Klio # 2 (146) 2019





Nazipov I.I. (Perm). Two directions of irrational interpretation of the invasion of Batu Khan in Rus’ in Russian sources…………………………………………………………………………………………13

ILGIZ ILDAROVICH NAZIPOV — Ph.D. in History, Head of the Department of Theory and History, Perm Institute (branch) of Plekhanov Russian University of Economics. 614068, Russian Federation, Perm, Milchakova St., 30-A, apt. 9. E-mail: nazipoff@mail.ru

Russian contemporaries evaluated the Mongol-Tatars in the categories of religious thinking characteristic of a medieval man. They represented the Tatars either as an instrument of God’s punishment for sins, or as the host of the devil, especially in the context of eschatological expectations. The works of medieval Russian “scribes” and chroniclers characterize the Tatars in these two evaluation categories. The prevailing position was that the Russian people made the God be angry with their sins, weak faith and weak hope for his mercy, turning from Orthodoxy to paganism for which the God “punishes them”. The reason for this was the discussion by analogy with the Bible, as well as the impression of the extraordinary strength of the Mongolian troops, their cruelty, unusual appearance – this was often taken as the beginning of the End of the World events, as an invasion of biblical Ishmaelites. The Mongols were evaluated by the Laurentian Chronicle and Novgorod I Chronicle as an instrument of God’s punishment. Later this position was continued, including such works as “The Words” by Serapion of Vladimir, “The Tale of Murder of Michael of Chernigov and His Boyar Theodore in the Horde”, “The Life of Alexander Nevsky”. At first, as an exception to the general assessment, the Mongols were shown by the Devil Servants in the Ipatiev Chronicle. And then this premise was supported and continued in “The Legend of the City of Kitezh”, “The Tale of the Destruction of Ryazan by Batu Khan”, the message of Novgorod I Chronicle about the census of the Tatars in Novgorod in 1257–1259, “The Word about Mercury Smolensk”, “The Tale about Shevkale”. Later, both the above-mentioned positions on the assessment of the invasion of the Tatars, gradually disappeared from the works of the “scribes”, because they became familiar to the Russian people, they were not being so cruel as in the times of Batu Khan campaign.

Keywords: Russian sources about the Mongols, semantic analysis, the instrument of the punishment of the Lord, warrior of the devil, the instrument of God punishment.


Lunev S.M. (Moscow). From “warmongers” to allies: the image of Great Britain in the Soviet press of 1939–1942………………………………………………………………………………………………19

SERGEY MIKHAILOVICH LUNEV — Applicant of Ph.D. in History, Department of History of Political Parties and Social Movements, Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 121165, Russian Federation, Moscow, Kutuzovsky Ave., 30/32–837. E-mail: luneov@gmail.com

This article is focused on the changes of Soviet press coverage of the life and policy of the United Kingdom in 1939–1942 – from the period when the United Kingdom was considered as possible threat to the Soviet Union and was badly criticized in the beginning of Second World War and then the UK became main ally of the USSR in anti-Hitler coalition. The main Soviet newspapers “Izvestia” and “Pravda”, which covered state foreign policy, and some influential magazines were chosen as sources of the research. The article analyzes the format of the presentation of the material about the UK from the beginning of the Second World War to the first month after the signature of the Anglo-Soviet Treaty. The author of the article came to the conclusion that Soviet journalist did not use false information, but it can be described as biased and the Soviet press had instruments to form both positive and negative images of foreign countries.

Keywords: Great Britain, Germany, world war II, anti-Hitler coalition, “Pravda”, “Izvestiya”, imagology.





Gessen V.Y. (Saint Petersburg). To the history of the French in Petrograd in 1917–1922: prosecution and seizure of property……………………..29

VALERII YUL’EVICH GESSEN — Ph.D. in Economics. 196233, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Zvezdnaya St., 11/ 2, 140. E-mail: gesen27@mail.ru

In this article, on the basis of archival information not used until now, the position of the French in Petrograd in the period after the Bolshevik coup in October 1917 is considered. Most of them sought to leave Soviet Russia by all possible means. First of all, they left quite legally as French nationals with the export of the maximum possible amount of valuable property. But many, fearing reprisals, left Russia secretly or hastily, leaving their mansions and apartments, much of what they had accumulated. Their property, the Soviet authorities then exported more than one year in the Hermitage, the Russian Museum, in non-resident storage. In fact, the withdrawal was made by a number of organizations. The “Department for the Protection, Accounting and Registration of Monuments of Art and Antiquities” (abbreviated “Department of Protection”) of the People’s Commissariat of Education was of primary importance.

Keywords: French, optants, Petrograd, repossession, artistic values, People’s Commissariat of Education, Department of Protection, transportation.


Kashevarov A.N. (Saint Petersburg). The fate of the relics of Solovetsky saints in the Soviet times………………………………………………………..40

ANATOLII NIKOLAEVICH KASHEVAROV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Honored Worker of Higher School of the Russian Federation, Professor Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, Professor Saint Petersburg State University. 195251, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Polytechnicheskaya St., 29. E-mail: kashevar12@mail.ru

During the Civil War, the Soviet authorities carried out a campaign to uncover and confiscate the holy relics that were kept in Orthodox churches and monasteries. However, this first anti-church campaign did not touch the relics of the Solovki saints Zosima, Savvaty and Herman. This situation was explained, first of all, by the fact that the Solovki Islands established Soviet power only in February 1920 and faced the task of adapting the former monastic economy for the needs of a new, socialist state. Meanwhile, in the conditions of the new economic policy, few separate autopsy of the relics continued to be made. However, they were no longer accompanied by such a noisy propaganda campaign as before. A vivid example of this is the autopsy of the relics of the Solovki saints, produced in September 21-22, for the purpose of anti-religious propaganda. The withdrawn relics of Zosima, Savvaty and Herman were kept in the historical and archaeological section of the museum of the Solovki Society of Local History, which existed at the Solovki camp. On January 19, 1940, after the abolition of the camp, the relics were transferred to the Central Antireligious Museum in Moscow. After the museum was closed in 1946, the relics of the Solovetsky saints came to the State Museum of the History of Religion and Atheism (now the State Museum of the History of Religion), then located in the Kazan Cathedral of Leningrad. Since the late 1980s, due to changes in state-church relations, the Museum of the History of Religion began to transmit shrines and objects of liturgical use to temples and monasteries. June 16, 1990 was the transfer of the relics of Zosima, Savvaty and Herman of the Russian Orthodox Church, their relics were solemnly transferred from the Kazan Cathedral to the Trinity Cathedral of the Alexander Nevsky Lavra, which became their temporary place of residence. In the summer of 1990, the Solovetsky Monastery resumed its activities. In August 1992, the relics of Saints Zosima, Savvaty and Herman returned under the shelter of their native monastery.

Keywords: the opening and confiscation of the relics of Orthodox saints, the Solovki saints Zosima, Savvaty, Herman, the Solovki Special Purpose Camp, the State Museum of Religion and Atheism, the Solovetsky Monastery.


Morozov V.B. (Saint Petersburg). The emergence of trade unions of Russia and their struggle for the economic interests of workers………………………………………………………………………..45

VIKTOR BORISOVICH MOROZOV — PhD in History, Associate Professor, Associate Professor at the Department of the Branches of Law. Saint Petersburg University of Humanities and Social Sciences, 196641, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Metallostroy, Polevaya Str. 2/30, aprt. 406. E-mail: radichayu@gup.ru

The article presents the main prerequisites and features of the emergence of trade unions in Russia. It is noted that from the first day of their existence, trade unions were actively involved in the fight to solve the pressing economic issues of workers and despite the fact that the main way to achieve results was a strike, workers began to realize that the strike action is not always expedient and beneficial; it is necessary when deciding important issues of principle, whereas local conflicts with entrepreneurs are better regulated during negotiations. Therefore, taking into account Western European experience, special bodies were created in Russia such as courts of conciliation and arbitration courts. The paper emphasizes that it was at this time that the first steps were taken in the process of the civil society formation. The article notes that the Revolution played a decisive role in the emergence and formation of trade unions in the country.

Keywords: strike, trade union, boycott, labor movement, court of conciliation, conflict, labor contract, program, tariff agreement, constitution.


Vasilyev Y.S., Poltorak S.N. (Saint Petersburg). The role of the employees of the Polytechnic University of Petrograd-Leningrad-Petersburg in solving the problems of the integrated use of natural resources…………………………………………………………54

YURI SERGEEVICH VASILYEV — Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Scientific Director of the Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University. 195251, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Polytechnicheskaya St., 29. E-mail: president@spbstu.ru

SERGEY NIKOLAEVICH POLTORAK — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Honorary Worker of Higher Professional Education of the Russian Federation, Editor-in-Chief of the journal “Klio”. 195220, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Grazhdansky Prospect, 11, office 913. E-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru

The article analyzes the history of university activities and, in particular, employees of the Polytechnic University of St. Petersburg, on the implementation of the problems of the integrated use of natural resources, protection of the ecology not only of the north-western region and Russia but of the planet Earth as a whole. The authors analyzed published sources and historiography of the 1970s – early 2000s. On this basis, it is concluded that St. Petersburg scientists continue to accumulate positive experience in environmental activities, seeking to use the existing theoretical and practical experience in promising forms of cooperation between scientific institutions and industrial enterprises. Attention is paid to the educational component of this complex process. The personal contribution of polytechnic scientists to the creation of scientific schools, aimed at finding ways to improve the environment, is noted.

Keywords: St. Petersburg Polytechnic University of Peter the Great, the program “Man and the Environment. Problems of nature conservation”, ecology, sustainable development policy.





Nikitina S.Y. (Yakutsk, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). Features of land management in Yakutian region in the second half of the 19th –early 20th centuries. in the context of imperial and regional administration……………………………………………………………….60

SARGYLANA YEGOROVNA NIKITINA — Ph.D. in History, Research Fellow, Institute of the Humanities and the Indigenous Peoples of the North of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 677027, Russian Federation, Yakutsk, The Sakha (Yakutia) Republic, Petrovsky St., 1. E-mail: Sarg_Nik.ykt@mail.ru

The article is devoted to the subject of land management in Yakutia, which remains relevant to the present time. The time frame is due to a period of serious attempts of the authorities to reform the situation of that time for the purpose of preventing future revolutionary changes. The author analyzes the special type of land management formed in the region, defined by the author as the ancestral one, and its principles, which formed the basis for the development of the units of administrative-territorial division and the land use system formed in them. The periods of intensification of Imperial land policy in the whole of Siberia and in Yakutian region in particular are identified by the author. Intentions to reform the land tenure of indigenous peoples is directly associated with administration of taxation of the local population. For the first time, an attempt of integrated approach to the study of the administrative structure of local governments, daily activities to resolve land disputes, projects and practices of regional authorities and representatives of the national intelligentsia on fair land management is made in the following article.

Keywords: Yakutian region, the Imperial government, regional authorities, land use policy, land use, self-government, land disputes, activities of land surveyors, projects of land use.


Egorov V.V. (Nizhny Novgorod). Participation of Nizhny Novgorod Jews in the activities of the revolutionary organizations at the end of the 19th – beginning of the 20th century……………….67

VADIM VALEREVICH EGOROV — Applicant of the Department of History and Politics of Russia of the Institute of International Relations and World History, Nizhny Novgorod State University named after N.I. LobachevskyLecturer at the Faculty of Secondary Professional Education, Nizhny Novgorod Institute of Management of the Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration. 603044, Russian Federation, Nizhny Novgorod, Strazh Revolyucii St., 40–14. E-mail: boarin123@yandex.ru

This article is devoted to the participation of Nizhny Novgorod Jews in the activities of revolutionary organizations. The problem studied in this study is to understand the causes of the involvement of Jews in the revolutionary movement in that period. The objectives of the study are to determine the policy of the authorities towards Jews who participated in the activities of revolutionary organizations. The research methodology was based on the dialectic method of knowledge, which allows analyzing the peculiarities of the interaction of the police and gendarmerie with the Jews. This article covers the little-studied stages of activity of the Nizhny Novgorod revolutionary organizations in general, as well as revolutionary leaders in particular. Particular attention is paid to the activities of Ya.M. Sverdlov. Archival materials received from the Central Archive of the Nizhny Novgorod Region are being introduced into scientific circulation for the first time.

Keywords: Jews, covert surveillance, Nizhny Novgorod security department, Nizhny Novgorod police chief, proclamation, revolutionary activity, exile, Makaryevsky police officer.


Karpova V.V. (Saint Petersburg). The activities of the labour squads of the Vladimir province on the fields of the families of soldiers enlisted in the First World War………………………………………71

VERONIKA VIKTOROVNA KARPOVA — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Department of History of Russia, Leningrad state University named after A.S. Pushkin. 196605, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Pushkin, Peterburgskoe sh., 10. E-mail: nika7676@mail.ru

During the First World War in Russia there was an intensification of the population’s charitable activities which took different forms and directions. One of them was the provision of labor assistance to peasant families left without a breadwinner in connection with military mobilization. Along with other groups of the population, students also took an active part in the organization of labor squads. Such an initiative of students was approved at the government level, which greatly contributed to the expansion of assistance. However, the organization of labor squads, involvement in the provision of labor assistance to the adult population depended on the specific region. The article reveals the peculiarities of agricultural labor assistance in the Vladimir province. There is a special role of public organizations (gymnastic society “Sokol”, Vladimir organization of labor assistance in the fields of soldiers’ families) in the organization of this type of charitable activities. The similarities and the differences of the labor squads and the profitability of performed work in Vladimir province are analyzed. The article is written on the basis of published and unpublished reports, as well as materials of regional periodicals.

Keywords: Word War I, Vladimir province, charity, labor assistance, agricultural work, pupilslabor squads, gymnastic society «Sokol», Vladimir organization of labor assistance in the fields of families of soldiers.


Dorokhov V.Z., Dorokhova E.V. (Khabarovsk). Political sentiments of the residents of the Far East before and during the Soviet-Chinese conflict of 1969……………………………………………..79

VYACHESLAV ZHORZHOVICH DOROKHOV — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Deputy chief of faculty of socially-humanitarian and economic disciplines Far Eastern Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia. 680023, Russian Fedeartion, Khabarovsk, per. Baikalsky, 4–10. E-mail: dorohova_elen@mail.ru

ELENA VLADIMIROVNA DOROKHOVA — Senior lecturer of the Department of criminology, Far Eastern Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia. 680023, Russian Fedeartion, Khabarovsk, per. Baikalsky, 4–10. E-mail: dorohova_elen@mail.ru

On the basis of archival materials of the territorial bodies of the CPSU and the KGB under the SM of the USSR, the article presents an overview of the political sentiments of workers of the Far East, their opinions and responses about the armed provocations on the Soviet-Chinese border in March 1969. In the materials of the article, special emphasis is placed on the fact that with the broad enough support of the far East CPSU and the Soviet government, Chinese provocations on the border were accompanied by certain facts, as panic among the local population, suggesting the imminent start of full-scale hostilities, and clearly anti-Soviet statements of citizens dissatisfied with the actions of party and Soviet leaders. The other side of the problem is also presented, namely the planned growth of nationalist sentiments, especially in relation to the vast Korean Diaspora.

Keywords: far East, the Sino-Soviet conflict, protests, opinions of the workers, the special reports, “samizdat”, ethnic conflict.





Rud P.D. (Moscow). Latin American Conceptualism of 1960-70s: striving for new artistic practices……………………………………….85

POLINA DMITRIEVNA RUD — Postgraduate Student, Department of General history of arts, Faculty of History, Moscow state University named after M. V. Lomonosov. Russia, Moscow, Dmitrovskoye sh. 13A. E-mail: polinarud46@gmail.com

The article examines the conditions that contributed to the development of Latin American conceptualism in 1960–1970s. Both socio-political context and hierarchic relations with the rest of the world made search for new artistic practices a vital necessity. Striving for authenticity and understanding the significance of resistance to the previously settled systems and relation models, the intellectual elite started to formulate the theoretical basis for Latin-American conceptualism. Theoretical analysis is accompanied with a research of artistic works that highlight the implementation of artistic thoughts and ideas. The choice of these art projects aims at demonstrating the anchors for the further research of LA conceptualism.

Keywords: conceptual art, art of Latin America, Latin-American conceptualism, contemporary art of Latin America, conceptual practices.


Aniskevich N.S. (Moscow). The policy of the Chilean governments in the continental associations UNASUR and CELAC…………………………………………………………………………………..91

NATALIIA SERGEEVNA ANISKEVICH — Postgraduate student, Institute of Latin America of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 119017, Russian Federation, Moscow, Bol’shaya Ordynka St., 21. E-mail: nataniskevich@gmail.com

This article analyzes Latin American integration processes using the example of UNASUR and CELAC. It considers the significance of Chile in the represented alliances, which reflects the multilateral development strategy of this country within Latin America and with regard to the protection of its political and economic interests in the international arena. This work examines the development priorities of the Latin American region and increasing its importance at the global level based on the achievements of domestic and foreign scientific research and at the same time comparing this with the foreign economic vectors of Chile’s development. The author analyzes the prospects for the development of UNASUR and CELAC in the regional framework and comes to the conclusion that today the work within CELAC for the Chilean government is the most relevant and promising. Special attention is paid to cooperation with the EU and China as one of the most important players in the modern formative multipolar system of the world. UNASUR has reached the peak of its development and is beginning to weaken with great force.

Keywords: Latin America, Latin American integration, UNASUR, CELAC, foreign policy, political risk, economic stability.


Kolesnikov R.A. (Moscow). The Syrian crisis: the position of Russia and Israel……………………..101

ROMAN ALEKSANDROVICH KOLESNIKOV — Postgraduate student, Department of Russian history of the 20th–21st centuries, Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 119991, Russian Federation, Moscow, Lomonosovsky Prospekt, 27–4. E-mail: kolesrom@yandex.ru

The article is devoted to the Russian-Israeli partnership against the background of the Syrian conflict. The Syrian crisis was one of the rebellions of the Arab Awakening. Now it is one of the most important crisis of the contemporary international relations. Russia and Israel formed the different attitude to the crisis in Syria. Russia supported Assad and stood for a transparent and inclusive approach to the Syrian peace settlement. Israel was concerned with the Iranian infrastructure emerged in Syria including the Golan Heights region. The consequences of the Israeli-Iranian confrontation defined a «framework of friendship» for Russian and Jewish states. The purpose of this article is to show the interaction of the Russian Federation and Israel in the context of the Syrian crisis and to find out whether the states are able to remain reliable partners in future.

Keywords: Syria, Russia, Israel, Iran, Hezbollah, The Syrian Conflict, Russian-Israeli relations, S-300.


Kryuchkova A.A. (Odintsovo, Moscow region). Irish return migration in 1996–2002………………….108

ALISA ARKADYEVNA KRYUCHKOVA — Postgraduate student, Department of Modern and Contemporary History of European and American Countries, Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 143002, Russian Federation, Moscow Region, Odintsovo, Nedelina St., 7A, 65. E-mail: a.kriuch@gmail.com

The article examines the return migration to Ireland in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. The process of return migration is placed into a broad historical context of the Celtic Tiger economy, a period of rapid real economic growth in Ireland in the 1990s. The socio-economic features of the return are determined. The dynamics of the return migration in 1996–2002 are analyzed. The socio-economic conditions for the return of migrants are determined. The main stages of the change in the indicators of return migration from the primary change in the migration balance, which changed the value to a positive in 1996, to the slowdown in the growth of return migration in 2001 and the re-inflow of Irish returning migrants in 2002 are highlighted. The characteristic features of the given cohort of the Celtic Tiger return migrants are explored.

Keywords: Ireland, migration, return migration, Celtic Tiger.





Dobrova O.P. (Moscow). To the dating of some types of beads from Gnezdov (on materials of Novgorod the Great)……………………………………………………………………………………………112

OLGA PAVLOVNA DOBROVA — Researcher, Paleoethnology Research Center. 109012, Moscow, Novaya ploshchad, 12, building 5. E-mail: russa-doly@mail.ru

The article includes materials from the collections of the Nerevskiy excavation of Novgorod the Great, viewed by the author, and stored in the collections of the State Historical Museum and the Novgorod State Museum. The materials were analyzed by technological and morphological features presented in the works of Z.A. Lvova and Yu.L. Shchapovoy. This work includes decorated beads. The earliest group is represented by so-called mosaic beads, molded from pieces of drawn rod. Along with fairly early mosaic beads, it was possible to confirm the occurrence of some types of mosaic beads for the 11th century. A very numerous variety of decorated beads Gnezdova represent beads with overlaid linear-wavy or linear-zigzag decor. In the materials of Novgorod, exact analogies are not traced; nevertheless, one of the most recent bead belongs to the layer of 1060–1070. In addition to the types of beads widely described in the literature, in Novgorod and Gnezdovo there are a few finds of beads decorated with paintings. Yellowish white or white decor is one-colored eyes or ribbons, usually the body of these beads of blue translucent or transparent glass. The color of the body and the decor, as well as the technique of drawing the ornament, bring together the finds of these beads with the painted blue bracelets known, as well as the monuments in question, and in the materials of other ancient Russian cities.

Keywords: beads, dating, Gnezdovo, Novgorod the Great, the Middle Ages, Old Rus.





Olesich N.Y., Samuylova I.A. (Saint Petersburg). I. S. Turgenev’s Role in Creating Public Centers of the Russian World in Paris……………………………………………………………………………………117

NINEL YAKOVLEVNA OLESICH Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Department of Political Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Saint Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Universitetskaya emb., 7/9. E-mail: vlad.bykov@mail.ru

IRINA ALEXEEVNA SAMUYLOVA — Ph.D. In Psychology, Associate Professor, Department of Political Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Saint Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Universitetskaya emb., 7/9. E-mail: samiral@mail.ru

The present paper is concerned with a task to estimate the historical contribution of a well-known representative of the classical Russian literature, I.S. Turgenev, to the creation of social cultural organizations that go on to keep and support the Russian World in Paris. At present, investigators have not yet revealed the historical value of public organizations of the Russian World in Paris in its full entirety. The paper outlines the I.S. Turgenev’s role of in organization, creation and activity of the Public Library in Paris as a spirit center of the Russian intellectuals. Within the period of Russian emigration up to 1939, they saved the positions of the Russian Center being outside of politics and joining different layers of emigration. The paper also deals with the activity of the Charity Society of Russian Artists in Paris, which became the center of Russian fine arts abroad.  In creation of the “Russian home” of artist, I.S. Turgenev took an active part. He developed the Charity and was the secretary of the Society that was based on the Turgenev’s personal support and his contacts with the French elite. The organization has played the most important role in popularizing the Russian fine arts abroad.

Keywords: life of Russian people abroad, politics, emigration, library, artists, charity, students, Russian word.


Strekalov I.N. (Moscow). «And remember that we are broken, but not defeated!»: The play by D. F. Sverchkov about about St. Petersburg Council of workers’ deputies in 1905 in his literary work………………………………..…..125

ILYA NIKOLAEVICH STREKALOV — Postgraduate student, Department of History of Russia in 19th – early 20th century, Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 119192, Moscow, Lomonosov Pr., 27, building 4. E-mail: strek93@mail.ru

The article deals with the literary and publicistic activity of D.F. Sverchkov, the member of executive committee of the Petersburg Soviet of Worker’s Deputies 1905 connected with his memory of creation, activity and the termination of existence of the Petersburg Soviet. On the basis of archival documents and the published works it is shown that during the period after the revolutionary events of 1917 Sverchkov sought to keep the memory about the Soviet in prosaic works and in a cinema. The plot of his play “But Are Not Defeated!” is in detail analyzed: published in 1931, it shows the people as the participants of events in 1905. Article is based on the works written by D.F. Sverchkov (published and unpublished both) and also shorthand reports of his performances on The Vseroskomdram’s Plenums.

Keywords: Dmitry Fyodorovich Sverchkov, St. Petersburg Soviet of Worker’s Deputies, the First Russian revolution, working class, literature.





Grebenshchikova G.A. (Saint Petersburg). To the 230th anniversary of the Russian-Swedish war of 1788–1790: “We must not forget this lesson”……………………………………………………….130

GALINA ALEKSANDROVNA GREBENSHCHIKOVA — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Head of Laboratory of Fleet and Navigation’s History, Saint Petersburg State Marine Technical University. 190008, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Lotsmanskaya St., 3. E-mail: inversiya@bk.ru

In 1788, during the rule of Empress Catherine the Second, after 47 years old from Russian-Swedish War 1741–1743 at Empress Elisabeth, new war between the Russians and the Swedish had begun. At that time Russian Empire had spent a colossal financial and people resources, besides, there were seven large naval battles during three years – five Ship-Line Fleet and two Rowing Fleet. However, war at sea was not successfully for the Russians as well as had not active character. Besides, there were not together activities between naval and landing forces, so necessary for any large operation. In the article which based first of all on archives documents, there are researching the political and diplomatic situation in Sea Powers on the eve of Russian-Swedish War 1788–1790 and the forces of Russian and Sweden, the Russia’s preparation to defense of northwest border as well as naval operations and admiral V. Chichagoff’s position.

Keywords: Russian and Sweden, forces conditions, Catherine the Second and Gustav the Third, Russian and Turkey, power’s interest, strategy, Fleet, war, politic, diplomacy, naval tactic, the personal’s influence to the war activities.


Afanaseva M.B. (Moscow). The teaching staff of the Nicholas Cavalry School (1864–1917)…………146

MARIA BORISOVNA AFANASEVA — Postgraduate student, Department of History of Russia 19th – early 20th century, Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 119192, Russian Federation, Moscow, Lomonosov Prospect, 27, building 4. E-mail: marie_barton@mail.ru

The article deals with the teaching staff of the Nicholas Cavalry School in 1864–1917, examines its role in teaching the disciplines of this military educational institution, analyzes the specifics of different subjects of the course, both general education and purely military. Also the characteristic approaches to the teaching, that were followed by teachers who served in the school, are considered. The author systematizes information about the main types of teachers in accordance with their attitude to the pupils of the school. The article describes the financial situation of teachers, the degree of their employment in addition to teaching in the school as well as their marital status. The author provides information about research activities of some school teachers and their main publications. The problem of feedback of pupils of the Nicholas Cavalry School with teachers is in the focus of the article. The special attention is paid to the relations that developed between pupils and teachers. The author presents the examples of characteristics that graduates of school subsequently shared in the memoirs, concerning training time in the Nicholas Cavalry School.

Keywords: Nicholas Cavalry School, teaching staff, military educational institution, educational discipline, material support, work in combination, marital status, relationship of pupils and teachers.


Latypov T.R. (Moscow). Cannons against pillboxes: Moravian-Ostrava offensive operation of the 4th Ukrainian Front (March-May 1945)……………………………………………………………….151

TIMUR RUSTYAMOVICH LATYPOVPh.D. in Law Sciences, Head of the Department of Contract-Legal management JSC “Zarubezhneft”. 101990, Russian Federation, Moscow, Armyanskii lane, b. 1, 9/1/1. E-mail: Latypovv2017@yandex.ru

The Moravian-Ostrava offensive operation of the 4th Ukrainian Front was one of the longest (March 10 – May 5, 1945) and the bloody operations of the Red Army at the final stage of the Great Patriotic War. During the operation, the formations of the 1st Guards and 38th armies halted the offensive three times, and the front command was replaced. One of the main reasons for the slow progress of the Soviet troops was the fact that the liberation of the Moravian-Ostrava industrial region of Czechoslovakia was possible only by overcoming the enemy’s long-term defense system. In this system, several field fortification lines were combined with layered long-term gun emplacements built in the 1930s along the Czechoslovak-German and Czechoslovak-Polish borders. The defensive lines along the Olsha and Opava rivers in the Troppau – Moravska Ostrava section relied on dozens of reinforced concrete pillboxes with machine-gun and artillery weapons, thick walls and numerous garrisons. Even high-powered artillery (152-mm and 203-mm guns) often could not destroy the largest caponier. Under these conditions, the blocking and destruction of long-term fire points was carried out by assault groups, which included machine gunners, sappers and flamethrowers. The courage and military skills of the soldiers and officers of the 4th Ukrainian Front, the skillful interaction of all the armed forces were the key to the ultimate success of the Moravian-Ostrava offensive operation.

Keywords: Czechoslovakia Moravian-Ostrava offensive operation, 4nd Ukrainian Front.





Khomenko S.V. (Moscow). The activity of Ismail Gasprinskiy and The First State Duma…………..160

SERGEI VASILEVICH KHOMENKO — Postgraduate student, Source Study Department of Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 119991, Russian Federation, Moscow, Leninskiye Gory, 1, 922-B. E-mail: xomenko09@list.ru

The article contains the analysis of concrete periodicals “Tercuman” aimed to characterize the Ismail Gasprinskiy’s activity for the resolving of Crimean Tatarians’ problems during the election process in Taurid Governorate to The I State Duma. The basic historical source is the newspaper “Tercuman”, which was issued on two languages in Tarurida Governorate. The supporting role is played by personal sources and archival documents. The author considers the political activity of Ismail Gasrpinskiy and different aspects of his cooperation with political parties. Also, the author focuses his attention on the development dynamic of Ismail Gasprinskiy’s activity in the context of the Crimean Tatarians’ problems resolving (land question, political and civil rights) and elections to The I State Duma. The author points out the problem that the Ismail Gasprinskiy’s activity is closely connected with the confrontation between Muslims and secular part of Crimean Tatarians. Having said that the author firstly attempted to highlight the activity of Ismail Gasprinskiy during the election process in Taurida Governorate in the beginning of the 20th century. Thus, the author concludes on explaining the results of Ismail Gasprinskiy political activity and the cooperation between Crimean Tatarians and political parties in the period of election process to the I State Duma.

Keywords: elections, State Duma, election process, source study, The Crimea, Crimean Tatars, methodology, press, reconstruction, the Taurida Governorate.


Sledkov A.Y. (Saint Petersburg). Ruben Abgarovich Orbeli. Thinker…………………………………167

ALEXANDER YURIEVICH SLEDKOV — Doctor of Biological Sciences, Chairman of the Historical diving society of Russia named after R.A. Orbeli. 190068, St. Petersburg, Bolshaya Podyacheskaya St., 37, apt. 15, postbox 601. E-mail: sledkov@hdsr.ru

An article is devoted to the life of Ruben Orbeli (1880–1943) – a lawyer, theologian, historian and founder of underwater archeology in our country, the elder brother of famous academicians, whose tragic fate closely connected with the families of lawyer Boris Nikolsky and the surgeon Peter Mandryka. An article briefly discusses the three stages of Ruben Orbeli’s life – pre-revolutionary, dedicated to jurisprudence and religious activities, post-revolutionary, filled with uncertainty and the search the way of his life, and the final, eight-year, when he concentrated on studying the history of underwater world exploration and underwater archaeology. An author gives the brief characteristics of the works of R.A. Orbeli, including published posthumously, as well as traces of the paths of his fragmented archive moving which is undoubted interest for further research by representatives of various fields of knowledge.

Keywords: Orbeli brothers, Nikolsky, Mandryka, the history of diving, underwater archaeology.


Poltorak S.N., Zotova A.V. (Saint Petersburg). Historian, writer and playwright D.N. Alshits (to the 100th anniversary of the birth) …………………………………………………………………………………176

SERGEY NIKOLAEVICH POLTORAK — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Honorary Worker of Higher Professional Education of the Russian Federation, Editor-in-Chief of the journal “Klio”. 195220, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Grazhdansky Prospect, 11, office 913. E-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru

ANASTASIYA VALERYEVNA ZOTOVA — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Docent, Associate Professor, Department of International Relations in the Post-Soviet Area, Saint Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya Emb., 7–9. E-mail: anastasiyazotova@mail.ru

The article analyzes the creative activities of the historian, writer, and playwright Daniil Natanovich Alshits. In the article it is noted that he voluntarily went to the front in July 1941, having passed the combat path from an ordinary soldier to a senior lieutenant. In 1947 D.N. Alshits defended his thesis “Records to the personal chronicle of the 16th century (their origin and significance as historical sources)”, in 1982 – defended his doctoral thesis “Oprichnina and the formation of the apparatus of the power of autocracy: (Search for and study of new historical sources)”. D.N. Alshits was not only a talented historian but also an outstanding writer and playwright.

Keywords: D.N. Alshits, D. Al, the Great Patriotic War, the chronicle vaults of the 16th century, oprichnina, Ivan the Terrible.


Gapon V.K. (Moscow). One hundred and two years in service (major General Stepan A. Tyushkevich)……………………………………………………………179

VITALY KONSTANTINOVICH GAPON — Corresponding member of the International Academy of History and Social Sciences, Advisor to the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, Member of the Association of Historians of the Second World War 1939–1945. E-mail: gapon.vit@yandex.ru

The article is devoted to the meeting of the USSR State Prize awardee, Honored worker of science of the RSFSR, Doctor in Philosophical Sciences, Professor S.A. Tyushkevich with the pupils of the Moscow secondary school no. 1164 during the “lesson of courage”. The biography of the scholar, who was born in 1917, is briefly stated and his main scholarly achievements are noted. It is emphasized the importance of this meeting of the veteran with schoolchildren in the matter of Patriotic education.

Keywords: S.A. Tyushkevich, secondary school no. 1164 of Moscow, scholarship, patriotism, military history.


Kuptsova I.V. (Moscow), Poltorak S.N. (Saint Petersburg), Serebryanskaya G.V. (Nizhny Novgorod). About the master and his excellence (80th anniversary of V.S. Memetov)……………………181

IRINA VALENTINOVNA KUPTSOVA — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Department of Regional and Municipal Administration, School of Public Administration, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 127055, Russian Federation, Moscow, Novoslobodskaya St., 11–96. E-mail: ivkuptsova@mail.ru

SERGEY NIKOLAEVICH POLTORAK —  Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Honorary Worker of Higher Professional Education of the Russian Federation, Editor-in-Chief of the journal “Klio”. 195220, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Grazhdansky Prospect, 11, office 913. E-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru

GALINA VLADIMIROVNA SEREBRYANSKAYA — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the Department of History, Philosophy, Pedagogy and Psychology, Nizhny Novgorod State Architectural and Construction University. 603950, Russian Federation, Nizhny Novgorod, ul. Ilinskaya, 65. E-mail: serebrianskaya55@yandex.ru

The article analyzes the scientific activities of the doctor of historical sciences, professor, honored worker of the higher school of the Russian Federation Valery Sergeevich Memetov. It is emphasized that he became the initiator of the creation and development of intellectual studies – a new trend in historical science. Founder of the scientific school V.S. Memetov prepared more than 30 doctors and candidates of historical sciences. He was the founder of the Inter-University Center “The Political Culture of the Intelligentsia, its Place and Role in the History of the Fatherland” and the Problem Council “The Intelligentsia, Culture, Power” that operated under it. It is noted that over time, this intercollegiate Center and the Problem Council were transformed into a scientific research institute of intellectual studies. Ivanovo State University, where V.S. Memetov is working, since the 1990s to date has become the venue for the annual scientific conferences on the problem of intellectuals.

Keywords: V.S. Memetov, intelligentsia, intellectual studies, Ivanovo State University, the journal “Intelligentsia and the World”.





Zagrebin S.S. (Chelyabinsk). Some considerations about Elena Yampolskaya’s book “On culture and more…………………………………………………………………………………………………188

SERGEY SERGEEVICH ZAGREBIN — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Professor of the Department of philosophy and cultural science, South Ural State Humanitarian Pedagogical University. 454091, Russian Federation, Chelyabinsk, pr. Lenina, 69. E-mail: bk.ural@bk.ru

The paper provides a review of Elena Yampolskaya’s book “On culture and more”. Elena Yampolskaya’s book is a collection of essays and interviews published in the press over time and groped in topical sections chronologically. The reviewer enters into a dialog with the author, making comments and elaborating different topics, ideas, and story lines of the book. The reviewer differentiates between several conceptual blocks, such as: cultural politics, cultural memory, cultural life, Orthodox culture, portraits of contemporaries, and engages into a specific dialog with the author of the book on these topics. Cultural issues are explored in the context of development of new trends in the cultural politics, defining priorities for cultural and social development by the Russian State, search of a national idea that would unite people as members of the nation, and possible options for a new ideology.

Keywords: Elena Yampolskaya, culture, cultural politics, cultural history, cultural memory, Orthodox culture, religious culture, social culture.


Gajiyev A.N. (Arkhangelsk). Review of the book «History of the Crimean Federal University named after V.I. Vernadsky in documents and photos» (pub. A. A. Nepomnyashchiy, A.S. Kravchuk). Belgorod: Konstanta, 2018……………………………………………………………………………198

AYDIN NAZIMOVITCH GAJIYEV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Vice-rector Northern Institute of Enterepreneurship. 163001, Russian Federation, Arkhangelsk, Suvorova St., 2. E-mail: west011@bk.ru

The review gives the highest rating to the anniversary edition «History of the Crimean Federal University named after V.I. Vernadsky in documents and photos», created by the centenary of the leading regional educational institution. Authors-compilers of the book managed to briefly, but succinctly describe the difficult way of formation and development of the higher education system in the Crimea, colorfully and qualitatively illustrated it not only by collective and individual portraits, but also copies of official and personal documents, giving the reader the opportunity to feel the living sense of time, inextricably connecting the past with the present. The historical part of the book reflects all stages of the history of the University, not excluding its tragic pages. Printing execution of the anniversary edition is executed faultlessly, and the book will become the real ornament of any library, personal or public.

Keywords: Crimean Federal University named after V.I. Vernadsky, Simferopol State University, Taurida National University, the Crimean studies, History of high education in the Crimea.


Ershov N.V., Losik A.V. (Saint Petersburg). At the origins of rocket and space industry of the Soviet Union. The review in the form of reflection after reading the monograph………………………………201

NIKOLAY VLADIMIROVICH ERSHOV — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Department of humanitarian and socio-economic disciplines of the Military Academy of communications named after S. M. Budenny. 194064, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Tihoreczkij pr.3

ALEKSANDR VITAL’EVICH LOSIK — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Senior researcher at the Military Institute Military space Academy named after A.F. Mozhaysky, Deputy Editor of the journal “Кlio”. 195220, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Grazhdanskii pr., 11. E-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru

The article is a book review of L. P. Vershinina “The birth of the space industry of the Soviet Union. 1944–1947: the collection of scientific articles; edited by A. B. Bezborodov” (Kirov: Kirov regional printing house, 2016. 136 p.). The estimation of the relevance of the prepared work, the characterization of its structure and content, the basic problems analyzed by the author, the peculiarities of their presentation. Shows the importance of monographs to history and Patriotic education, military and engineering-technical personnel.

Keywords: rocket-space industry, rocket industry, space exploration, missiles, missile weapons, missile technology, the council of chief designers.





Ippolitova A.G., Ippolitov G.M., Repineckaya J.S. (Samara). Extraordinary event in memory of the extraordinary scientist: impressions of the participants……………………………………………..207

ANASTASIYA GEORGIEVNA IPPOLITOVA — Ph.D. in Culturology, Associate Professor, Department of Humanities and socio-economic disciplines, Samara Law Institute of the Federal service of execution of punishments of Russia. E-mail: ippolitovaag@rambler.ru

GEORGIYJ MIKHAYJLOVICH IPPOLITOV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Professor of Department of Philosophy, Volga State University of Telecommunications and Informatics (Samara). 443101, Russian Federation, Samara, Novomolodezhnihyi per., 21–58. E-mail: pfiri@ ssc.smr.ru; gippolitov@rambler.ru

JULIA SOLOMONOVNA REPINECKAYA — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Department of General History and Teaching Methods, Samara State Socio-Pedagogical University. 443099, Russian Federation, Samara, M. Gorky St., 65/67. E-mail: repinetskaya@pgsga.ru

The authors of information on scientific life share experiences they gained from participating in the Memorial scientific conference “The historian in a changing world” devoted to the 100 anniversary from the birthday of the participant of the Great Patriotic war, Doctor of historical sciences, Professor Solomon Gertsevich Basin, Samara teacher, scientist, humanist.


Samartseva E.I. (Tula). Experience of the military past in the name of a peaceful future (on the international conference in Tula, 8–9 November 2018)…………………………………………211

ELENA IGOREVNA SAMARTSEVA — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Scientific secretary of the Tula State Arms Museum, Professor of the Tula State University. 300002, Russian Federation, Tula, Oktyabrskaya ul., 2. E-mail: samartse@yandex.ru

On 8–9 November 2018, the international scientific conference “Russia and Slovenia: the experience of the military past in the name of a peaceful future” was held in the Tula State Arms Museum. The conference was attended by scientists from Russia, Slovenia, USA, Italy, Poland. Addressed many of the issues from the history of Russia and Slovenia, primarily of the twentieth century. Interesting reports were read by N. S. Pilko, O. S. Mishkin, M. V. Krotov, E. P. Gritsenko, O. V. Karimov, I. B. Pink and others.

Keywords: history, Russia, Slovenia, World War I, Russian abroad, World War II, culture, cooperation.





Poltorak S.N., Zotova A.V. (Saint Petersburg). Professor Vladimir Germanovich Burkov (to the memory of colleague and friend)………………………………………………………………………………….214

SERGEY NIKOLAEVICH POLTORAK — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Honorary Worker of Higher Professional Education of the Russian Federation, Editor-in-Chief of the journal “Klio”. 195220, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Grazhdansky Prospect, 11, office 913. E-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru

ANASTASIYA VALERYEVNA ZOTOVA — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Docent, Associate Professor of the Department of International Relations in the Post-Soviet Area, Saint Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya Emb., 7–9. E-mail: anastasiyazotova@mail.ru

The article contains information about the scholarly and educational activities of the famous historian Vladimir Germanovich Burkov. A graduate of the history department of the Leningrad State University has gone from being a student to a professor, head of the department of international relations in the post-Soviet area of the faculty of international relations of St. Petersburg State University. His personal contribution to the development of phaleristics and vexillology is noted. Information on his scholarly, pedagogical and social activities is reported.

Keywords: V.G. Burkov, St. Petersburg State University, international relations, phaleristics, vexillology.


In memory of Professor Eduard Letenkov………………………………………………………..216

The material is dedicated to the memory of E.V. Letenkov, who died February 1, 2019, the article says, about the life and work of the famous Russian historian, Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor E.V. Letenkov. Eduard Vasilyevich made a significant contribution to the development of Russian science, was a talented organizer, teacher and a good friend.

Keywords: E.V. Letenkov, St. Petersburg State University, Institute of history, Department of source studies of Russian history, history of press, history of journalism.