Klio #12 (192) 2022

Skurlov V.V. (St. Petersburg). Franz Bierbaum. Life in Russia. Notes of one repatriated

doctor of art history, expert of the Ministry of culture of the Russian Federation, scientific Secretary of the Memorial Fund Faberge (Saint Petersburg).
199406 Russia, Saint – Petersburg, Nalichnaya street, 37-3-47
e-mail: valentinskurlov@mail.ru

Abstract. The outstanding domestic jeweler Franz Petrovich Birbaum (September 6, 1872-September 10, 1920) for 35 years was an indispensable and closest assistant to the brilliant Russian master and organizer of jewelry art in Russia, Carl Faberge. Having emigrated from Russia to Switzerland after the revolution of 1917, shortly before his death, he made a number of publications in the Lausanne newspaper Feuille d’Avis Lausanne (“Lausanne’s Opinion Sheet”), which until now were not known to researchers. These publications are unique materials, since they allow one to judge the worldview of F.P. Birbaum and largely illustrate his attitude to the revolutionary events that took place in post-imperial Russia. The materials of the Lausanne publications were carried out by the art historian V.V. Skurlov. The texts were presented by the researcher Z. Soroko (St. Petersburg), translated by K. Rusti (France).
Keywords: C. Faberge, F.P. Birbaum, jewelry art, St. Petersburg

Eroshkina O.N. (St. Petersburg). The problem of anti-Semitism in pedagogical universities of Moscow and Leningrad during the transition to forced socialist construction in the USSR (on the materials of large-circulation university newspapers)

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department
of International Humanitarian Relations at the
Faculty of International Relations, Saint-Petersburg State University.
199034, Russia, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya nab., 7-9.
E-mail: o.eroshkina@mail.ru

Abstract. The article analyzes the problem of anti-Semitism in the pedagogical universities of Moscow and Leningrad in the second half of the 1920s based on the materials of large-circulation university newspapers. The study of newspaper publications allows us to conclude that in the context of the decline of the world revolutionary movement and the transition of the USSR to independent socialist construction, attention to intra-union interethnic relations, manifestations of nationalism, including anti-Semitism, increased. However, the course of the Soviet leadership towards an accelerated pace of socialist reconstruction led to the approval of a simplified approach to establishing the causes of anti-Semitism and ways to eradicate it.
Keywords: anti-Semitism, pedagogical universities, 1920s, large-circulation newspapers

Dozmorov V.A. (Simferopol). The History of Russian vocational and technical education in the Soviet period in the mirror of dissertation research in 1991 – 2000

Postgraduate student of the Department of Russian History of
the V.I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University, 295007, Russia,
Simferopol, ave. Academician Vernadsky, 4.
e-mail: Dozmorov-Valeriy@yandex.ru

Abstract. This article is devoted to the history of Russian vocational and technical education in the Soviet period. This topic is of great importance in the modern scientific environment. The object of the analysis is dissertation research on various scientific specialties devoted to the problem of studying national vocational and technical education in the Soviet period. The dissertation research under consideration was conducted by various scientists from Russia and CIS countries in the period from 1991 to 2000. The purpose of the author of the article is to analyze the dissertation research of the 1990s on the history of national vocational and technical education in the Soviet period, to identify the main trends in the study of this area. The article uses such research methods as: comparative-historical, retrospective, concrete-logical analysis, actualization. Vocational and technical education continues to be a fundamental element of national culture in our country today. That is why many problems can be comprehended through the prism of its study. In addition, it is possible to update the existing system of training specialists. Despite the fact that the historiography of the history of Russian vocational and technical education in the Soviet period is quite diverse, but at the same time there is a need to summarize all the positive experience accumulated by modern scientists in the study of this topic. As a result, the author identified the features of studying the history of national vocational and technical education in the Soviet period in dissertation research of the 1990s. The analytical materials presented in the article can be useful in scientific and methodological work.
Keywords: history of vocational and technical education, dissertation research, historiography as a science, research methods, the Soviet Union

Sekacheva D.S. (Moscow). The origins of Palenque’s dynasty: a new look

Knorozov Center for Mesoamerican Studies,
Russian State University for the Humanities.
Junior researcher.
Russia, Moscow, Miusskaya sq., 6, 125993
e-mail: daria.baida@gmail.com

Abstract. The study of the dynastic history of Palenque began a long time ago, but it still remains many questions, especially in the part that relates to the period of the formation of the dynasty. The main questions concerning this period is the one on the relationship between Toktahn and Bakal. The name Toktahn occurs in texts both as part of the emblem glyph and as a toponym. The first rulers of the dynasty bore the title of kings of Toktahn and performed rituals in this location. The later historical tradition associates the appearance of a new emblem glyph with the transfer of the capital to Lakamha’ (Palenque) in 490. The former rulers of Toktahn did not retain their original title and did not create a new one, based on the name Lakama’, but adopted the third version of the title – “the holy lord of Bakal”, which became the main one until the end of the 8th century. The other remarkable question of the dynastic history of Palenque is simultaneous use of the Bakal emblem glyph with El Tortuguero. A new look on the epigraphic and archaeological material may help to reconsider circumstances of the emerging of Palenque’s dynasty.
Keywords: ancient Maya, epigraphy, Mesoamerica, Pre-Columbian America, dynastic history, historical memory

Schmidt W. (Regensburg, Germany). German national minorities in Interwar Poland: facts and events

Magister of History,
University of Regensburg,
Humboldt street 48 a, 93053 Regensburg, Germany,
E-mail: wolodjaschmidt@gmx.de

Abstract. The article deals with the development of German national minorities in Poland during the interwar period. The author of the article tried to consider the main aspects of the national policy of the Polish state, primarily related to the policy of “polonization” in relation to peoples not belonging to the titular nation, using available material. The issues of relations between Germany and German national minorities in Poland are also considered. The issue of national minorities in Poland during the interwar period was basically an unresolved internal political problem. Being an important internal issue in the development of Poland in the interwar period, the issue of national minorities played a particularly important role for the first time in the development of the Polish State. However, some political parties paid little attention to this problem. For them, the main problem was the construction of the Polish state and the issues of its political and economic stabilization. Basically, many researchers consider Polish national policy in the interwar period from a negative point of view. The Polish national policy towards national minorities was largely repressive in nature and was aimed at fighting against individual national groups in the Polish State. The Polish national policy against German national minorities proceeded from the current state of German-Polish relations and was dependent on them. The author of the article also tried to reveal the different positions of political parties in solving the national question in interwar Poland. It shows the activities of local administrative bodies of Poland in relation to German national minorities, as well as the position of the Polish government regarding the solution of the national question in interwar Poland.
Keywords: Versailles Peace, national minorities, Germans in interwar Poland, polonization policy, political parties

Bakhmatova M.N., Neretin A.I. (Moscow). The problem of collective trauma of Italians in the context of historical memory of the fascist period

Marina Nikolaevna Bakhmatova
Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor
of the Department of Ethnology
of Lomonosov Moscow State University.
119192, Russian Federation, Moscow, Lomonosovsky Prospekt  27, building 4
E-mail: mbakhmatova@gmail.com

Anton Ilyich Neretin
is a graduate student of ethnology
at Lomonosov Moscow State University.
119192, Russian Federation, Moscow, Lomonosovsky Prospekt  27, building 4
E-mail: a_neretin@inbox.ru

Abstract. The article deals with the problem of collective trauma of the Italian people of the post-war period. The definition of collective memory as such is given, its characteristics are described on the basis of literature. The article also talks about the “lost generation”, which in Italy became one of the catalysts for the emergence and coming to power of the fascist Benito Mussolini. After he came to power, he began to pursue a policy aimed at changing the character of Italians, making them warriors who should not be afraid to give their lives for the good of the motherland. The paper also examines the measures taken by the fascist government to transform and change the Italian people, instilling in them the values of fascism. The reasons for the origin of collective trauma among Italians after the overthrow of the fascist dictatorship and the execution of Benito Mussolini in Northern Italy in April 1945 are outlined. The general characteristic of the events that took place in Italy in the period from 1922 to 1945 is given and on their basis the reason for the emergence of the traumatized collective memory of Italians is substantiated.
Keywords: collective memory, collective trauma, fascism, historical memory, totalitarianism

Druzhinin N.L., Philippov A.V. (St. Petersburg). On the history of the development of state-monopoly capitalism and Japan’s foreign trade after the Second World War (1945-1955)

Doctor of Economics,
Professor of the Department of International Finance and Accounting,
Institute of International Programs,
St. Petersburg University of Management Technologies and Economics,
190103, Russia, St. Petersburg, Lermontovsky pr. 44.
e-mail: Osaka7@mail.ru

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Professor,
Head of Department of Japanology,
Faculty of Asian and African Studies,
Saint Petersburg State University,
199034, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya nab., 7/9.
e-mail: PhilAlex2005@mail.ru

Abstract. The article is devoted to the history of Japan’s entry into international markets in the early post-war years, as well as the factors of transformation of its foreign trade strategy under the influence of international factors.  Pressure on Japan from the US and the consequences of the forced break in trade relations with China are considered as the most important external prerequisites for Japan’s entry into world markets.  Particular attention is paid to the analysis of the role of Japanese government policy in export promotion.  The paper also examines the key components of the success of Japan’s foreign trade in the post-war period under severe restrictions from the United States.  The process of restructuring Japan’s foreign trade strategy stands out as the most important aspect.  The essence of this process was the reorientation of trade flows from Chinese to American and European directions.  Entering the US and Western European markets was extremely difficult for Japan.  The development of textile production and its export to the leading Western countries was the first, most difficult and at the same time important step towards the success of Japanese foreign trade expansion.  The statistical materials presented in the article demonstrate the dynamics of this evolution.  It became not only a factor that made it possible to overcome the current post-war problems and dependencies, but also the key to the formation of a sustainable trend for Japan to gain a leading position in the world system of economic relations.  The experience of the Japanese economic miracle and the analysis of its components, in particular, overcoming the break in economic ties and creating new ones, is of undoubted interest for modern Russia as well.
Keywords: Japan, USA, occupation policy, SCAP, exports, trade with China, government policy, economic reforms, reverse course, Japanese economic miracle

Berkutov A.S. (Moscow). Public safety: the history of the origin of the term

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Senior Researcher,
Research Center Fundamental Military-Historical Problems
Military University of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation
123001, Russia, Moscow, B. Sadovaya str., 14
Tel: 8-985-204-71-27. E-mail: berkutov-andrey@mail.ru

Abstract. This article analyzes the origin, development and application of the term «public safety» in regulations and other documents of domestic bodies and law enforcement forces of the Russian state. Currently, this term is actively used in regulatory legal documents, but there is no generally accepted content, which leads to a confusion of concepts of various types of security. The author examines the use of the term «public safety» in the pre-revolutionary and Soviet period. The emphasis is placed on the active use of the term during periods of liberalization of the political regime in Russia. The connection of the term content with the peculiarities of the historical period is revealed. His broad and narrow understanding stands out. The conclusion is made about the need for a broad interpretation of the term. The article also provides the main sources studied by the author during the research work, namely archival materials, collections of regulatory documents, publications in the media, etc.
Keywords: crime fighting, police, public safety, public safety, public order protection, political regime, peace and quiet

Nesterova A.A. (Moscow). Reforms carried out by the Moscow City Duma in the field of public order in the 1860s

postgraduate student of the Department of State and Municipal Administration of Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov
119992, Moscow, Lomonosovsky prospect, 27, building 4
E-mail: anastaciazueva@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article is devoted to the actual problem of reforming the Moscow law enforcement system. It is difficult to underestimate the importance of stability and order in the life of every resident of the city. We can say that this component determines his image and contributes to the development of other areas of his life. One of the successful examples is the activity of the Moscow City Duma in 1863-69. in this direction. Special attention is paid to this Duma, since it was the first elected Duma in Moscow, which predetermined a completely new approach to the modernization of urban life. Its leader, as well as the first elected mayor of Moscow, Alexander Alekseevich Shcherbatov, made every effort to improve life in the city. He was able to clearly identify problems, see opportunities to solve them, and, most importantly, innovate in the functioning of the city system. The article reveals the main problems with the protection of public order in Moscow in the middle of the 19th century, and also introduces step by step the reforms that made it possible to solve these problems. In addition, on the basis of excerpts from newspapers, it is possible to trace the effectiveness of the ongoing reforms.
Keywords: history of Russia, A.A. Shcherbatov, Moscow City Duma, history of local self-government, protection of public order

Brazhnikov I.N. (Moscow). Methodology for selecting criteria for the functioning of the Parliament (Based on the experience of the State Duma of Imperial Russia)

Moscow City Pedagogical University (MSPU),
129226, Moscow, 2nd Agricultural Proezd, 4
e-mail: ivanbbb@mail.ru

Abstract. Based on the studied material of the activities of the State Duma of the Russian Empire and modern legislative bodies of Russia and other countries, the author presents his own version of the methodology for evaluating the actions of the parliament, taking into account internal and external factors. It turns out that the key aspect of improving the effectiveness of public services in many countries is the creation of an objective and comprehensive system of indicators that reflect the fulfillment of the duties indicated by regulatory legal acts, as well as the degree of achievement of the set goals. These goals make it possible to focus the attention of civil servants on the main priorities of the authorities. International practice shows that indicative planning is a process of forming a system of parameters (indicators), the achievement of which determines the measure of state influence on social and economic processes in the country. Within the framework of the problem under study, criteria for the effectiveness of the work of legislative authorities are presented, tools of mathematical modeling and probabilistic analysis are considered. The peculiarity of the proposed approach is the consistency, which makes it possible to comprehensively take into account internal and external threats, as well as factors that reduce or increase them.
Keywords: parliament, probabilistic analysis, action indicators, deputies, voters, complexity and efficiency criteria

Antonov E.P., Antonova V.N. (Yakutsk). Religious identity of the Russian Arctic old residents of Yakutia at the turn of the 19th – beginning of the 20th centuries

Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor,Leading Researcher
Department of History and Ethnosociology of Arctic
Institute for Humanities Research and Indigenous
Studies of the North, Siberian Branch of RAS.
677027, Russia, Yakutsk, ul.Petrovskogo, 1-408.
E-mail: Antegor@yandex.ru

Ph.D. in Pedagogical Sciences,
Associate Professor of the Department of Social Pedagogy,
Pedagogical Institute, North-Eastern Federal University in Yakutsk.
677000, Russia, Yakutsk, ul.Belinskogo, 58.

Abstract. The preservation of external Orthodox rites by Russian Arctic old-timers of Yakutia is noted: prayers, observance of baptisms, commemorations, weddings, etc., as well as the functioning of two chapels, a parochial school with a low level of academic performance and waging a struggle against shamanism. The departure from the evangelical way of life to the syncretic faith is determined. Data are given on two stages of infant baptism in the family and the priest; the practice of turning to shamans, the reconstruction of a new institution of deities headed by Sendukha and Elements, and the formation of apocrypha about the origin of the Earth, as a result of the struggle between good and evil. It was revealed that the desire to preserve ethnic identity led to incest, and premarital sex and suicide led to the degradation of spiritual life.
Keywords: Russian Arctic old-timers, religious identity, parochial school, chapels, paganism, shamanism, syncretism

Bezgina O.A. (Togliatty). “Trouble is not waiting, we need an ambulance and abundant help”: cooperative organizations of the Volga region in the fight against the famine of 1921-1922

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Professor of the Department of History and Philosophy, Humanities and Pedagogical Institute, Togliatti State University.
445020, Russia, Togliatty, Belorusskaya Street, 14
E-mail: a.geht@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article is devoted to the analysis of the role of cooperative organizations during the famine of 1921-1922. It talks about the steps of the state to revive the cooperatives and commercials that she was given in the new economic policy, about helping the starving, despite the Russian cooperatives abroad. the main directions of activity of cooperative organizations for the procurement and distribution of food for the starving population take place. The characteristics of the conditions, as well as the characteristics of this work are given. The author of the article comes to the conclusion that the use of large cooperatives as a mechanism for the production and distribution of food in the framework of the program to combat hunger has justified itself to the extent that it was possible. The brake on this work was not only the conditions of the destroyed economy, but also the accountability of cooperatives to party and Soviet organizations.
Keywords: famine of 1921-1922, cooperation, fight against hunger, activities of cooperative organizations, procurement and distribution of food

Piankevich V.L. (St. Petersburg). Salute on January 27, 1944 in Leningrad in diaries, letters, memoirs, paintings and drawings of eyewitnesses, photographs and newsreels

Doctor of historical sciences,
professor at the St. Petersburg State University
199034, Russian Federation,
St. Petersburg, Universitetskaia nab. 7–9,
E-mail: v.pyankevich@spbu.ru

Abstract. The article studies the issue of preservation and reproduction in the narrative and visual evidence of eyewitnesses of the fireworks in Leningrad on January 27, 1944. All Leningraders long and passionately waited for the complete liberation of Leningrad from the Siege. Even in January 1944, shortly before this event, the Germans continued to shell the city, and the Leningraders died. The unusual silence that reigned in the city was resolved by a salute, which became an expression of universal joy and triumph of jubilation. Narrative descriptions, pictorial art sources, as well as photographs and film shots, with varying degrees of reliability, reflect and together make it possible to recreate the image of the Leningrad celebration of 1944. The blockade survivors were shocked by the fireworks that illuminated the city plunged into darkness for years. Artistic images and photographs have preserved the general view of the saluting city, the Neva water area, the famous architectural symbols of Leningrad, the sky filled with the light of rockets. The reaction of the Leningraders, shocked by the fireworks, was very emotional. Strangers hugged, kissed, shouted, sang and danced. At the same time, on January 27, 1944, sadness reigned in Leningrad for those who did not live to see this holiday. The blockade survivors cried, which was not reflected in the paintings, graphic sheets and photographs. Documentary film footage, photographs, paintings, graphic sheets testify that it was mainly women and many children who listened to the victorious volleys and observed flashes of fireworks. The photographs do not confirm the narrative evidence of a large number of citizens who took to the streets, squares, bridges, and embankments of the Neva.
Keywords: Great Patriotic War, Siege of Leningrad, fireworks on January 27, 1944, eyewitnesses, painting, graphics, photography, documentaries.

Pochinkova A.A. (Moscow). The development of the system of «people’s control» during the leadership of N.S. Khrushchev

PhD Student, Department of the History
of Social Movements and Political Parties, Faculty of History
M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University
119192, Russian Federation, Moscow, Lomonosovsky Prospekt, 27, bldg. 4
mail: pochinkova1@yandex.ru

Abstract. Certain changes in the state of Soviet society, recorded in the post-Stalin decade, became the basis on which the idea of building communism and the concept of the «state of the whole people» had evolved. Further development of these provisions in the 1950s – 1960s was carried out by enlisting the workers in the administration of the state. Activation of mass participation in the prevention of the shortcomings of the Soviet system, combating them became the priority area of the party-state apparatus work. Based on a wide range of sources, the article examines the features of the development of the system of «people’s control» – its ideological and theoretical foundations and institutions – during the period of leadership of N.S. Khrushchev. The author dwells on the analysis of key mechanisms for involving Soviet citizens in the implementation of control and supervisory functions, including both special bodies accumulating and directing public potential (the Committee of Party and State Control), and particular institutions of public control (people’s guards, the Komsomol Searchlight committees, comrade judgement committees). The author gives an assessment of how N.S. Khrushchev managed to balance the processes of progress and rollback during the «thaw», as well as to implement urgent measures to democratize the Soviet political regime on the example of the measures he took to revive the social activity of Soviet citizens.
Keywords: «Khrushchev Thaw», the state of the whole people, people’s control, participation, the Committee of Party and State Control, the Komsomol Searchlight committee, people’s guards, comrade judgement committee

Syasnev V.A. (Astrakhan). State of the state youth policy in the Astrakhan region in 2000–2008

postgraduate student of the Department of Russian History
Astrakhan State University
20a Tatischev Street, Astrakhan 414056 Russia
phone: 8967-823-2619
e-mail: henleys2013@mail.ru

Abstract. The article reflects the main directions, goals, objectives of programs for the implementation of the state youth policy in the Astrakhan region in 2001–2008. Established in 1991, the Committee on Youth Affairs was transformed into the Committee on Family, Childhood and Youth Affairs, due to the need to organize a comprehensive and phased study of youth problems and further develop a network of youth social assistance services. The Committee was faced with the task of determining the main strategic directions of action that would make it possible to identify the most significant problems of youth and take preventive measures to prevent their globalization. The purpose of the youth policy in the territory of the Astrakhan region is to strengthen the status of young people, create the necessary conditions for their self-realization, provide resources for these conditions and create guarantees for their social security.
Keywords: state youth policy, youth, Committee for Family, Childhood and Youth Affairs, social work, social support

Ippolitov G.M. (Samara). Both white and black are all about him. To the 150th anniversary of the birth of Lieutenant General Anton Ivanovich Deniki

member of the editorial board of the magazine “Klio”, Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Professor of the Department of Philosophy of the Volga State University of Telecommunications and Informatics (Samara).
443010, Samara, st. L. Tolstoy, 23.
Email: gippoli-tov@rambler.ru

Abstract. Lieutenant-General Anton Ivanovich Denikin ((16.12. 1872 – 08.07.1947) went down in the history of the Russian State as a bright, dialectically contradictory, tragic figure. That figure, which today is not only the subject of increased scientific interest, but excites and the general public. And this is not accidental, because his earthly existence fell on a difficult period of history. Anton Ivanovich was destined to serve the Fatherland under the wings of a double-headed eagle in the Armed Forces of the Russian Empire. And he honestly fulfilled his military duty to protect the Fatherland as in peacetime, and wartime, rising to the rank of lieutenant general. In the history of the Great Russian Revolution and the fratricidal Civil War (1917–1920), Lieutenant General Anton Ivanovich Denikin entered as a commander and politician. He became one of the most authoritative leaders of the White movement. In exile, where the fighting Russian general ended up after the victory of the Soviet state in the fratricidal Civil War, he continued to be a patriot of Russia until 1917, while remaining an implacable enemy of Soviet power and Bolshevism. At the same time, A.I. Denikin made his contribution to the fight against German Nazism. This article is not a purely biographical sketch. It is a generalizing reflection on the personality and fate of the combat Russian general, whose historical personalities the author has been studying for thirty years. And this gives me the moral right to rely primarily on the materials of my works, while not forgetting about the critical rethinking of the historiographic developments of my predecessors. The article is dedicated to the 150th anniversary of the birth of Anton Ivanovich Denikin.
Keywords: Anton Ivanovich Denikin, Great Russian Revolution, fratricidal Civil War, White Movement, Armed Forces of the South of Russia, Commander-in-Chief, White emigration, “Essays on the Russian Troubles”, V.O. Klyuchevsky, worldview position, A.A. von Lampe