Klio #12 (168) 2020



Dedyukhina P.V. (Moscow). Temporality as a category of pictorial language in wordless novels of the first half of the XX century......................................................................13

Lomonosov Moscow State University
Faculty of History, Department of General History of Art
Graduate student
Russia, Moscow, Lesnaya 63/43. 102

The article analyzes the role of the temporality in the visual language of wordless novels of the first half of the 20th century. The term “wordless novel” belongs to the Belgian artist Frans Maserel, who is considered the founder of this genre. The first novel was published by Maserel in 1918, after which the genre quickly gained popularity in Europe, and then in the United States. In this art form, pictorial narrative is represented in a form of a book which tells the story only visually, without using any words at all. Both literature and visual art features, and their aesthetic potential are synthesized in wordless novels. It determines the specificity of the images themselves in wordless novels, and their visual language in general. It is important that such works do not have a textual basis, the verbal component in them is completely replaced by an image.
Keywords: graphic novel, wordless novel, novel in woodcuts, pictorial narrative, graphic.

Eroshkina O.N. (St. Petersburg). Large-circulation newspapers as a source of study international and anti-religious education in pedagogical universities of the RSFSR in the 1920s (on the example of Moscow) .....................................................21

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of History of the Herzen Russian State Pedagogical University 198510 St. Petersburg, Petrodvorets, Dashkevich street, house 11A / 9, apartment 2
E-mail: o.eroshkina@mail.ru

The article analyzes the materials of large-circulation newspapers of pedagogical universities in Moscow in the 1920s. The purpose of the study is to find in newspaper publications a reflection of the activities of universities in the international and anti-religious education of students in the 1920s, to determine the main tasks, forms, methods and results of its implementation. In the process of studying this problem, two periods in the conduct of educational work by universities were identified, which corresponded to different courses of the Soviet political leadership in domestic and international politics. In the first half of the 1920s, in the Soviet Union, the main attention was paid to socio-economic recovery, the establishment of a peaceful public life and all-round support of the world revolutionary movement, counting on its assistance in the socialist reconstruction of the country. In the conditions of a decline in revolutionary activity, the leaders of the USSR approved a program for building socialism in one separate country. These changes have significantly influenced the definition of the goals and objectives of international education, which is fully confirmed by the materials of high school newspapers.
Keywords: international and anti-religious education, pedagogical universities, large-circulation newspapers, periodicals of Moscow.

Rakhmanova T.D. (St. Petersburg). “Goodbye, Leningrad!”: The besieged city in the diary of Lena Mukhina .................................................................................................29

Senior lecturer at the Department of Drama and Film Studies,
St. Petersburg State Institute of Cinema and Television
191119, St. Petersburg, st. Pravda, 13
E-mail: pevica@yandex.ru

The article was funded by RFBR, project number 20-09-00170 «The visual and sound space of the war: the besieged Leningrad and its perception by the inhabitants»
The issue explores a teenager’s perception of besieged Leningrad and strategies for survival in the besieged city. The besieged Leningrad consisted of such short routes with clear vital goals as getting food, firewood, water. When transport stopped, city distances acquired a physiological dimension – every meter of the way, every step for a hungry frozen person could be fatal. Leningrad shrank to several hundred meters for the blockade human, resembling a village rather than an urban space. Not only the space, but also the everyday practices of Leningraders themselves began to resemble the practices of the village: get food, take out the slops, wash clothes in the ice-hole. In addition to the obvious rescue strategies as standing in lines for six hours, working in a hospital, not being afraid of the dead, inventing recipes from surrogates, changing at a flea market, carrying water from the Fontanka, 17-year-old Lena Mukhina, emotionally and psychologically, is helped through this time by the ability to fantasize, to save herself in imagination, thoughts carried away into the past and the future, hiding from the catastrophic blockade reality. Lena’s besieged Leningrad has two dimensions: a real city, a disaster background, devoid of cultural connotations, almost provincial. This “ill-fated city of misery and loneliness” needs to be left as soon as possible in order to survive. But there is another Leningrad, transformed by Lena’s fantasies into a cinematic image, a city of the future sparkling with lights, where everyone is alive, well fed and happy, where the blockade has turned into a distant memory.
Keywords: The Siege of Leningrad, Diary, Lena Mukhina, World War II, history, cinema, “Champagne Waltz”, “The Adventures of Korzinkina”, blockade everyday life, dream, survival strategies

Likhomanov K.V. (Saratov). Archaic forms of «property» of the early Middle Ages by A. Ya. Gurevich: from socio-economic to socio-cultural paradigm ............................37

The Applicant, Saratov State Conservatory (Saratov)
RF, Saratov region., Engels, st. Nesterova, 107A.
E-mail: AlisterOrm@gmail.com

The article consider is the problem of studying archaic forms of property developing within the framework of the “Germanic” socio-cultural community. The work of the medievalist historian Aron Yakovlevich Gurevich, who devoted many of his works to this problem, was chosen as the object of research. It is shown that the historian began his journey from studying the forms of family property in the pre-Norman England society and, faced with a limited range of sources, turned to the material of early medieval Norway. Here A. Ya. Gurevich discovered in the law books the fact of land ownership – “odal”, which became his “ideal model” for the study of archaic forms of ownership, which required not only classical economic and law methods, but also methods of cultural history. The work shows how the historian’s approaches to the analysis of this institution changed, and the essence of the specifics of archaic “property” in ancient German society. The special importance of social communication and collective ideas in the formation of a general cultural paradigm, which gave rise, among other things, to such economic and law fact as “property”, is noted.
Keywords: A. Ya. Gurevich, property, archaic society, socio-cultural relations, “odal”.

Samoylov N.A. (St. Petersburg). Chinese Foreign Policy during the Reign of the Qianlong Emperor.......................................................................................................48

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor,
Head of the Department of Theory of Asian and African Social Development,
Saint Petersburg State University (Russia)
199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Universitetskaya emb., 7-9.
e-mail.: n.samoylov@spbu.ru

The article examines the main principles and directions of the Qing China’s foreign policy during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor (1735-1796). The author makes an attempt to comprehend and analyze a number of the actions undertaken by the Qing Empire within the framework of its foreign policy from the point of traditional worldview and the concept of the “Chinese world order”. The Qianlong Emperor’s foreign policy and his military operations not only changed the configuration of international relations in East and Central Asia, but also influenced the overall geopolitical situation in the region. During his reign, using military force, the Qing Empire significantly broadened its borders, annexed vast territories of the Dzungar Khanate and East Turkestan, and sought to impose vassal dependence on many of its neighbors. The state expanded and strengthened, but at the same time, signs of a deep socio-economic crisis began to come forth in China itself, with grave consequences looming up, especially in the context of the growing Western expansion, which the Qianlong Emperor and his court did not take into account. The ruling elite could not accept the fact that the world situation had radically changed, and the traditional attitude towards other peoples as “barbarians” combined with the lack of foreign policy information led to their inability to assess objectively the actual balance of power in the world.
Keywords: China, Qing Dynasty, Qianlong, Foreign policy, Central Asia.

Alferov D.A. (St. Petersburg). The central district of Khartoum during the AngloEgyptian condominium period (1898-1956) ...............................................................65

Faculty of Asian and African studies, St. Petersburg University.
199034, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg Universitetskaya Emb., 7/9.
E-mail: alferov_d@list.ru

The article deals the history of the development of Khartoum – one of the largest cities in Africa and the capital of the Republic of Sudan, in the first half of the XX century. Until now, this topic has not received adequate coverage in domestic literature so far. From the moment the Anglo-Egyptian condominium was established and until the independence of Sudan, Khartoum expanded intensively and by the middle of the 20th century has developed into a major administrative center, which became an example of a European city located in the heart of Africa. At the early stages of the construction of the capital, the design of which took into account the most modern solutions in urban planning, used in the second half of the XX century in the largest cities of Europe and the USA, the specific features of Khartoum were laid, which can be traced up to this day. One of them is the division of the city according to ethnic and confessional along one of the main streets. The eastern part of the city was inhabited by British officers and officials, as well as other Europeans. In addition, it housed private educational institutions and medical centers. In the western part of the city, Islamic and Coptic religious institutions were concentrated, and the area itself was inhabited by immigrants from the Middle East.
Keywords: Sudan, Khartoum, Kitchener, Gordon, site plan

Pukhovskaya N.E. (Rostov-on-Don). The Treaty of Versailles as a new round of Franco-German contradictions ...................................................................................70

Candidate of History, Associate Professor,
Southern Federal University, St. B. Sadovaya, Rostov-on-Don, 344082.
+7(863)218-40-05, E-mail:nepuhovskaya@sfedu.ru

The article is devoted to a new stage of contradictions between France and Germany, generated by French national egotism, thirst for revenge and desire to violate the international law, in order to form a new system of coordinates in the international relations of the post-war period. The author uses a causal approach which allows to consider various intentions and negotiation techniques of the defeated Germany and the winning countries, especially France, whose position during the development of the Treaty of Versailles was fundamental. It also allows to determine the motives and the style of behavior, the potential of opportunities, the specifics of relationships, the range of hopes and expectations, as well as to focus on individual details and episodes that make it possible to understand the logic of the inevitable confrontation between two irreconcilable rivals. Considering behavioral strategies of some French politicians, the causual approach made it possible to reveal the degree of interaction between individual political priorities and generally accepted mental and psychological stereotypes of the French in relation to the Germans, who are distinguished by hatred, a desire to humiliate and discredit the enemy, dictated by the negative historical experience of the past.
The author makes an attempt not only to consider the significance and scale of the Treaty of Versailles in the fate of the two rival countries, but also to identify the mental and psycho-emotional specifics of the French and German nations, which under the influence of new historical and political realities will contribute to the formation of other national identities, value attitudes and stereotypes, thinking and behaviour.
Keywords. The Treaty of Versailles, France, Germany, victors of the First World War, Georges Clemenceau, the French, Marshal Ferdinand Foch, Germans, Ulrich von Brockdorff-Rantzau, Paris, conference.

Abdrakhmanov К.А. (Orenburg). The specifics of interaction of the Russian regional and central authorities with the Kazakh steppe and Bukhara in the course of ensuring the safety of merchant trade operations in the first third of the 19th century .........................................................................................................................80

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Senior Lecturer of the Department of Russian History, Orenburg State Pedagogical University.
460014, Russian Federation, Orenburg, Sovetskaya St., 19.
E-mail: kostya.abdrakhmanov@mail.ru

The article analyzes the diplomatic contacts of the Orenburg provincial administration and the imperial leadership with the Kazakh steppe and the Bukhara Emirate in the first third of the 19th century. Participants of the negotiations from Russian and Bukharan sides wanted to protect their merchants who transported goods across the steppe with trade caravans from attacks by nomadic raiders. To solve this problem, the military governors of the Orenburg region corresponded with the ruling group and the clan elite of the Kazakhs. However, the leaders of those nomads who plundered caravans were often outside the jurisdiction of the Kazakh rulers, or, knowing about the precarious position of the latter, openly ignored any attempts at negotiations initiated by the sultans and khans of the Kazakhs. The merchants of the Emirate of Bukhara were often the victims of nomad attacks, so their government actively contacted Orenburg and St. Petersburg to get as much help from Russia as possible in catching the raiders and returning the stolen property. The factual material of the work consists of a large volume of archival data which confirms that attacks on merchant caravans were an important problem, and that they were treated as such in Russian-Kazakh and Russian-Bukhara relations of the period under study.
Keywords: Orenburg province, Kazakh steppe, nomads, caravan, Emirate of Bukhara, security of trade routes, diplomacy.

Solopov A.P. (Moscow). Orientalism in tobacco advertising in the Russian Empire in the second half of the 19th century.............................................................................88

Bachelor student,
Department of Russian History of the
Nineteenth – Early Twentieth Century,
Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University.
Russian Federation, 119192, Moscow,
Lomonosovsky Prospekt, 27-4.
E-mail: arssolopov@mail.ru

The article examines the specificity of usage of images of residents of the Muslim East in promoting tobacco products in the Russian Empire in the second half of the 19th century. The article analyzes common patterns of application of oriental aesthetics, stereotypes about the oriental way of life and culture, as well as images of the inhabitants of the Ottoman Empire, their way of life and characteristic attributes for advertising purposes, their connection with the processes of orientalization of the East, the formation of stable connotations among the mass audience associated with the archetypal perception of the Muslim culture, its aestheticization. The scientific novelty of the article lies in the fact that, based on the analysis of advertising posters, it turns out that oriental images in advertising of the period under review served as a manifestation of an atmospheric approach to marketing: without directly emphasizing any positive qualities of the product, they created around it the image of a prestigious, foreign product, an element of high everyday culture and luxury, thus promoting smoking as a habit rather than promoting a certain brand of tobacco. At the same time, the active use of images of oriental women contributed, in particular, to the spread of smoking among the female audience, since it additionally aestheticized this habit, weakening the connotations with masculinity and militancy that had previously characterized the smoking process, thereby making it more accessible to the emerging in the considered period of the so-called “émancipée” women.
Keywords. advertising, smoking, tobacco products, poster graphics, orientalism, emancipation, East, Ottoman Empire.

Samarina L.A., Semenov A.M. (St. Petersburg). Goals and means of mutual aid funds for servants in Russia in the second half of the XIX-early XX centuries......................93

applicant, Pushkin Leningrad State University
196605, Russia, St. Petersburg, Pushkin, Petersburg highway, 10.
E-mail: ravel-poletika@mail.ru

applicant, Pushkin Leningrad State University
196605, Russia, St. Petersburg, Pushkin, Petersburg highway, 10.
E-mail: ivanova.olga.al@mail.ru

This article examines the organization of financial mutual assistance of servants in Russia in the second half of the XIX-early XX centuries. On the example of the auxiliary cash register for gardeners and their families, the savings and auxiliary cash register of workers and servants of the trading house “P. V. Shchetinkin in Kazan”, the St. Petersburg artel of domestic male servants, the Riga society of mutual assistance “Vostok”, the auxiliary cash register for watchmen and servants at the St. Petersburg society of mutual credit, the society for mutual assistance of waiters, number plates, doormen and innkeepers in Odessa analyze the goals, means and types of assistance provided. The authors conclude that the statutory documents of mutual aid funds clearly defined the range of circumstances requiring financial assistance and provided for different forms of its provision: a repayment loan, a loan with interest, and a non-refundable allowance. Upon receipt of the application, each case was considered separately, and assistance was assigned according to the family circumstances and the applicant’s ability to pay. The system of mutual financial assistance of companies and cash registers was quite flexible and took into account the individual characteristics of those in need, but only depositors who made their contribution to the capital for a long time and regularly could use the service of such organizations.
Keywords: domestic servants, mutual aid, funeral Fund, a gang, a society of mutual assistance.

Polyansky M.S., Sakson O.V. (Moscow). The Council of State Defense is the first highest body of military administration in Russia ....................................................100

Chief Scientist at the Research Center
(fundamental military-historical problems)
Military University of the Russian Defense Ministry,
Doctor of Educational Sciences, Professor
125047, Moscow, 14 Great Garden Street.
Contact: 8 (916) 410-38-06
e-mail: m-s-pol@yandex.ru

lead researcher of the research center (fundamental military-historical problems) of the Military University of the Russian Defense Ministry, Ph.D. in Historical Sciences, Associate Professor
125047, Moscow, 14 Great Garden Street
Contact: 8 (916) 900-12-13
e-mail: osaksonov@mail.ru

The article, based on little-known documents and materials, is based on the creation and activity of the first supreme body of the Russian military administration, the State Defense Council, in the early 20th century. The author shows that already at that time the state’s defense capability depended not only on the activities of the military department, which was in possession of the Armed Forces, but also on other structures, such as, for example, defense industry, transport, energy. It was the first experience of establishing a body whose task was to coordinate the activities of all government departments and institutions related to the defense power of the state.
Keywords. State Duma, State Defense Council, Military Ministry, Higher Appraisal Commission, Military Reforms, Military Administration, Army, Navy.

Potapova N.V., Kiselev A.L. (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk). Involvement of the Japanese military administration in monetary expansion into the economy of the Russian Far East (1918-1922)...............................................................................................................106

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Department of Russian and World History, Sakhalin State University.
Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Russia, 693000, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk,
st. Lenin, 290, office. 29. Tel. 8 4242 4848888,
email: napotapova@yandex.ru

post-graduate student, Department of Russian and General History, Sakhalin State University,
Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Russia. 693000, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk,
st. Lenin, 290, office. 29. Tel. 8 4242 4848888,
email: and9485961@yandex.ru

The article examines the role of the Japanese military administration in the Japanese monetary expansion into the economy of the Russian Far East during the period of foreign intervention in 1918-1922. The study of the problem is undertaken for the first time in Russian historiography. A study of the complex of documentary sources (archival materials and publications of the regional press) leads to the conclusion about the direct and active participation of the Japanese military administration in the process of Japanese monetary expansion in the Russian Far East during the period of intervention. The financial part of the economic intervention was purposeful; its preparation was carried out in advance, before the start of the military intervention. The participation of the military administration was expressed in organizing the intervention of the yen and military banknotes in the economy of the Far East by administrative methods (establishing the exchange rate of the yen, transferring settlements with the local population to yen and Japanese military money, etc.) in cooperation with Japanese banks, which were located in localities deployment of the military administration and guarded by the military. The study covering different regions of the Far East (Primorye, Zabaikalia, Amur Region) shows the identity of the measures for the introduction of the yen. An analysis of this aspect of the financial activities of the Japanese military administration leads to the conclusion that it was part of the purposeful policy of the Japanese Empire, aimed at the economic enslavement of the Russian Far East.
Keywords: Civil War; The Russian Far East; intervention; money turnover; war money; Japanese yen monetary expansion.

Melnikov N.N. (Yekaterinburg). The price of import substitution: the role of imports in the development of the Soviet tank industry (1929-1945).......................................112

Candidate of historical Sciences, associate Professor, Institute of History and Archaeology, Ural Branch of RAS, Senior Researcher
Sofia Kovalevskaya str., 16, 620990, Yekaterinburg, Russian Federation
+7 343 374-53-40; meln2011kit@gmail.com

Soviet tank construction began in the late 1920s. It used imported components for several hundred tanks a year. The new tank building program began in 1930-1931. The Soviet government wanted to receive several thousand armored vehicles a year. The new production plan required an increase in the output of Soviet components for economic reasons. The industry could not buy many components abroad. Imports for the tank industry declined until the end of the second five-year plan. We can say that since the late 1930s, the production of tanks has been based on domestic production. After that, the Soviet military industry reached a high rate of production, but tanks remained unreliable machines. The great Patriotic war led to the loss of Western industrial centers and the creation of the tank industry in the East of the USSR. This has exacerbated many old problems. The Soviet Union again began to develop import supplies of industrial equipment, materials, raw materials and aggregates. The USSR began to receive the Lend-Lease. The Soviet tank industry was not completely dependent on imports. The dependence was indirect, but the Lend-Lease affected production processes. The development of allied supplies was one of the most important factors that made it possible to increase the quantity and improve the quality of Soviet armored vehicles.
Keywords: tank industry, Stalinism, industrialization, import, Lend-Lease, war.

Semenov M.A. (Novosibirsk). Development of the medical network of the Soviet Union during the great Patriotic war.........................................................................122

Candidate of historical Sciences, researcher of Institute of history SB RAS.
630090, Russia, Novosibirsk, Nikolaev St., 8.

The article provides data on the dynamics of the main types of medical institutions during the great Patriotic war. It shows the relatively slow development of the hospital network in 1941-1942 and its sharp growth in 1943-1945. It is noted that during the war, the medical and inpatient network of the Gulag health service increased dramatically, making up about a quarter of all civilian health care beds deployed in the country in 1942. Data are given on the sharp reduction in the number of mental hospitals and colonies, which was associated with the mass destruction of the mentally ill by German troops in the occupied territories. The analysis of the development of the hospital network in the territorial context shows its significant growth (up to one third) in the rear areas and reaching close to pre-war indicators in areas liberated from occupation. Serious structural changes in the bed stock during the war years were pointed out: a reduction in the number of children’s and maternity beds, an increase in the number of surgical and infectious beds. The analysis of the dynamics of outpatient clinics shows a relatively low rate of recovery of the outpatient network in the liberated territories. Priority development of health centers responsible for medical care of industrial workers was revealed. Based on the study of data on the development of sanitary and anti-epidemic institutions, it is concluded that the growth of their number occurred simultaneously with the change in their internal structure. The war years were a time of a sharp increase in the number of sanitary stations. Based on the materials presented in the article, the author comes to the conclusion that the war years were a time of serious strengthening of the medical network in the rear areas, and in the liberated territories, despite significant destruction, the medical network managed to approach the pre-war level.
Keywords: health care, medicine, hospitals, clinics, medical network, medical institutions, the Great Patriotic war.


Sleptsova T.V., Oniani M.G., Vasilieva T.V. (Moscow). In the ranks of the Soviet militia forever: the feat of senior militia sergeant F.V. Shcherbakov ...................................127

candidate of history
Leading researcher of the Department for the study of the history
of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation
Scientific center
Management Academy of the Ministry of the Interior of Russia
Russia, 125993, Moscow, Zoi and Alexander Kosmodemyanskikh st., 8
Contact of the author: slepzova@mail.ru

Senior researcher of the department
on the study of strategic management problems
Scientific center
Management Academy of the Ministry of the Interior of Russia
Russia, 125993, Moscow, Zoi and Alexander Kosmodemyanskikh st., 8
Contact of the author: maiya_09@mail.ru

Senior Researcher of the Department for the Study of the Problems of Psychological Support of the Operational and Service Activities of the Department for the Study of the Problems of Sectoral Management
Scientific center
Management Academy of the Ministry of the Interior of Russia
Russia, 125993, Moscow, Zoi and Alexander Kosmodemyanskikh st., 8
Contact of the author: trostnik72@mail.ru

The article examines the life and service of a front-line soldier, a simple Soviet policeman Fyodor Vasilyevich Shcherbakov. It reveals the feat of the senior police sergeant Fyodor Vasilyevich Shcherbakov and shows the place of feat in the daily activities of the Soviet police. For heroism and self-sacrifice in the performance of his official duty, a policeman of the second police department of Tyumen, senior police sergeant Fyodor Vasilyevich Shcherbakov was awarded the Order of the Red Star posthumously.
Keywords: Soviet militia, feat, heroism, F.V. SHCHERBAKOV, everyday life of the Soviet police, daily activities.

Yu Jie (Moscow). Ivan Petlin’s mission to China in 1618–1619 from the point of view of the theory of intercultural communication ...........................................................133

Senior Lecturer,
Department of Chinese Philology,
Institute of Asian and African Studies,
Lomonosov Moscow State University.
Russian Federation, 125009, Moscow,
Mokhovaya Street, 11.
E-mail: kaqusha686@yahoo.com

The earliest documented official contact between China and Russia is Ivan Petlin’s visit to the Middle Kingdom in 1618–1619. For a long time Chinese scholars and researchers from other countries held two different opinions about this historical event. One point of view casts doubt on the historical reliability of Petlin’s mission to China, while the other not only confirms the authenticity of this historical event, but also endows it with the high status of Russia’s first official mission in China. In this article an attempt is made based on the theory of intercultural communication, based on historical data collected by scholars of the past and modern researchers, combined with a consideration of the key features of Russian foreign policy and the nuances of Russian diplomacy in the Petlin’s era, to interpret his mission to China as an act of cross-communication. This event will be analyzed for its interethnic, interstate and intercultural nature in order to confirm its historical accuracy and prove that Petlin’s trip to China was in the nature of exploration and research work carried out by the local Russian administration in Siberia. Thus, the purpose of this study is to lay a methodological basis for further research in the field of the internal logic of the development of Russian-Chinese relations at an early stage of their formation.
Keywords: Ivan Petlin, Russian-Chinese relations, intercultural communication, 17th century, Russian diplomacy, Siberia.

Baryshnikov M.N. (St. Petersburg). Putilov plants company: ownership structure and business managerial efficiency in 1870s–1890s......................................................141

orcid.org/0000-0002-0636-8864, Doctor of History, professor, Honored Scientist of the Russian Federation, Head of the Department of History, The Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia
48, Moika Emb., St. Petersburg, Russia, 191186, E-mail: barmini@list.ru

In this study of Putilov plants company in the emergence of steel and engineering industry in the Russian, I analyze the evolving interaction between shareholders and board members in historical context. This article examines archival material, as well as published statistical sources, relating to the history of the corporation, in particular its rail plant. The rails industry was a leader in Russian’s economic development after Crimean War. In the 1860s – 1870s, rails makers found a ready market for their products as mass railway construction created a manufacturing backlog. But, by the 1880s, rapid decline in sales and the arrival of new competitors in the Russian market marked a transition from metallurgy’s to a engineering’s market. The company adjusted to the changing consumer demand after 1883 by adopting different strategic and operational decisions. In order to generate financial success, shareholders institutionalized new balance of individual and group interests that supported a structural change in the production and management model, leading board members to shift from their earlier emphasis on metallurgical to a stronger focus on mechanical engineering. While economic factors provided a necessary impetus for the emergence of corporation, the technological advantages associated with corporate governance ensured the subsequent survival and success of this industrial enterprise. Ultimately, the company demonstrated the innovation and professional competence of owners and directors in managing large, complex manufacturing business, capable of acting their way through autocratic political regime, and adept at turning to whichever organizational form best suited their business interests.
Keywords: industry; Putilov plant; corporation; investments; shareholders; management; interests.

Piankevich V.L. (St. Petersburg). «Spring will never come again»: Nature in the perception of the inhabitants of besieged Leningrad..............................................149

Doctor of historical sciences,
professor at the St. Petersburg State University
199034, Russian Federation,
St. Petersburg, Universitetskaia nab. 7–9,
E-mail: pyankevich@yandex.ru

The article examines the theme of the perception of nature by the inhabitants of besieged Leningrad on the eve and during the siege. The dependence of people on the state of the atmosphere became enormous during the long siege. The hot and sunny war summer of 1941 fully corresponded to the serene moods of the majority of Leningraders. The indifference of natural splendor began to contrast monstrously with the bombs and shells that fell on the city in the first autumn of siege. In winter, city transport did not work, there were significantly fewer cars, many enterprises did not operate, and there was no central heating in most houses. The city became quieter when there were no air raids and shelling, the air was cleaner, the nature and beauty of the city were more noticeable. The weather influenced the moral and psychological state of the Leningraders, determined the danger of bomb and artillery strikes, the ability to extinguish the many fires, the threat of death from the cold. Never before has nature so much predetermined the position of the townspeople, the very possibility of life and death. The hard impressions of the moon and snow have been preserved in the memory of many blockade survivors for many years. The paper is based on the diaries, letters of Blockade’s period, transcript of oral evidence, which appeared shortly after the blockade and the war, memories, interviews created later.
Keywords: The Great Patriotic War, the siege of Leningrad, urban space, nature, perception, historical memory.

Zhevalov S.A. (Moscow). Food contribution of the Leningrad region to the Great Victory .......................................................................................................................158

Applicant of the Department of modern Russian history of the Institute of History and Politics of the Moscow Pedagogical State University.
88 Vernadsky Avenue, 119571, Moscow, Russia
E-mail: szhevalov@mail.ru

The purpose of the article is to study the supply of agricultural products in the Leningrad region during the Great Patriotic war. The relevance of the article is caused by constant discussions about the significance of the contribution to the Great Victory of domestic supplies of agricultural products. The documents that formed the basis of the article are contained in the collections of the Russian state archive of Economics. From archival sources, the total number of agricultural products of the Leningrad region delivered to the state in 1941–1945 is determined. To achieve this research goal, it is necessary to solve the following tasks: first, to determine the amount of grain received by the state during the war from the Leningrad region; second, to find out how many field crops were received by the country in these years; third, to identify the total delivery of livestock products from the peasant sector of the Leningrad region for all sources of procurement.
Keywords: Soviet Union, Great Patriotic war of 1941–1945, Leningrad region, Soviet collective and state farm village, grain procurement, delivery of agricultural products.

Manatskov Z.V., Zotova A.V. (St. Petersburg). Petersburg and Shanghai: a history of international cooperation..........................................................................................163

Independent researcher
195220, Russia, St. Petersburg, Grazhdansky Prospect, 11, office 1 N.
E-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Docent, Associate Professor of the Department of International Relations in the Post-Soviet Area, Saint-Petersburg State University. 199034, Russia,
St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya nab., 7-9.
E-mail: anastasiyazotova@mail.ru

The article examines the dynamics of international cooperation between the twin cities of St. Petersburg and Shanghai. It is noted that the most active comprehensive relations between the two megacities developed in the last quarter of a century. This is largely due to the desire of Russia and China to provide support for each other in the emerging multipolar world and the growing competition between states. The authors emphasize that one of the most effective levers in the work of the mechanism of international cooperation is parliamentary ties. The relationship between the deputies of the Legislative Assembly of St. Petersburg and the Standing Committee of the Assembly of People’s Representatives of the city of Shanghai is considered as an example. It is noted that in modern conditions the peculiar mediating role of parliamentarians between wide layers of business representatives of the two cities is increasing. An example of this is the activity in St. Petersburg of a subsidiary of the Shanghai Foreign Joint Investment Company CJSC Baltic Pearl – the largest investment project in China. The main form of international cooperation between St. Petersburg and Shanghai has become the work of parliamentary delegations of the two cities, the intensity of visits to which has noticeably increased in recent years. The conclusion is made that, unlike other sister-city relations, the relations between St. Petersburg and Shanghai are characterized by the scale of investment projects, unprecedented business activity and trust in the exchange of information.
Keywords. St. Petersburg, Shanghai, twin cities, international relations, parliamentary diplomacy.

Vinogradov A.M. (Vladivostok). Organization and activity of specialized operational divisions of the internal Affairs bodies to combat economic crime in 1991-2011 (regional dimension).................................................................................................171

senior lecturer of the Department
of operational investigative and administrative activities
of the Vladivostok branch of the Far Eastern
Judicial Institute of Russian Ministry of the Interior
690087, Russian Federation, Vladivostok, Kotelnikova st., 21,
E-mail: philosophyworld@inbox.ru

Countering economic crime is a priority for the state. The article is devoted to the analysis of the history of development of specialized operational divisions of internal Affairs bodies to combat economic crime in 1991-2011. Based on documents and materials from the Central archive of the Ministry of internal Affairs of Russia And the archive of the Ministry of internal Affairs of Primorsky Krai, the article examines the process of forming units to combat economic crimes. The stages and specifics of creating specialized divisions are analyzed. The main activities of operational divisions of the Russian Federation and their regional specifics are highlighted (on the example of the Primorsky territory). It is concluded that the service for combating economic crime in 1991-2011 has undergone numerous renaming and reorganization, but the essence of its work remained the same – protection of the state from illegal encroachments, the fight against theft of property and speculation.
Keywords: internal Affairs agencies, economic crime, specialized operational units, Russian Federation, Far East, Primorsky Krai.

Mironova T.S. (St. Petersburg). Fuheng and his role in creation of illustrated tributaries of the Qing empire....................................................................................................180

Researcher, teacher-researcher,
Assistant, Department of Chinese philology
Faculty of Asian and African Studies,
Saint-Petersburg State University (Russia)
199034, Russian Federation,
Saint-Petersburg, Universitetskaya nab. 11
e-mail: nightwalz@gmail.com

“Illustrated tributaries of the Qing Empire” (18th c) was created by a group of artists and officials, however mainly the authorship is attributed to Fuheng. Up to this moment in Russian sinology, there was no understanding of why Fuheng is known as one of the authors of the album and what exact contribution he made in the process of its creation. The article points out the premises that lead to choosing Fuheng to work on this album and what may have been his role in the process. The analysis of the sources gives us a suggestion, that Fuheng’s family connections to Qianlong, participation in pacification war conflicts in Myanmar and Sichuan province, working in the field of regulation the tributary and financial problems of the Northeast, translations for the series of vocabularies were important reasons to appoint Fuheng for the work on the album.
Keywords: Qing dynasty, Fuheng, Huang Qin zhi gong tu, album of tributaries, tributaries

Lapina I.A. (St. Petersburg). «Case» by Z. I. Lilina, or minutes of two sessions ...............187

Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Herzen state pedagogical university of Russia
198328, St. Petersburg, Leninsky Ave., 75, bldg. 2, sq. 652.

On the basis of previously unused archival materials, a dramatic episode from the life of Zlata Ionovna Lilina, the wife of the head of the Petrograd Soviet, one of the leaders of the internal party opposition, G. E. Zinoviev, who became the organizer of school education and social education in Petrograd – Leningrad in the first half of the 1920s, is reproduced. The author examines the situation that developed during the “purge” of the teaching staff at the Herzen pedagogical Institute, where Z. I. Lilina worked, in connection with the speech of the Leningrad opposition at the XIV Congress of the All-Russian Communist party of the Bolsheviks and the subsequent transition to the decisive stage of the “cultural revolution”. The considered examples allow us to reproduce the atmosphere of intense struggle for higher pedagogical school that took place in the second half of the 1920s.
Keywords: Z. I. Lilina, B. A. Fingert, G. I. Levin, “new opposition”, cultural revolution, scientific and methodological Council of Lengubono, pedagogical education, proletarian students.