Klio #12 (180) 2021


Stepanova L.G. (Krasnodar). Variants and drafts of Economic Notes on Novorossiya

candidate of historical Sciences,
 associate Professor of the Department of Russian History, Kuban State University
149, Stavropol str., Krasnodar, Russian Federation, Russian Federation, 350040
E-mail: liliya_stepanova@list.ru

Abstract. The article analyzes various options and drafts of Economic Notes on Novorossiya. The relevance of the study is due to the growing interest in the territory of New Russia, annexed to the Russian Empire after the Russian-Turkish wars in the 18th century, and the involvement of Economic Notes to the General Survey for its study. Previously, Economic Notes were not used to study the history of the area. The variants and drafts of Economic Notes found in the Russian federal archives for various counties of Novorossiysk, Yekaterinoslavskaya, Kherson and Taurida provinces in their structure and information contained refer to the types of Economic Notes compiled at different times, and reflect the very process of land surveying and economic development of land in this region … It turns out that the identification of Economic Notes and their drafts is difficult due to the often changing administrative structure of the region and different headings. In the source analysis of these sources, it is necessary to pay attention to the structure of the document and the form of the notes themselves. Expanded information for the study of the history of Novorossiya is provided by the “Pavlovsk” Economic Notes, compiled at the turn of the 18th – 19th centuries. in the form of the Complete and Cameral Economic Notes. The drafts of the Economic Notes need a more thorough study, which must be compared with the surviving white copies or with the primary land surveying materials preserved in the field notes fund.
Keywords: General Land Surveying, “Pavlovsk” Economic Notes, Cameral Economic notes, Full Economic notes, Novorossiya

Molchanova V.V. (Astrakhan). Role of the media in forming a positive image of domestic tourism

graduate student
Astrakhan State University,
414056, Russia, Astrakhan, st. Tatishcheva 20a
e-mail: violetta-molchanova@rambler.ru 

Abstract. The article examines the role of the media (hereinafter referred to as the media) in the aspect of acquaintance of the population with the goods and services of the tourism industry among and the formation of their positive image. People willingly use what they know well. This range extends from word of mouth to advertising in state-owned media. If a product is unknown to the general public, it will not be in demand, even if the quality is high. Therefore, tools are required to bring information to the public – potential customers. At the state level, this role is successfully played by the media. The subject of this research is the role of the media and their impact on the Russian tourist market. The object of the research is domestic tourism. The author examines in detail such aspects of the topic as the “mass media” itself, their features and functions in attracting potential consumers of the tourist product. Particular attention is paid to the division of the media into sectors, their characteristics and impact on the tourism industry in Russia. The scientific novelty of the research lies in the fact that the article examines the theoretical and practical aspects at the same time using specific examples. At first, various media sectors are characterized in a theoretical aspect, then they are considered in practice with examples. The article shows the evolution of domestic media, how paper media gave way to television, and those, in turn, were replaced by the resources of the Internet space. At the same time, the previous carriers did not disappear, but continue to peacefully coexist along with the new ones. The main conclusions of the study are that the media in every possible way contributed to the development of tourism and its popularization in our country. This article examines the role of the media in the formation of a positive image of domestic tourism and in its popularization among the population of the country.
Keywords: tourism, Russian tourism, tourism industry, popularization of the tourism industry, mass media, mass media in tourism

Dozmorov V.A. (Kerch, Republic of Crimea). To the question of the relevance of the Soviet experience. Review of the study: Chokan Laumulin. Science and Social Policy: Substantiation of Soviet Industrial Paradigms. Dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, May 2019. Cambridge University. Cambridge, 254 p.

Postgraduate student
 of the Department of Russian History of the V.I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University, 295007, Republic of Crimea, Simferopol,
ave. Academician Vernadsky, 4,
of Kerch Polytechnic College,
298306, Republic of Crimea, Kerch, Voykova str., 1.
E-mail: Dozmorov-Valeriy@yandex.ru

Abstract. The review analyzes the dissertation research of Chokan Laumulin, a British researcher of Kazakh origin «Science and Social Policy: justification of Soviet industrial paradigms», which was defended at the University of Cambridge in May 2019. The main research question that Chokan Laumulin answers in his research is how in a quarter of a century such a backward country as the Soviet Union was able to advance in its industrial development to about the level of the largest powers of that era? As a result, with the involvement of a wide range of sources (statistical data, interviews of public and political figures), the author comes to the conclusion that Soviet science and the education system were the driving force of industrial development and a key element in the preparation of human capital. In many ways, the Soviet experience of scientific and technological development is relevant at the present time. This research is certainly valuable both for historians and for a wide range of people interested in modern Russian history.
Keywords: science, education, development, human capital, Soviet Union

Soshnikova K.V. (St. Petersburg). Nine Worthies as a Chivalric ideal in the French Book Culture in the First Half of the 16th Century

Staff member of Manuscript Department of the National Library of Russia. National Library of Russia, Sadovaya ul., 18, 191023.
St. Petersburg, Russian Federation.
E-mail:  soshnikova_ks@mail.ru

Abstract. The article is devoted to the reception of medieval topic about nine heroes “nine worthies” or “Les neuf preux” in French language (Joshua, David, Judah Maccabee, Hector, Alexander the Great, Julius Caesar, King Arthur, Charlemagne, Godfrey of Bouillon) in the French book culture of the first half XVI century. Despite the legends and literature of the Middle Ages three worthy Jews, pagans and Christians personify an ideal of chivalry. Therefore, the theme of the nine valiants began to be used in literature, sculpture, decorative and applied arts and crafts. The nine princes occupied a special place in the culture of Renaissance France, because that topic played an important role in creating the image of the “ideal” ruler and representing the royal power. During the Italian Wars, in which Louis XII and Francis I participated in the first half of the XVI century, it was necessary to refer to various mythological topics and legends in order to explain the policy of the French monarchs, to maintain the inviolability of royal power and the king’s decisions. Therefore, Louis XII and Francis I were compared in literature with nine worthies or were considered one of the nine valiants. Thus, the reception of that medieval literary topic in France has not only cultural, but also political effect.
Keywords: Nine Worthies, Les Neuf Preux, Louis XII, Francis I, manuscript book, printed book, Italian wars

Samoylov N.A. (St. Petersburg). Lev Izmailov’s Mission to the Qing Empire (Specific Features of Russian-Chinese Relations at the Time of Peter the Great)

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor,
Head of the Department of Theory of Asian and African Social Development,
Saint Petersburg State University (Russia)
199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Universitetskaya emb., 7-9.
e-mail.: n.samoylov@spbu.ru

Abstract. The embassy with Lev Izmailov as its head sent by Peter the Great to the Qing empire, occupies an important place in the history of Russian-Chinese relations at the time of Peter the Great. However, so far historians have not paid due attention to this diplomatic mission.
The article examines the issue of difficulties stemming from the specific features of the traditional Chinese diplomatic etiquette the Russian envoy faced and how he had to overcome them. Since all countries and peoples in the world were presented to the emperor of Chin as “barbarians” and vassals, their envoys were always bound to perform ceremonies demonstrating submission to the Son of Heaven. The political culture of Qing China was based on the principles of the hierarchy in international relations, where China was unequivocally the geopolitical center of the world (“the Chinese world order”). Such views practically ruled out equality in relationships. Lev Izmailov had to take this into account and at the same time try to perform as few of such humiliating ceremonies as possible. A careful study of all the details of Izmailov mission’s visit to Beijing demonstrates what cultural and civilizational problems Russian diplomats faced in the Qing Empire, and how difficult it was to conduct diplomatic negotiations there.
Keywords: Lev Izmailov, Peter I, Kangxi, Russian-Chinese relations, Qing Dynasty, diplomatic etiquette

Shlyakhovskii A.I. (Moscow). Coproduction and Censorship: Foreign Policy Aspects of the Development of Yugoslav Cinematography in the 1950s.

postgraduate student of the Department of History of South and West Slavs
Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov
119192, Russia, Moscow, Lomonosovsky prospect, 27, bldg. 4

Abstract. The article is devoted to the consideration of the development trends of the Yugoslav national cinema in the 50s of the XX century. One of the most important features of this period is the use of cinema by socialist Yugoslavia as a means of international diplomacy. An example of this is the extensive cooperation of FPRY filmmakers with foreign film studios after the breakdown of Soviet-Yugoslav relations in 1948. A similar trend continued after the normalization of relations with the USSR, which was immediately reflected in the discussion of a number of film projects. Thus, Yugoslavian cinema has become a kind of hostage to the foreign policy steps of Belgrade.
The article is devoted to the consideration of a number of trends in the development of the Yugoslav national cinema in the 50s of the XX century. One of the most important features of this period is the use of cinema by socialist Yugoslavia as a means of international diplomacy. First of all, this was manifested in the expansion of imports to Yugoslavia of films produced by Western countries, as well as in the large-scale cooperation of FPRY filmmakers with foreign film studios after the breakdown of Soviet-Yugoslav relations in 1948. During the time of distancing itself from the rest of the socialist bloc, Yugoslavia actively worked on the creation of films together with countries of the NATO bloc, the storyline of which tried to highlight the positive role of Western allies in the Second World War. After the normalization of relations with the USSR, attempts were made to co-produce films, which, however, did not receive further development due to another cooling of relations. The foreign policy situation also played an important role in the censorship of films shot exclusively by Yugoslav filmmakers: an example of this is the repeated change in the plot, and then the discontinuation of the feature film “Reservoir” («Jezero»). Thus, Yugoslavian cinema has become a kind of hostage to the foreign policy steps of Belgrade.
Keywords: Yugoslavia, cinema, USSR, culture, state cultural policy

Gapizov Z.R. (Moscow). Evolution of approaches to solving environmental problems of the Caspian (1990-2010s)

Applicant of the Department of History of the Near Abroad Countries, Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russian Federation, Moscow), e-mail: 9605051@mail.ru
125167, Moscow, Krasnoarmeiskaya street, building 11/4.
SPIN-code 3714-0925

Abstract. The article is devoted to a retrospective analysis of the approaches of the Caspian states to solving the environmental problems of the Caspian Sea. The purpose of the article is to identify trends in the development of country approaches during the 30 years of existence in the region of a fundamentally new subsystem of international relations, caused by the emergence of new independent states – Russia, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan. The goal is achieved through a retrospective analysis of the approaches of the Caspian states to solving the environmental problems of the Caspian, identifying the general and specific in the approaches, the specifics of multilateral formats of interaction. The study used such methods of historical research as retrospective analysis, comparative analysis, document analysis. Based on the results of the study, the author comes to the conclusion that the evolution of country approaches to solving environmental problems of the Caspian Sea can be represented in three stages (1990s, 2000s and 2010s), which have their own characteristics, largely corresponding to the specifics of the corresponding periods of political transit and socio-economic development of the Caspian states, the problem of integration into the world financial and economic system and the system of international relations. It is stated that the qualitative changes in the approaches of the Caspian countries to solving the environmental problems of the Caspian indicate the existence of significant experience of interstate bilateral and multilateral interaction in this area. This experience can be used to develop a common mutually beneficial approach in the context of a global green transition.
Keywords: Caspian Sea, Caspian countries, ecology, approaches, environmental protection, national interests, “green transition”

Martyukova E.A. (Moscow). The activity of the Greek-Soviet society in 1946-1948: unknown pages

Postgraduate of the History Faculty of
Moscow State University
Department of Russian History of the XX-XXI centuries, 125167, Moscow, Krasnoarmeiskaya street, building 11/4.
E-mail: eamartyukova@yandex.ru

Annotation. The article examines the activities of the Greek-Soviet society in 1946-1948 and the influence on his work of the ideological struggle and the beginning of the bipolar confrontation between the two economic and socio-political systems. The focus is on the ongoing efforts to deepen relations with the USSR. The focus is on the problem of cooperation in the field of culture, the question of the impact of the internal unstable situation in Greece, the civil war, on the process of establishing intercultural ties with the USSR is analyzed. The importance of the problem of conflict in the political sphere, ideological differences between the USSR and Greece, restraining cultural ties and intergovernmental contacts is shown.
Keywords: USSR, Greece, Greek-Soviet society, cultural ties, ideology, propaganda, civil war

Kalashnikova E.B., Tagirova N.F. (Samara). International energy projects of the 1950s-1960s: from the experience of designing and building the Danube hydroelectric complex

Smirnova Yu.V., Rutkovskaya A.M. (Moscow). Falsification of the events of World War II in modern historiography and academic literature

PhD in history, docent, Department of national history, Moscow City University
Russian Federation, Moscow, Dubninskaya str., 2
e-mail: smirnovauliavalerevna@gmail.com 

Graduate student, Department of national history, Moscow City University
Russian Federation, Moscow, 129226, 2nd Agricultural Passage, 4
e-mail: rutkovskaya@mail.ru

Abstract. Under the conditions of the continuing attempts to falsify the history of World War II and the Great Patriotic War to distort the truthful facts about the role of the USSR in the fight with the Third Reich and belittle its contribution to the victory over fascism, the scientific study of historical negationism acquires special importance. From the very beginning of the period of Gorbachev’s reformation, persistent attempts have been made to break the historical and moral mentality of perception of the Great Patriotic War by introducing a significant number of various myths about the nature of the war, the scale of losses, key moments of military operations, the price of victory and other facts. This study aims to demonstrate the vectors of falsification of the events of World War II in modern educational materials. For this, it uses a historiographic analysis of modern scientific sources related to the falsification of the history of World War II and the Great Patriotic War. The information base for the study is represented by publications dated from 2016 to 2021. The central idea of this article lies in the necessity to involve leading domestic scientists to work out a consensus and recreate a new version of the historical process of development of Russia that dominates in the framework of already existing scientific and methodological directions. This should become the basis for constructing a unified authorial line of history textbooks for teaching in educational institutions. In parallel, this paper holds the view that the variable principle of preparing history books should not be abandoned. The crucial point here is that the vision of the national historical process should be not only scientifically substantiated and objective but also allow getting away from the template thinking on the one hand and avoiding dogmatism of the presentation of events and facts on the other. It is important to recognize that the development of new textbooks is to be done under the background of the multifaceted cooperation of teams of authors instead of their competition.
Keywords: history, war, truth, distortion of facts, education

Baranov D.A., Shorokhov V.A. (St. Petersburg). Holy places of Nakhichevan: on the question of the local nature of the ethnographic field

Ph.D. in History
Head of the Department of Ethnography of the Russian People
Russian Ethnographic Museum
191186, St. Petersburg, st. Engineering, 4/1
E-mail: dmitry.baranov@list.ru

Ph.D. in History
Associate Professor of the Department
 of Historical Regional Studies
Institute of History, St. Petersburg State University
199034, St. Petersburg, Mendeleevskaya line 5, room 79.
E-mail: v.shorohov@spbu.ru

Abstract. The article examines the methodological problems of field studies in modern conditions. Using the example of studying the revered places of the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic and the narratives about them, the specificity of the ethnographic field is analyzed. It is primarily due to the complex, dynamic, full of internal tension history of the region, the result of which was what happened in the last quarter of the twentieth century – a sharp shift in the ethno-confessional structure of the population. The internal heterogeneity of the ethnographic field, consisting in the combination of “locality” (in the geographical sense) with “deterritoriality”, when field research is possible outside the region, presupposes a combination of different methods of collecting and analyzing materials. Being unified and geographically not very big, the ethnographic “space” of Nakhichevan is in fact an ensemble of interconnected local contexts and it has alternative places that are inextricably linked with the region and influence the logic of everyday life both inside and outside of it. The work summarizes the results of interviewing the Nakhichevan Azerbaijanis of St. Petersburg and outlines the general framework of the “memory map”, which bears the stamp of the process of ethnocultural and religious homogenization of Nakhichevan, as well as the complex relationship of Azerbaijani historical discourse with alternative national narratives.
Keywords: Nakhichevan, ethnography, local nature, ethnographic field, holy places

Iskhakov R.R. (Kazan). «From Tatars and Chuvashes to Kryashens». Transformation of the ethnocultural identity of the ancestors of the Molkei Kryashens (second half of the 18th – early 20th centuries)

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Head of
the Center for the Study of History and Culture of Tatars-Kryashens and
Nagaybaks, Marjani Institute of History of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences,
420111, Russian Federation Kazan, Baturina 7A,
E-mail: ishakovist@gmail.com

Abstract. In the west of the modern Kaibitsky region of the Republic of Tatarstan (RT), in the Tatar-Chuvash borderland, there is a bush of villages in which baptized Tatars live, having a distinctive traditional culture and identity that allows them to be distinguished into a special ethno-territorial group consisting of the Kryashens (baptized Tatars). The formation of this community is an example of the construction of identity and its transformation under the influence of external social factors associated with the implementation of the course on the confessional unification of the “heterodox” population of the Middle Volga region in the 18th – 19th centuries. and intensive ethnocultural interaction of two neighboring Turkic peoples of the Volga-Ural region – Tatars and Chuvashes. The article analyzes the processes of the formation and genesis of the ethnocultural identity of the ancestors of the Molkei Kryashens, evaluates the role of the confessional factor in their self-identification. The author comes to the conclusion about a complex multicomponent ethnic composition of the ancestors of the Molkei Kryashens, which had a noticeable impact on their self-identification at different stages of history. If from the second half of the XVIII century. and up to the 1870s. among the representatives of this group, the Chuvash and Tatar self-consciousness prevailed, then with the intensification of the process of Christianization in the 1880s – 1910s. the Kryashen identity was formed.
Keywords: interfaith relations, Molkeevsky Kryashens, Middle Volga region, Christianization, Chuvash

Kapyatets D.P. (Nizhny Novgorod). Development of the Movement of Rationalizers and Inventors at Defense Enterprises of the Soviet Union in the First Period of the Great Patriotic War (On the materials of the tank factories of the Gorki region)

Applicant for the scientific degree of candidate of Historical Sciences, Department of Russian History and Politics, Institute of International Relations and World History, N.I. Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod
603005, Nizhny Novgorod, Ulyanov St., 2
E-mail: kapyatets@yandex.ru 

Abstract. The article is devoted to one of the pages of the home and regional history of the Gorki region, the movement of innovators and inventors during the Great Patriotic War. On the eve of the war the rationalization movement at defense enterprises of the region was in an unenviable position. The Council of People’s Commissars of the USSR decree about inventors was violated; the errors of rewarding the innovators were made. The war had forced the rationalization movement to consider itself an important factor in overcoming the lack of resources, material, and labor power. The Party organizations, propaganda, and agitation means, especially the factory press, were mobilized to popularize and stimulate the movement. In the conditions of the fuel crisis in 1942, the attention to rationalization was even more intensified. However, the administration of the enterprises failed to change the attitude of the rationalizers and inventors’ movement. On the one hand, at such large plants as “GAZ”, “Krasnoe Sormovo” there were strong groups of innovators and inventors. On the other hand, their potential was not used to the fullest extent. The main obstacle to the realization of the possibilities of the advanced industrialists was the inert attitude of the administration to their work. Thus, the successful development of the rationalization movement during the Great Patriotic War was impossible without the support of party-state leadership.
Keywords: movement, plant, invention, team, proposal, rationalization

Pozdnyakova V.I. (Vladivostok). Patriotic education of employees of internal affairs bodies (on the example of the Vladivostok branch of the Far Eastern Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia)

Senior lecturer
Department of Humanitarian Disciplines
Vladivostok branch of Far Eastern
Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal
Affairs of the Russian Federation
690087, Russian Federation, Vladivostok, Kotelnikova st., 21,
E-mail: anitnelav1711@mail.ru

Abstract. The article defines the essence of patriotic education of employees of internal affairs bodies, characterizes the components of patriotic education, reveals the structure and content of this process. Attention is drawn to the fact that patriotic education of cadets and students in the universities of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia is an important part of the system of professional education of employees of internal affairs bodies. The features of patriotic education of employees are considered on the example of the Vladivostok branch of the Far Eastern Law Institute. The features of patriotic education of employees are considered on the example of the Vladivostok branch of the Far Eastern Law Institute. The main directions and forms of educational work are highlighted: organization of social work with family members of employees who died in the line of duty; interaction of bodies and divisions of the Ministry of Internal Affairs with veterans, etc. It is concluded that the most effective way of forming patriotic feelings is the broad involvement of cadets and employees themselves in this direction with their direct participation in the preparation of various events.
Keywords: patriotic education, police officer, law enforcement agencies, Vladivostok branch of the Far Eastern Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia

Kulbidiuk R.V. (Moscow). Key factors affecting the functioning of industry in the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic

Applicant for the Department of History of the Near Abroad Countries,
Faculty of History, Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov,
125047, Moscow, 2nd Brestskaya street, building 30, office 1,
E-mail: kulbidiuk@mail.ru 

Annotation. The article is devoted to the characterization and classification of key factors influencing the functioning of the industrial complex of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (Pridnestrovie) in conditions of international unrecognition and situational restrictions on the part of neighboring states – the Republic of Moldova and Ukraine. The article presents the results of the analysis of the process of development of the industrial complex, taking into account the unifying characteristics, the key factors that have a significant impact on the industry of Transnistria are identified, and a classification is presented that makes it possible to study the industrial complex of the unrecognized states as a basis and basis for sustainable development and existence, confirming the right to the life of territories that have become sovereign in the course of an internal conflict, divided into parts or, due to external interference, have joined other territories. The author came to the conclusion that today, it is industry that is the basis for the stability of both the economic system and the statehood of Transnistria as a whole. Despite the global trend towards a reduction in the share of industry in GDP and the total number of people employed in it, industry in Transnistria, with active state participation, is developing steadily and is the main source of replenishment of the republic’s gold and foreign exchange resources, providing the bulk of Transnistria’s exports. It acts as the main structural element of the economic system of Transnistria, forming up to 2/3 of the GDP share and from ¾ to 90% of the added value of material production, as well as the main source of investment attractiveness for external mentors. It is foreign investment in the industrial sector that can become the main driver of large-scale political shifts that the republic needs.
Keywords: Transnistria, unrecognized states, industrial complex, influencing factors, investments

Demakov I.S. (Moscow Region). «Essay on the Actions of the Academic Chancellery» by Michael Lomonosov as a historical source

deputy director
MGIMO Lyceum,
3 Novosportivnaia st., Moscow Region 143007 Russia
e-mail: i.demakov@odin.mgimo.ru

Administration of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences in the XVIII century was only formed, leading role belonged to the Chancellery of the Academy. The structure and ideology of its administrative activity were determined by the cooperation between Johan Schumacher and Michael Lomonosov. Their interaction was however mostly confrontational. One of the last major Lominosovs works became a critical essay on the history of the administrative management of the Academy. This paper is devoted to the characteristics of this essay as a historical source. The history of the existence of the manuscript, authorship and dating issues. The subject of a special study was also the question about the social influence of the Lomonosovs work, considered on the basis of textual analysis of the Charter of the Academy (1803).
Keywords: M.V. Lomonosov, St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences, XVIII century, institutionalization, Enlightenment, Statute of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences

Kashchenko S.G. (St. Petersburg). The Ligovsky estate of the Kushelevs in the middle of the XIX century

Doctor of Historical Sciences, professor, head of the chair of source
studies of Russian history.
Saint-Petersburg State University,
7/9 Universitetskaya embankment,
Saint-Petersburg, 199034.
E-mail: s.kaschenko@spbu.ru

Abstract. The article is devoted to the analysis of the economic consequences of the reform on February 19, 1861 in the Ligovsky estate, one of the largest estates of the Petersburg district, owned by the Kushelevs. In the mid-1850s, Ligovo was known for the organization of its exemplary “rational” economy, which was provided with significant financial investments and the invitation of a foreign manager. After the death of the owner, the estate lost its former glory, and the liberation of the peasants that began soon significantly changed the economic situation in Ligovo. A comparison of the most important indicators characterizing the state of peasant farms (pre-reform and post-reform structures of peasant allotments and payments) shows that after the reform, the situation of former serfs in this estate was significantly better than that of peasants of many other sub-table estates. Despite this, there have been conflicts between owners and peasants dissatisfied with their situation in Ligovo for several years. Due to the fact that researchers have a number of archival and published materials related to this estate, it becomes possible to compare the indicators contained in them. This allows us to conclude that there are significant inaccuracies in the “Materials of the Editorial Commissions” collected on the eve of the reform of 1861.
Keywords: reform of 1861, St. Petersburg district, Kushelevs’ estate Ligovo, charters, official statistics

Ryabova L.K. (St. Petersburg). The era of “late socialism”: assessments forty years later

St. Petersburg State University, Institute of History, Associate Professor, Ph.D.
Russia, 199034, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya nab., 7-9

Abstract. The article examines the views on the era of “late socialism” in Western historiography of the 2000s, shows the criticism of the “paradigm of stagnation”, which served as a methodological basis in the previous scientific literature. While not rejecting the presence of stagnant phenomena and trends in the late Soviet system, Western researchers nevertheless believe that the Brezhnev era was a much more complex, multi-layered and contradictory phenomenon. It differed from other periods of Soviet history in its relative stability, prosperity, absence of violence, dynamic and diverse life of society, far from Western stereotypical ideas. The article also drew attention to various explanations of “nostalgia” and “positive myth” in modern Russian society. Stating various assessments of the 1970s-1980s, historians note that in recent years, periodization and analytical tools for studying Soviet society of the 1970s-1980s are just beginning to be developed. In the academic sphere and in scientific journalism both in Russia and abroad, the ideological basis of research methodology is still preserved, differences in the interpretation of key concepts filled with different meanings are noticeable, and the analysis of the essential phenomena of “late socialism” is undertaken, as a rule, in statics, without revealing genetic links with the past. Undoubtedly, the assessment of an entire era requires a world-systems approach rather than studying it within the framework of the methodology of micro- or local history, which is characteristic of modern historiography of “late socialism”.
Keywords: Brezhnev era, Western historiography, dissident narratives, stagnation paradigm, late socialism, methodology

Ivitskaya A.N. (St. Petersburg). Military temples of Russia: prospects of study

Junior researcher, Military-Historical Museum of Artillery,
Engineer and Signal Corps.
graduate student, Institute of history,
St. Petersburg state University,
Department of source studies of Russian history.
Russia, St. Petersburg, Alexander Park d. 7;
E-mail: anna.ivitskaya@mail.ru

Abstract. Recently, much has been said about the revival of spiritual traditions, the construction of military temples. Military temples have always been the center of the social life of the regiment, which gradually turned into a memorial complex. Today there is a new wave of interest in reviving the traditions of the construction and restoration of military churches, the activities of the military clergy. The Russian Orthodox Church has a significant influence on the modern armed forces of the Russian Federation, this concerns both the formation of a worldview and social attitudes. The number of religious servicemen in the armed forces is growing. The process of reviving religious traditions implies the need to study past experience. The prospects of studying the history of military temples in Russia today seems very relevant. This is due both to the traditional study of the history of the architecture of cities, and to the growing interest in studying the role of the Orthodox Church in the moral education of soldiers and sailors. For the most complete study of the military temples of Russia, a complex of visual and material sources is needed, combined with data from written sources. Thus, modern researchers of military temples face the following tasks: identifying a complex of historical sources reflecting the processes of construction and functioning of military temples in Russia; systematization of identified sources; comparison of sources of different types related to specific military temples; determining prospects for further research of the topic. Modern military temple construction is possible only with the development and consideration of past experience.
Keywords: Military temples, Russian army, military clergy, historical sources, standard construction, religious traditions

Pavlova O.K. (St. Petersburg). Review of the monograph by S.N. Pogodin “Nikita Yakovlevich Bichurin (Archimandrite Iakinf)” (St. Petersburg: POLITECH-PRESS, 2021.410 pp. ISBN 978-5-7422-7232-8 [1])

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor,
Higher School of International Relations,
Institute of Humanities,
Saint Petersburg Polytechnic University after Peter the Great
195251, Saint Petersburg, Polytechnic,29
E-mail: pavlovaok55@mail.ru

Abstract: The review considers the monograph of S.N. Pogodin, Doctor of Historical Sciences, and Professor dedicated to the study of the life and work of an orientalist, sinologist, founder of Russian Sinology, Archimandrite Nikita Yakovlevich Bichurin. S.N. Pogodin analyzes the various stages of the scientist’s life on the basis of extensive scientific material and the personal works of N.Ya. Bichurin, and uses the memories of people who knew and collaborated with the scientist. The monograph contains an extensive historiography dedicated to N.Ya. Bichurin, his scientific research at different periods of his life is discussed and analyzed. The monograph highlights the significant contribution of N.Ya. Bichurin as a talented translator of historical, geographical, ethnographic works. The author of the monograph emphasizes the scientific contribution of N.Ya. Bichurin that goes far beyond the scope of Sinology, the scientist’s scientific interests extended to Tibet, Mongolia, Manchuria, and Central Asia.
Keywords: History of Russia, biography, N. Ya. Bichurin, church, science, sinology, oriental studies, source studies