Universitetskaya Emb., 7/9. E-mail: ekaterinak.17@gmail.com

The Soviet-Yugoslav relations after the breakup of Josip Broz Tito and Joseph Stalin in 1948 were primarily problematic. Subsequently, the parties repeatedly tried to overcome the existing contradictions, which, basically, were ideological in nature and concerned the foundations of the internal life of a socialist state. At the same time, the positions of the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia on international issues were joint. The 1970s were marked by active intensification of bilateral relations, when, as a result of Josip Broz Tito’s many personal meetings with Leonid Brezhnev, agreement was reached on policy issues of principle, and agreements were concluded in the field of economics and trade, culture and science. This scholarly article is devoted to the analysis of the political and economic relations of the two countries in the 1970s, which can be qualified as friendly. Meanwhile, mutual distrust and misunderstanding remained the stumbling block that did not allow to call the relations of the two countries allied.

Keywords: Soviet Union, Yugoslavia, international relations, Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), Communist Party of Yugoslavia (CPY), socialist camp, “self-governing socialism”, Non-Aligned Movement, Cold War.





Komissarova E.V. (Volgograd). Public initiatives in the development of the musical culture of the Volgograd province……………………………………………………………………131

ELENA VASILEVNA KOMISSAROVA — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Department of History and Cultural Studies, Head of the Museum of Volgograd State Medical University. 400131, Russian Federation, Volgograd, Pavshikh Bortsov Sq., 1. E-mail: evkm57@mail.ru, museum@volgmed.ru

Article is dedicated to the role of public initiatives in the development of musical culture. The analysis of the development of musical life in the territory of the Volgograd province from the end of the 19th to the beginning of the 21st centuries made on the basis of culturology approach. The periodization of the history of musical culture and social initiatives in its development, due to regional socio-cultural specificity in the context of the civilizational development of Russia, is presented. The generation of the new artistic associations because of the public and particular initiatives of creative workers became by sign “cultural reformation” of the 19th–21st centuries. Musical museums created by music scholars and amateur collectors broadcast musical cultural heritage. The musical culture as the components of world artistic culture developed in the traditional, classical and innovation forms, continues spiritual and moral action on the personality and the contemporary information society.

Keywords: culture, public initiatives, the history of musical culture, cultural policy, musical societies, regional culture, musical education, musical museum, Russia, Tsaritsyn – Stalingrad – Volgograd.


Mokeev A.B. (Saint Petersburg). «Letters from a Dead man»: the history of the film………………………………….139

ANTON BORISOVICH MOKEEV — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Saint Petersburg Mining University. 199106, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Vasilievsky Island, 21 lines, 2. E-mail: amokeev@yandex.ru

This article is devoted to the study of the history of the creation of the film «Letters from a Dead man». This is a truly unique work in the national cinema of the period of «Perestroika», both on the chosen topic and on its artistic embodiment in the frame. A rare example of «art house cinema». The film was created by film studio «Lenfilm» in the mid-1980s. The picture came out on screens in 1986, and already in the first year the film won a large number of domestic and international film awards. «Letters of the Dead Man» is the debut feature film of the famous director Konstantin Lopushansky. At that time, he managed to work as an assistant on the set of the film «Stalker» by Andrey Tarkovsky. Today Konstantin Lopushansky is one of the most distinctive and talented directors of our time. He is known to us from such films as: «Museum visitor», «Russian Symphony», «Ugly Swans» and «The role». His debut film touched upon a complex, but a necessary topic for society – the importance of preventing nuclear war. Even the first title of the film – «Precaution». The screenplay was written by K. Lopushansky and V. Rybakov, with the participation of B. Strugatsky. Philosophical questions were raised in it – how will the human society change in conditions of a catastrophe? What internal forces can help the main characters to deal with what happened? The Soviet authorities sought to give the film greater political concreteness, thereby turning it into a powerful ideological tool in the confrontation with the West. These circumstances identified a very complex and interesting way to create films, which deserves close analysis. When writing this article, the author used archival materials of the Central State Archive of Literature and Art of St. Petersburg, not previously introduced into scientific circulation, namely, data from the Lenfilm Foundation 257.

Keywords: Konstantin Lopushansky, Letters from a dead man, movie, film studio Lenfilm, script, cinema and soviet authority.





Milbach V.S., Pavlovich S.L. (Saint Petersburg). National formations of the Central Asian military district in the period of the abolition of the territorial-militia system in 1935–1940………………………………………………..149

VLADIMIR SPARTAKOVICH MILBACH — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Professor of the Department of Humanities and Socio-Economic Disciplines, Mikhailovsky Military Artillery Academy. 195009, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, St. Komsomol, 22. E-mail: v.milbach@yandex.ru

SERGEY LEONARDOVICH PAVLOVICH — Deputy Head of the Faculty, Mikhailovsky Military Artillery Academy. 195009, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, St. Komsomol, 22. E-mail: pavluscha69@mail.ru

The article discusses the Central Asian Military District (CAMD) – a territorial-military association of formations, military units, military institutions and military educational institutions located in the territory of five Soviet Union republics (Turkmen, Uzbek, Kazakh, Tajik and Kyrgyz). During the transition from a mixed system of recruitment, to the personnel system of recruitment of the Red Army.

The specific character of the CAMD consisted in the fact that the military district was an outpost in Central Asia, and the national formations constituted the core of its troops. The transition to a personnel system of recruitment of the Red Army led to the rejection of the territorial and militia construction of the army and navy. In accordance with the stated research topic, the tasks are formulated: to study the literature and published documents, to identify new sources, on the basis of which to reveal the features of the transition process to the personnel system of recruitment in a given military district. The boundaries of the СAMD determined the territorial scope of the study. An array of documents submitted by state and departmental archives, allows you to reveal the causal relationships of what is happening in the second half of the 1930s in СAMD. A number of documents are first introduced in scientific circulation. The particular relevance of the study lies in the fact that the rich experience of domestic construction on the eve of World War II and the historical lessons learned should be taken into account when developing the direction of reforming the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation at the present stage.

Keywords: СAMD, national formations, the Red Army, personnel recruitment system, organizational structure, territorial-militia system, mountain rifle divisions, mountain cavalry divisions.





Makhlina S.T. (Saint Petersburg). Problems of higher education in modern Russia………………………………….154 

SVETLANA TEVELIEVNA MAKHLINA — Honored figure in higher school of Russian Federation, Doctor of Philosophy, Professor, Department of Theory and History of Culture, Saint Petersburg State University of Culture. 191186, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Dvortsovaya emb., 2. E-mail: makhlina@pochta.tvoe.tv

Education is an important element of culture. Perestroika has changed the situation in Russian higher education in many aspects. The status of a professor was downsized to the level of a seller of some second-rate products. Even a term emerged – “educational services”. However, currently the term “educational services” has been rejected and professor’s salary has increased. At the same time, the “optimization” process is on, merging departments and universities; faculty is mercilessly cut, thus ensuring the salary rise for those retaining their positions. The workload has also immensely increased. It is frequently mentioned that our higher education is not competitive compared with the leading Western universities. It is not exactly true. Foresight-projects have been developing. These new programs are connected with the “web factor”. Online education has become widespread. It is important that with the growth of the information education the role of a teacher still remains meaningful, as in terms of globalization it is important to educate globally prepared competent citizens.

Keywords: higher education; professor; foresight projects; online education; “web factor”.





Mikhailov V.V. (Saint Petersburg). Review of the monograph of A. A. Nepomnyashchiy, «Academician S.F. Platonov and the Crimean studies» (Biobibliography of the Crimean studies. Volume 27). Belgorod: Konstanta, 2018……………………………………………………..159

VADIM VIKTOROVICH MIKHAILOV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the Department of history and philosophy of the State University of Aviation Instrument-making (SUAI, St. Petersburg). 196105, St. Petersburg, Sevastyanova str., 4–102. E-mail: batukom@mail.ru

The review gives a high assessment of the new research of Professor of the Crimean Federal University A. A. Nepomnyashchiy, «Academician S.F. Platonov  and the Crimean studies», filling the white spots in the history of the Crimea. The monograph from the series «Biobibliography of the Crimean studies» is devoted to the study of the relations of the Crimean scientific and historical community with the academic and administrative bodies of the Soviet Union, which were represented by academician S.F. Platonov  in the 1920s. It is noted that the reviewed study for the first time studies in detail the history of the two archaeological congresses in the Crimea, one of which S.F. Platonov  was the Chairman, analyses the failure of the joint Russian-German scientific expedition in the Crimea, the initiator of which was S.F. Platonov. The review emphasizes the novelty and thoroughness of the source material of the reviewed monograph, the objectivity of the author’s view, the ability to show the history of scientific Crimean studies in the crucial period of the country’s history as interesting and convincing story.

Keywords: A.A. Nepomnyashchiy, the Crimean studies, bibliography of the Crimea, the Kerch archaeological Congress, the Chersoneses (Sevastopol) archaeological Congress, Academician S.F. Platonov, A.I. Markevich, F.A. Brown.


Poltorak S.N. (Saint Petersburg). New about the Karelian Isthmus (Review of the collection “Karelian Isthmus. Pages of History”. Saint Petersburg, Ostrov Publ., 2018. 448 p.)…………………………………………………………………162

SERGEY NIKOLAEVICH POLTORAK — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Editor-in-Chief of the journal «Klio». 195220, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Grazhdanskii pr., 11. E-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru

The review is devoted to the published collection of scientific publications “Karelian Isthmus. Pages of History. This edition was published in the authoritative Petersburg publishing house “Ostrov”, which for many years has been publishing high-quality literature on the history of the Leningrad Region and, in particular, on the Karelian Isthmus. Attention is drawn to the solid selection of the team of authors, which included high-level researchers.

Keywords: Leningrad region, Karelian Isthmus, Shuvalovo, Komarovo, Zelenogorsk, Molodezhnoye, Primorsk, Vyborg.



Alphabetical list of authors of articles published in the journal Klio in 2018…………………………………………….165