Klio #4 (112) 2016




E.V. Mankova  (Saint Petersburg). The newspaper «Russkie vedomosti» about the reform  of the Church (1908–1914) ………………………………………………………………………………………………..13

EKATERINA VLADIMIROVNA MANKOVA – Postgraduate Student, Department of the History of Russian Journalism, School of Journalism and Mass Communications, St. Petersburg State University. 198207, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Leninsky pr. 118, #205.

e-mail: ekaterinamankova@gmail.com

The newspaper «Russkie vedomosti» about the reform of the Church (1908–1914). The article deals with the issue of the reforms of the Church in conditions of Russian young constitutional monarchy. In that period Russian Orthodox Church faced new challenges, connected with changes in the socio-political system of the country. It was a time of the wide social discussion about future of the Church and ways out of the crisis. The author used the popular liberal newspaper «Russkie vedomosti» as the main source of the research. This newspaper was fully engaged in the debate on the reform of the Church. Based on the historical background, the author analyzed the edition’s position on the key vectors of the controversy. The main attention ofthe article is focused on the adoption process of the religious laws in the State Duma, issues of religious education, missionary and parish life. The article gives an analysis of the relations between Russian Orthodox Church and State in the beginning of the XX century.

Keywords: «Russkie vedomosti», Russian Orthodox Church, Synod, State Duma, freedom of thought, church reforms, State, constitutional monarchy, church education, orthodox parish.



E.I. Fatkina  (Saint Petersburg). Domestic and foreign historiography of the standardization history …………….22

ELIZAVETA IGOREVNA FATKINA – Postgraduate Student, Department of History and Regional Studies, Bonch-Bruevich Saint Petersburg State University of Telecommunications. Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, pr. Bolshevikov 22, korp. 1.

e-mail: Lizzza92@mail.ru

The article deals with the development of international integration processes, liberalization of international trade, research in the field of standardization. A lot of European researchers, including Swedish scientists and Russian researchers, are working in this area. Despite this, researches devoted to the study of standardization issues, are characterized by technical approach as a dominant today. The theoretical base, in turn, has developed quite poorly. In this regard, it may be considered relevant to pay more attention to studying the theory and history of science. This article attempts to analyze the currently available literature on this subject, classifying its contents by the period of occurrence, with particular attention paid to the process of the formation of information support in the field of standardization.

Keywords: history of standardization, standardization theory, industrial standardization, philosophy of

standardization, standardization studies, interdisciplinary research, research activities in the field of standardization, organizations for standardization, standardization.



A.A. Balashov  (Kurchatov. Kursk reg.). Saltiv antiquities on the territory of Seym region:  the issue of interethnic contacts ………………………………………………………………………………………….30

ALEXANDER ALEXANDROVICH BALASHOV – Researcher, Research Institute of South-East Russia Archaeology, Kursk State University. 307250, Kurchatov, Kursk reg. , Naberezhnaya ul. 7, #185.

e-mail: 2012balashov@gmail.com

The article is dedicated to the study of Khazar products made from non-ferrous metals that are found on the territory of Seym region. In total more than 60 findings (belt elements, jewelry, clothing parts) from 17 permanently studied monuments and a number of unspecified places are analyzed. On the basis of an extensive historiography all the findings have been reasonably divided into three groups: actual Saltiv antiquities, things wrongly attributed to them previously and things with a disputed place of production.

It is for the first time that a most complete catalog of Khazar products made from non-ferrous metals which were found on the territory of Seym region is given within one work. A part of the findings comes from predatory excavations on the territory of Kursk region and can be dated only with the involvement of a wide range of Saltiv analogies. The author notes that the clarification of the time of Khazar antiquities’ existence deep in Slavic lands has allowed to talk with more reason about long Slavic-Alan-Bulgarian contacts.

Keywords: Seversk land, Khazarian Khaganate, Romensky culture, Saltiv-mayatsky culture, Severian-Alan-Bulgarian relationship, Seym region



E.V. Khakhalkina  (Tomsk). Defeat as a benefit? British Conservatives and a revision of ideology  after the Second World War (1945–1951) ……………………………………………………………………………..41

ELENA VLADIMIROVNA KHAKHALKINA – Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Modern, Contemporary History and International Relations, Faculty of History, National Research Tomsk State University. 634050, Russian Federation, Tomsk, pr. Lenina, 36.

e-mail: ekhakhalkina@mail.ru

The defeat of the British Conservatives under Winston Churchill in the elections to the House of Commons in 1945, led to a revision of the foundations of domestic and foreign policy of the Conservative Party ideology. The center of attention was the idea of   the so-called «progressive Tories» (among the most prominent figures R. Butler, Harold Macmillan and others), calling for a change in a number of theoretical considerations of Party ideology. The article describes the reasons for the crushing defeat of the Conservatives in the first post-war elections and the process of updating the Conservative party installations in industry, social relations and foreign policy. The author concludes that the Tory party was able to use the defeat as a chance for a successful adaptation of the ideological and political attitudes to the changed post-war circumstances and the needs of British society.

Keywords: Conservative party, the United Kingdom, «Progressive Toryism», Elections 1945, Winston Churchill, Harold Macmillan, Conservatism.



N.A. Dushkova , V.A. Grigorova  (Voronezh). The state policy of stimulating handicraft production  in the second half of the XIX century: experience of the past for the development  of modern entrepreneurship ………………………………………………………………………………………………50

NATALIYA ALEKSANDROVNA DUSHKOVA – Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Head of the Department of History and Political Sciences, Voronezh State Technical University. 394026, Russian Federation, Voronezh, Moskovskiy pr. 14.

e-mail: dushkova_vstu@mail.ru

VIKTORIYA ALEKSANDROVNA GRIGOROVA – Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of History and Political Sciences, Voronezh State Technical University.394026, Russian Federation, Voronezh, Moskovskiy pr., 14.

e-mail: vagrigorova@rambler.ru

The article based on archival materials analyzes the history of the formation and development of state support made by the central and local authorities towards handicraft industry of Russian Chernozem South in the post-reform period. It reveals the experience of the state policy connected with the development of the small-scale industry in the late XIX–beginning of the XX century in order to adapt it to the realities of the present. It shows the activities of local institutions in stimulating the development of peasant handicrafts.

The authors identify a periodization of implementation of the state policy concerning handicrafts area. They prove that each of the stages was characterized by specific measures of the state policy. They related to the legal support of handicrafts, provision of benefits, creation of Handicrafts museum in St. Petersburg at the Imperial Agricultural Museum, giving craftsmen the orders from the government agencies and lending to small producers.

Keywords: craftsmen, central and local authorities, measures for stimulating the development of handicrafts, Russian Chernozem South.

E.N. Krylova (Saint Petersburg). The General Administration of Press in the Ministry  of the Interior in 1902–1904 ……………………………………………………………………………………………….56

ELENA NIKOLAEVNA KRYLOVA – Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Publicity and Public Relations, Pushkin Leningrad State University. 196605, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Pushkin, Peterburgskoe shosse, 10.

e-mail: hellennak@yandex.ru

The article is dedicated to the reports of the Minister of the Interior V. Pleve to the Tsar Nicolas II from April 1902 to July 1904. According to these reports main directions of policy of the General Administration of Press were the banning of opposition newspapers, supporting of pro-government periodicals, publishing and distribution of literature that showed feats of arms of Royal family; shaping of the image of Russia as a great military power. The particular attention in the article is given to the reports about the increasing of censor staff in the largest cities of the Russian Empire and toughening of censorship during the Russo-Japanese War.

Keywords: V. Pleve, N. Zverev, General Administration of Press in the Ministry of the Interior, public opinion, media, press, «The government bulletin», reports of the Minister of the Interior.

Surzhik D.V. (Moscow), Buranok S.O. (Samara). The economy of the Soviet State in 1944–1945 ……………..62

DMITRIY VIKTOROVICH SURZHIK – Candidate of Historical Science, Academic Secretary, Institute for World History of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IWH RAS). 119334, Russian Federation, Moscow, Leninskiy pr., 32a.

e-mail: warhistory@igh.ras.ru.

SERGEY OLEGOVICH BURANOK – Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of World History, Law and Teaching Methodology, Samara State Academy of Social-Sciences and Humanities. 443082, Russian Federation, Samara, ul. Penzenskaya 63, #65.

e-mail: witch-king-1@mail.ru

The article discusses the features of the development of economy of the USSR in 1944–1945. The authors study the statistics of military production and agriculture. They make a comparison of the most important sectors. The authors conclude that as a result of the tremendous efforts of the Soviet people and the leadership of the country in 1944 the prewar level of industrial output was surpassed. After the releasing the territory of the Soviet Union on the before occupied land of the RSFSR, Ukraine, Belarus and the Baltic states were restored 7.7 thousand destroyed enterprises, which soon began to increase the volume of production in heavy industry. In this way feat at the front was reinforced by the feat of logistics. Only together, when the country could unite with the common goal of releasing and defeating against the enemy, it was able to hold out and win. The authors conclude that if the main task of the Soviet economy in previous years had been the increasing production of military equipment, weapons and ammunition, providing the front with everything what it needed, then in 1944 there had been a clear trend towards conversion. Volume of «Civil» products gradually, but steadily grew.

Keywords: economy of the USSR, defense industry, Great Patriotic War, Soviet military production.



A.S. Kholod  (Saint Petersburg). Extracurricular work in schools of Tsarskoye Selo and Yamburg  in St. Petersburg province in the late XIX–early XX centuries …………………………………………….71

ALEXANDR SERGEEVICH KHOLOD – Postgraduate Student, Saint Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Universitetskaya nab. 7/9.

e-mail: valaquenta@rambler.ru

This article considers the extracurricular activities in schools of Tsarskoye Selo and Yamburg in Saint Petersburg province in the late XIX–early XX centuries. At that time there was a trend towards increased the number of functions that were carried out by various cultural and educational institutions. Schools, with maintaining the essential educational function, appreciably extended the potential of extracurricular activities, which became more important than earlier. More often in educational institutions various kinds of facultative studies were organized, i. e. music, dance, gymnastics, crafts, previously held only occasionally. To open students’ mind teachers began to arrange excursions and classroom reading. Educational methods were also changed. Then more attention was devoted not to education of children but to their upbringing. Especially noticeable these processes were in Nikolaevskaya gymnasia (secondary school) in Tsarskoye Selo, one of the most famous educational institutions in St. Petersburg province and in pre-revolutionary Russia in general.

Keywords: Saint Petersburg province, Tsarskoye Selo, Yamburg, educational institutions, cultural history, Russian history.

E.K. Mineeva  (Cheboksary), N.V. Kirosova  (Syktyvkar), A.I. Mineev (Cheboksary). Senior staff in the management system of the RSFSR national autonomies in 1920s:  structure and social mobility ………………………………………………………………………………………………77

ELENA KONSTANTINOVNA MINEEVA – Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the A.V. Arsentieva Department of National History, I.N. Ulyanov Chuvash State University. 428000, Russian Federation, Cheboksary, Universitetskaya ul. 38, #107.

e-mail: mineevaek21@mail.ru

NATALIA VASILIEVNA KIROSOVA – Senior Lecturer, Department of the General and Russian Philology, Institute of Humanities, Pitirim Sorokin Syktyvkar State University. 167001, Russian Federation, Syktyvkar, Oktyabr’skiy pr. 55, #108.

e-mail: knata2409@yandex.ru

ALEXEY IGOREVICH MINEEV – Candidate of Historical Sciences, Head of the Department of Dealing with Educational Organizations LLC «Leader Software – innovation center». 428000, Russian Federation, Cheboksary, Moskovsky pr., 17/1.

e-mail: minalig@inbox.ru

This article discusses the formation of the senior staff of the Komi autonomy in 1920s. On the basis of archival material, personal data and lists of delegates of the Komi regional party conferences, the article gives the social characteristics of administrative personnel, analyzes their social mobility and the incorporation of some Communists in the structure of some managers groups. The indigenization of personnel in the national-territorial autonomies was supposed to involve representatives of the titular nation into the state building of the region. It concludes that the Komi political elite was formed mainly from the national cadres on the basis of the method of transporting and appointment that were peculiar to the personnel policy of the Soviet State in this specified period. However, the appointment of the Secretaries of the Komi Regional Committee RCP(b) – AUCP(b) was held outside also. Career movements are revealed as among the top party and state leadership, as among the grass-roots level. The study of personal data of party committee secretaries and chairmen of district executive committees of local value allows accurately enough to monitor their vertical (upward or downward) mobility. It is revealed changes in the social status to «servant» of a number of senior staff in the Komi autonomy that corresponds with the general trends of the promoting the staff of the social ladder in the state apparatus. Solving the personnel issues in the national autonomies was especially challenging because the territories had mostly a lack of not only experts who knew language, culture and customs of the ethnic group, but also educated people and people who met the requirements of social and class origin.

Keywords: administrative staff, personnel structure, senior executives, national cadres, indigenization process, social mobility, qualitative and quantitative composition, Komi autonomy, personal data, regional party conference.



A.Z. Kartashyan  (Saint Petersburg). For the sake of the Fatherland and the State:  the Ottoman Armenians’ attitude towards the policy of Ottomanism (1830s–1870s) …………….83

ANAHIT ZAVENOVNA KARTASHYAN – Postgraduate Student, Department of Theory of Social Development in Asia and Africa, Faculty of Oriental Studies, St. Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Universitetskaya nab., 11.

e-mail: anahitkartashyan@yahoo.com

This article focuses on the formation of Armenian public opinion towards Ottomanism, putted forward by the Ottoman authorities to build a single unified «Ottoman society» and preserve the integrity of the multi-ethnic and multi-religious state. In order to research how the Armenian intellectual elite shaped Armenian public opinion towards Ottomanism, and whether they accepted or rejected the Ottoman identity the author has studied archival sources such as Armenian newspapers from 1840 to 1870, reports of the Armenian National Assembly and contemporary intellectuals’ diaries.

The author of this article proposes that in the 1840s and 1850s the Ottoman Armenians considered themselves as loyal subjects of the Ottoman state and did not integrate into the «Ottoman society». However, in the 1870s some members of the Armenian elite began to discuss the idea of Ottoman Armenians’ civic responsibilities and equal rights as Ottoman citizens.

Keywords: policy of Ottomanism, Ottoman Empire, Armenian Millet.


Meshcheryakov K.Y. (Saint Petersburg). The Russian–Kyrgyz relations  during the «Ukrainian crisis»……………………………………………………………………………………………….91

KONSTANTIN YEVGENIEVICH MESHCHERYAKOV – Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Deputy Head of Department of the Post-Soviet studies, School of International Relations, Saint Petersburg State University.
191060, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, ul. Smolnogo 1/3, Entrance VIII.

e-mail: k.mesheryakov@spbu.ru

The article analyzes the evolution of the Russian–Kyrgyz relations in 2014–2015. That period began with the diplomacy of Kyrgyzstan towards Russia, and ended with the disappointment of Bishkek in cooperation with Moscow, which pushed it to activate the search of other strategic partners. At that time, the bilateral relations developed on the background of a sharp aggravation of antagonisms between Russia and the West caused by the Ukrainian crisis. The author concludes that the impact of those events on the Russian–Kyrgyz relations was rather negative because the sanctions imposed against Russia and a sharp drop in the world prices for hydrocarbons resulted in a significant deterioration of economic situation in Russia, which hindered the implementation of its major investment projects in Central Asia. Those problems eroded the economic foundations of the Russian–Kyrgyz relations and consequently jeopardized Moscow’s influence on Bishkek.The article builds on a wide range of information sources originating from Russia and Kyrgyzstan, most of which are first involved in the academic circulation.

Keywords: Russia, Kyrgyzstan, foreign policy, diplomacy, international relations, international economic relations, strategic partnership, military-political alliance, post-Soviet integration, Customs Union, Eurasian Economic Union, investment projects, hydropower, Kambarata, Upper Naryn cascade of hydropower plants, Crimean Spring, Ukrainian crisis.

E.S. Halina  (Moscow). The impact of the Ukrainian crisis of 2014 on the relationship between Russia  and the European Union in the energy sector ……………………………………………………………………….103

EKATERINA SERGEEVNA HALINA – Postgraduate student, Department of World Politics and International Relations, Russian State University for the Humanities. 125993, Russian Federation, Moscow, GSP-3, Miusskaya pl. 6.

e-mail: 29-katya@mail.ru

This article discusses the events connected with the influence of the Ukrainian crisis of 2014 on the energy relations between Russia and the European Union. Chronological frameworks of research cover the period from February to December of 2014. The author examines the impact of the crisis on the energy policy of both the EU and the Russian Federation, analyzes the actions taken by each party under the influence of the events in Ukraine. It takes into account the existing disagreements within the EU, as well as a certain degree of dependence of this Association on the US policy regarding the major foreign policy decisions.The author considers the adopted by the EU sanctions against the fuel and energy complex of Russia. The article concludes that they had a selective nature, which wasn’t capable causing substantial damage to the interests of Russia in the short term. Special attention is paid to the new initiatives of both the EU and the Russian Federation, accepted under the influence of the crisis, and directed to the reducing the interdependence of each other.

Keywords: energy diplomacy, Russia, European Union, Ukraine, fuel and energy complex, energy security, sanctions, import substitution.



S.N. Rudnik  (Saint Petersburg). General conscription in Saint Petersburg in the 1874–1880s: first conscriptions, their features and results ………………………………………………………………….109

SERGEY NIKOLAEVICH RUDNIK – Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of History, National Mineral Resources University (Mining University). 199406, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Vasilievsky ostrov, Maly pr. 83.

e-mail: rudnik7@yandex.ru

This article considers such important thing as general conscription. Among all Russian military reforms in the 1860–1870s general conscription was one of the most significant. Article is dedicated to this insufficiently explored subject. The author analyzes the preparation process, course, results and features of the first conscriptions in St. Petersburg. City Committee on conscription did a great job in making the conscription lists, determination of exemptions by marital status. The article shows in detail all the stages of the first conscription campaign in 1874: checking the lists, toss-up and medical examination of conscripts. In comparison with other provinces of Russia there were few married recruits in St. Petersburg. Many of them were literate. One of the main problems was the health of recruits. The author pays attention to those who broke the law on a compulsory military service. There is the statistical data of conscripts.

Keywords: army, general conscription, charter, society, recruits, recruiting station, toss-up, exemptions.

Fomichev S.O. (Saint Petersburg). Military education and training of the staff in the Urals military  district during the mass political repressions in 1937–1938 ………………………………….120

SERGEY OLEGOVICH FOMICHEV – Lecturer, Mikhailovskaya Military Artillery Academy. 195009, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, ul. Komsomola 22.
e-mail: FOG1979@mail.ru.

Тhe article considers mass political repressions of the command staff structure of the Red Army in 1937–1938. Special attention is paid to training of the staff and military education in the Urals military district as well as the problems of daily life activities in military educational institutions. The article also reflects the miscalculations of leadership of the military district connected with organizational process of education in military educational institutions located on its territory.The author shows the results of the researching the command activities of the Urals military district and demonstrates the measures taken by the leadership of the Red Army to restore the personnel shortage in the Red Army on the eve of the Great Patriotic War in the 1941–1945.

Also this article represents general statistical information about victims of repressions in the Urals military district and teaching staff of military educational institutions located on its territory in the years of mass political terror in the country. Modern historians who research this tragic period of the Soviet State have the opportunity to get acquainted with extracts from previously unpublished materials of the Russian State Military Archive. Until now these materials were classified as «top secret» (now they are declassified), these documents were accessible only for a limited circle of persons among the country’s leadership and command staff of the Red Army. The author introduces into scientific circulation previously unpublished documents and statistical information.

Keywords: command staff, Ural military district, mass political repression, training of military personnel, military education



N.L. Volkovskiy , L.P. Maryina  (Saint Petersburg). Origins of the theory of journalism: concepts of ancient thinkers ……………………………………………………………………………………….125

NIKOLAY LUKYANOVICH VOLKOVSKIY – Doctor of Philological Sciences, Professor of the Department of Theory of Journalism and Mass Communications, St. Petersburg State University. 199004, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, 1 liniya V.O. 26

e-mail: vnluk@yandex.ru

LYUDMILA PETROVNA MARYINA – Candidate of Sociological Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Theory of Journalism and Mass Communications, St. Petersburg State University. 199004, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, 1 liniya V.O. 26.

e-mail: lmarjina@mail.ru

The article examines the formation processes and the initial dynamics of the main directions of the theory of journalism in ancient society – before journalism forms (pre-journalism) appeared, which are now designated by the term «protozhurnalistika» (one of the form of communication that was before journalism appeared). It showed the impact of thinkers’ concept of that era, under the influence of which was developed this form of communication: the views of the Sophists, who taught the art of convincing and proving their thoughts; Socrates dialectic of self-knowledge; Plato’s ethics; Aristotle art of analyzing and defining the processes leading to the conquest of the minds; science of determining the thought in the speeches of Cicero; Quintilian pedagogical ideas about preparing the speaker and other achievements of ancient thought, which led to the development of the modern science of journalism and mass communication. In general, the article presents the origins of appearing knowledge about mass media.

Keywords: annals, journalism, science, information, communication, logograph, thought, speaker, protogazeta, protozhurnalistika, publicism, speech, rhetoric, word.

S.S. Komissarenko  (Saint Petersburg).The ethos of nobility as a cultural social code ……………………………136

SVETLANA SERGEEVNA KOMISSARENKO – Doctor of Cultural Studies, Associate Professor, Professor of the  Department of Socio-Cultural Technologies, Saint Petersburg University of the Humanities and Social Sciences. 193079, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Narodnaya ul. 6, #71.

e-mail: komissarenko07@mail.ru

The topical nature of the ethos study in the context of aristocratic nobility culture is based on the following points:

1) application of the ethos approach to the study of culture, 2) understanding of the nobility ethos as a kind of social code that reveals the mechanisms of how the nobility culture was formed and what impact it made on the Russian social culture, 3) ability of the ethoc to decode aristocratic culture in historical terms.The article defines the «nobility ethos» concept and proves its basic importance in development of the aristocratic nobility culture. The article also specified basic elements of this concept: values, norms, behavior, conventions, customs and traditions.The author defines the second half of the XVIII century as the most favorable period in the history of the Russian nobility for establishment of the caste ethos, which was associated not only with the legal regulatory support of the nobility life, but also with the personal ambitions of Catherine II, aimed at the rise of the aristocratic noble class.The article analyzes the dominant values   of the aristocratic nobility culture in the context of class ideologemes: protection of the Fatherland, «zeal for the service», autocracy, obedience and loyalty to the Empress. The article also provides the analysis of personal values   of a nobleman, where the concept of honor and dignity refers to axiological meaning of life. The author proves the interdependence of values   and norms in the noble life and gives characteristic to regulatory functions in behavioral models that make elements of the nobility ethos. The article underlines the importance of etiquette rules in maintenance of a noble behavior.The article deals with such elements of the nobility ethos as conventions, customs and traditions, since they are major social-cultural regulators of the noble caste. The article further defines and explains basic functions of the aforementioned elements of the nobility ethos, i.e.: regulatory function, transfer of cultural experience, fixing of living standards and continuity function. Summarizing the article, the author concludes that the ethos of nobility greatly contributed to establishment of the aristocratic nobility culture, because it was the basis of its development and the guarantor of its continued existence.

Keywords: aristocratic nobility culture, class, ethos, values, norms, behavior, conventions, customs and traditions.

N.N. Sapfirova (Kiev, Ukraine). Art and Industrial education on territory of Ukraine  at the turn of the XIX–XX centuries ……………………………………………………………………………..142

NATALIA NIKOLAEVNA SAPFIROVA – Candidate of Cultural Studies, National Academy of Culture and Arts; Member of Fabergè Memorial Fund, All-Ukrainian Public Organization Ukrainian Association of Geologists.
01133, Ukraine, Kiev, Boulevard Lesi Ukrainki 28a, #321.

e-mail: sapfirova.nata@mail.ru

The article describes a system of art and industrial education, which acted on the territory of Ukraine at the end of the XIX–early XX centuries. There are marked such basic centers as: Ekaterinoslav, Kiev, Kharkov, and Odessa. For Kamenetz-Podolsk and Mirgorod some information about educational institutions is additionally provided. This article presents some types of educational institutions and gives a list of disciplines. The features of artistic-pictorial and artistic-applied areas are studied. J. Marshak’s Kiev jewelry factory was studied as the example of learning system for jewelry artists. Some names of the owners, teachers of educational institutions, private courses and practicing teaching painters are presented in the article. Also the author marked the role of benefactors, as well as the composition effect for governing facilities and famous artists on the formation of the school of painting in Ukraine in that period. There’s shown the connection between the system of art and industrial education of Ukraine and education system of the Imperial Stroganov Central School of Industrial Art and the Imperial Academy of Arts in St. Petersburg. The achievements of students of the art and industrial institutions and existing workshops at exhibitions in 1913 in Petrograd and Kiev are shown in this article. There was disclosed a number of issues dedicated to the art and industrial education, covered in the press and private notes of the late XIX–early XX century.

Keywords: art and industrial education, territory of Ukraine, Stroganov’s Central Imperial School of Art and Industrial, end of the XIX–early XX century.

N.Y. Olesich  (Saint Petersburg). Historical mission of the St. Petersburg University in formation of multiethnic Russian culture and science ………………………………………………………….149

NINEL’ YAKOVLEVNA OLESICH – Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, President of Cultural Foundation «Famous graduates», St.Petersburg State University. 195299, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, ul. Cherkasova 25/13, #61.

e-mail: assembly@mail.ru

This article demonstrates and gives an assessment to the unique significance of the Petersburg world as a cultural, scientific and mental cooperation of different nationalities people, draws attention to the fact that thanks to the city the St.Petersburg State University was more international and universal rather than other ones in the country. Also it reveals the impact of the Russian culture, Russian language as an instrument of international, professional and mental communication of young people on the forming of national cultures. The author shows a particular role of the University in creating the unique, tolerant climate in which young people of different nationalities and religions were united by the culture and education, was large. Also the article gives the assessment to the influence of moral and ethical environment of the Peter’s Alma mater on the forming of Russian intelligentsia personality. Moreover the historical impact of the multi-national university community on the creating of influential image of Russia and St.Petersburg was emphasized. The article demonstrates the historical role of the University faculty of Oriental Studies in the formation of national intelligentsia that’s a pride of the Russian culture.

Keywords: St. Petersburg State University, multinational world, international relations, Eastern faculty, national intelligentsia.



I.Yu. Lapina, S.Yu. Kargapoltsev (Saint Petersburg). Extremism and terrorism as destructive sociogenesis indicators ……………………………………………………………………………………………..155

IRINA YURYEVNA LAPINA – Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Head of the Department of History and Philosophy, Saint Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering. 190005, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, 2-ya Krasnoarmeiskaya ul. 4.

e-mail: soviet@lan.spbgasu.ru

SERGEY YURYEVICH KARGAPOLTSEV – Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of History and Philosophy, Saint Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering. 190005,  Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, 2-ya Krasnoarmeiskaya ul. 4.

e-mail: soviet@lan.spbgasu.ru

The article considers the terminological classification of terrorism as a destructive phenomenon in sociogenesis. Based on the analysis of modern historiography and internet resources the authors make attempt to study the history and current state of terrorism and extremism and give scientifically based recommendations on the issue of youth education on the principles of rejection of terrorism and extremism. It concludes that the inadmissibility of glorification of terrorist of the past and the further reduction of the humanities in schools and universities. Diagnose the initial components of radicalism and terrorism in the world – poverty, nationalism, religious extremism, the mixing of cultures, economic and military crisis, globalization, Americanism. The paper gives an assessment the links between terrorism and other crimes. In authors’ opinion «it’s unacceptable to create heroic myth in educational literature, use the toponymic names for description of the terrorists of the past (Jacobins, Decembrists, PeopleFreedom, Revolutionaries, Bolsheviks), and also represent their activity as “class struggle” and “revolutionary process”».

Keywords: Russia, sociogenesis, terrorism, extremism, radicalism, Americanism, globalization, culture, education.

S.A. Tyshkevich, N.V. Ilievskiy (Moscow). Historical science and the followers of Vlasov (Continuing the theme of «Defense of K.M. Aleksandrov») …………………………………………….164

STEPAN ANDREEVICH TYSHKEVICH – Doctor of Philosophical Sciences, Professor, Honored Scientist of the RSFSR, Laureate of the State prize of the USSR, Veteran of the Great Patriotic War. 119330, Russian Federation, Moscow, Universitetskiy pr. 14.

e-mail: sat1917@yandex.ru

NIKOLAY VYACHESLAVOVICH ILIEVSKIY – Full Member of International Academy of Historical and Social Sciences, Advisor of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences. 123001, Russian Federation, Moscow, Bolshaya Sadovaya 14.

e-mail: inv300463@mail.ru

The article considers the problem of the scientific value of the doctoral dissertation of K.M. Alexandrov, which was defended on 1 March, 2016, at the St. Petersburg Institute of History of Russian Academy of Sciences and it’s dedicated to the social characteristics and motivation of officers’ actions of the Armed Forces of the Committee for the Liberation of the Peoples of Russia, created by the government of Nazi Germany during the Second World War under the nominal leadership of the former commander of the 2nd Shock Army, General-Lieutenant Vlasov. This dissertation was analyzed regarding the considering of significant scientific tasks and important theoretical positions that could be qualified as a scientific achievement. The authors also focused on various aspects of the phenomenon of betrayal, the specifics of its study and the present state of our historical science.

Keywords: Second World War, Great Patriotic War, history, dissertation, betrayal, collaboration, scientific soundness, K.M. Aleksandrov.



A.N. Ermolaev  (Kemerovo). Review on the book: Kenneth N. Owens with Alexander Yu. Petrov  «Empire Maker: Aleksandr Baranov and Russian Colonial Expansion into Alaska  and Northern California». A Samuel and Althea Stroum Book. University of Washington Press. Seattle and London, 2015 ……………………………………………………………………………………….170

ALEXEY NIKOLAEVICH ERMOLAEV – Doctor of Historical Sciences, Head of the Laboratory of History of Southern Siberia, Institute of Human Ecology, Federal Research Center of Coal and Coalchemistry, Siberian Department of Russian Academy of Sciences. 650065, Russian Federation, Kemerovo, Leningradskiy pr. 10.

e-mail: al-ermolaev@yandex.ru.

The article is reviewing the monograph of K.N. Owens and A.Yu. Petrov, dedicated to activity of the first Main Governor of the Russian-American company merchant Alexander Andreyevich Baranov. This review notices that the authors have a great experience of researching the history of life and activities of A.A. Baranov. In their monograph, they made a number of important clarifications in the biography of this merchant. In particular, they proved that A.A. Baranov was born in 1747, not in 1746, as it was  considered previously. The article notes that the monograph was written on the basis of a great volume of archival documents and thus has a fundamental significance. The authors trace the activity of A.A. Baranov throughout his life, describing him as a real «Empire Maker».

Keywords: A.A. Baranov, Russian America, Russian-American Company.

A.V. Losik , A.N. Sherba  (Saint Petersburg). Fate of the historian on the background of the Russian history  in the XX c. About the collection of articles «The way of Russia and fate of the historian  (the 80th anniversary of Professor V. Kutuzov)» …………………………………………………………………….174

ALEXANDER VITALYEVICH LOSIK – Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Professor of the Baltic State Technical University D.F. Ustinova (VOENMEKH), Deputy of Editor in Chief of journal for scientists «KLIO». 197374, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg. Shkol’naya ul. 88, korp. 2, #81.

e-mail: nestorklio@mail.ru

ALEXANDR NIKOLAEVICH SHERBA — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Researcher of Research Department (military history of North-western region of Russian Federation), Research institute (of military history), Military Academy of the General Staff. 191055, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Nevskiy pr. 10.

E-mail: a.n.sherba@mail.ru.

This article presents the review of A.V. Losik and A.N. Sherba, which contains a brief analysis of articles written about 3 years ago by colleagues, friends and students of the Professor V.A. Kutuzov on the eve of the 80th anniversary. The collection of the articles was published in 2015 shortly before the death of the historian. The authors of the review paid attention to the fact that Vladislav Aleksandrovich was at the origins of the study of the history the «Leningrad affair», gave a great personal contribution into the analysis of the activities of such well-known historical persons as A.A. Zhdanov, A.A. Kuznetsov, V.S. Abakumov, A.A. Vlasov, N.P. Komarov. This review also gave an assessment of some articles of this collection.

Keywords: Vladislav Aleksandrovich Kutuzov, «Leningrad affair», Siege of Leningrad, restoration of national economy of Leningrad.



S.N. Poltorak  (Saint Petersburg), A.V. Posadsky  (Saratov). National leaders in 1918–1922:  problems of studying and understanding. Materials of the extramural roundtable ………………………….177

SERGEY NIKOLAEVICH POLTORAK — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Editor-in-Chief of journal for scientists «Klio», Professor of Department of History and Regional Studies, Bonch-Bruevich Saint Petersburg State University of Telecommunications. 195220, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Grazhdanskiy pr. 11.

E-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru

ANTON VIKTOROVICH POSADSKY – Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of Department of History of the State, Law and International Relations, Stolypin Volga Region Institute of Administration, Branch of Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA). 410028, Russian Federation, Saratov, Bakhmetjevskaya ul. 12/16, #25.

e-mail: Posad1968@rambler.ru

This article contains the materials which represent research project named «National leaders in 1918–1922». Thanks to the journal for scientists «Klio» it could possible to publish this article. The participants of the project are the main authors although there are new names.Extramural roundtable represents some expert views on project’s issues. Researching methods and ways of interpretation of the area which was formed by the chieftains – people, who came from the lower classes and could lead post-revolutionary people in conditions of the Civil War, are in the spotlight. This surroundings is very variegated, there are significant differences between the regions of the Russian Empire. Great state collapse brought to life many various including low-to-date in calm period of time intentions, expectations, and fears and revived the mechanisms of historical memory.

Keywords: extramural roundtable, national leaders, 1918–1922, expectations, fears, Russian Empire, lower classes.



To the memory of  V.A. Kutuzov ………………………………………………………………………………….211

This article is dedicated to the memory of well-known Russian scientist, Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Honored Worker of Higher Education of the Russian Federation V.A. Kutuzov. It briefly describes his life and scientific merits, achievements. It’s emphasized that Vladislav Aleksandrovich graduated from the Institute of the History of the Leningrad State University. He was at the origins of the studying the history of the Leningrad affair, co-author of such great works as «Revival. Memories, essays and documents on Leningrad restoration», «Chekists of Petrograd guarding the revolution», «Declassified Siege of Leningrad» and etc.

Keywords: V.A. Kutuzov, Siege of Leningrad, Leningrad affair, Chekists of Petrograd, Leningrad restoration.