Klio #4 (160) 2020



Aksanian K.E. (Moscow). The battle of Novgorod-Seversky in 1604. A source study aspect

Applicant, Department of source studies
Moscow State University M.V. Lomonosov
119991, Moscow, GSP-1, Lomonosovsky Prospekt, 27
e-mail: akskaren1992@gmail.com

The article analyzes the battle of Novgorod-Seversky in December 1604, which became the first battle of the tsarist army with the invading forces of False Dmitry I. Previously, the history of the battle was not thoroughly investigated. In historiography, there are no special works devoted directly to the battle and its consequences. The work raises the question of the reasons for the poor knowledge of that battle and the reasons for the attention of historians to the battle of Dobrynichi, held in January 1605. The article sets the task of reconstructing the battle of Novgorod-Seversky. The reconstruction is based on a comparative analysis of the news of foreigners and bit records. Comparison is made regarding the background, dating, course, and consequences of the battle. The news of the foreigners contains two versions of what is happening, which differ both in the description of the details and in understanding the course of the battle itself. An attempt is made to explain some controversial issues related to the course of the battle. Assumptions are made about the possible reasons for the discrepancy and contradiction of sources in the description of the battle. The analysis shows that most of the royal army was not involved in the battle. The question of the role of Russian governors in the battle is considered.
Keywords: The Time of Troubles, Novhorod-Siverskyi, military history, Book of ranks, False Dmitry I, source study.


Afanasyeva I.A. (Moscow). Early evidence of funeral commemoration of people who died an unnatural death (on the material of service-books)

graduate student of the department of Russian history until the beginning of the XIX century.
Faculty of History, Moscow State University M.V. Lomonosova
the Russian Federation, 119192,
Moscow, Lomonosov Avenue, d. 27, bldg. 4
ORCID: 0000-0001-6892-7089

In domestic science, there is an opinion that the practice of commemoration of people who died unnatural deaths arose in Russia at the turn of the XIV–XV centuries. This article provides evidence of handwritten monuments testifying to the existence of commemoration tradition of this kind of deceased in an earlier period of Russian history. The oldest surviving service-books are samples of liturgical books compiled on the basis of a single Christian liturgical tradition. However, in the process of the long existence of monuments on Russian soil, changes took place in the texts. It was determined that part of the text of the memorial prayers, located in the service-books of the XIV century, is probably of Russian origin. The text of the memorial prayer “when for the whole deceased” from the service-books under consideration, has a similar composition with the form of other memorial prayers. The presence of this text in the composition of service-books indicates the circumstances of the use of prayer — during the service, publicly.
Keywords: memorial practice, unnatural (in vain) death, service-book, requiem, listing of deaths, types of death, rite, burial.


Krasnoshchekov N.A. (Moscow). Changes in the regulatory framework of the printed media after the XX Congress of the CPSU (1956-1963)

3rd-year post-graduate student of the Department of history of state and municipal administration, Faculty of public administration,
Lomonosov Moscow State University. Russian Federation, Moscow, 119992, Lomonosov Avenue, 27, building 4.
Tel.: 8(985)135-30-56,
E-mail: nickrasoft@gmail.com

This article examines the problem of changes in the regulatory framework of the printed media from the XX Congress of the CPSU and up to the end of the rule of N.S. Khrushchev. The author presents an analysis of a set of party and government documents regulating the activities of the print media, on the basis of which he attempts to identify the main trends in the regulation of the press by the Soviet state. The article reveals the measures taken by the Central Committee of the CPSU aimed at optimizing and improving the organizational and content efficiency of publishing houses, and also describes the changes that occurred in the legal framework of the printed media between 1956 and 1963. Based on the analysis of the documents, the author infers that by the beginning of the 1960s the USSR had built a complex and comprehensive structure of ideological and party control over the printed media.
Keywords: N.S. Khrushchev, XX Congress of the CPSU, the regulatory framework of the media, legal regulation of the media, legislation on mass media in the USSR, print media, the Soviet press.


Lurier F.M. (St. Petersburg). Library of the Russian Empire

Member of the Union of Writers of St. Petersburg, member of the PEN Club, member of the Russian PEN Center (World Writers Association), historian
195220, St. Petersburg, Grazhdansky pr., 11

The publication provides a detailed plan of directions for the selection of the main pre-revolutionary publications, which are undeservedly forgotten. The author of the publication, having done a tremendous analytical work, summarized information about monographs, periodicals and other publications that were published in Russia in such areas as general information about the Russian Empire, geography, legislation, political system, religion, church, historical sciences, memoirs, armed forces, estate system, socio-political movements, education, science, secular and church art, literature, music, theater, book art, bibliophilism, reference books, biographical materials. The author compiled bibliographic lists of 10 thousand titles of the most valuable, in his opinion, publications, most of which went out of print before 1917. All publications are now a bibliographic rarity. Therefore, the studies of F.M. Lurie largely determined the publishing strategy of the ascetic Petersburg publishing house “Alfaret”. As part of a large-scale project, this publishing house published more than 7 thousand fax volumes — monographs, albums, magazines, maps, and individual sheets.
Keywords. Books of the Russian Empire, Library of the Russian Empire, science in the Russian Empire, book publishing in the Russian Empire, Alfaret Publishing House.


Ahssan Rasha (St. Petersburg). Reconsidering the formation of the Athens navy in the Archaic period

1 year postgraduate student, Russian State Pedagogical University named after A.I. Herzen, Department of World History.
Saint-Petersburg, emb. Moyka, 48

The given article demonstrates the formation and development of seamanship in archaic Greece, particularly in Athens. National historiography doesn’t possess analysis on the following subject, moreover, researchers of western science paid much attention to Greek-Persian war and on Athenian arche. Meanwhile, there is the number of debatable issues that our article is intended to address: the circumstances of the origin of the Athenian navy, types, the structure, and technical equipment of the merchant ships and navy in Athens at that period. In the article particular attention is paid to the fragmented information of ancient authors, as well as visual data (pictures on vases). An assumption is made that in the era before the Persian war the most widespread navy sheep was penteconter, and the number of ships of different types was equal to 50-70.
Keywords: Athens, archaic era, navy, trireme, penteconter, ram.


Gomon K.A. (St. Petersburg). Relations between the government of the ADR, the command of the armed forces of Southern Russia and the British military occupation administration in Azerbaijan in the Autumn of 1918- Summer of 1919

PhD in History
Senior researcher at the Museum of military costume
Russia, Saint Petersburg, 3th Sovietskaya ul., 8.
+7(996)790-30-15; E-mail: kupigriliato@yandex.ru

The article examines the complex issues of the military-political situation in Transcaucasia and Azerbaijan after the defeat of the German-Turkish bloc in the First world war against the backdrop of the civil war unfolding in Russia. The military occupation administration, which was handed over to the British command of the Entente troops in the region, had a negative impact on both the economic situation of the Azerbaijani democratic Republic and the political situation of its government. The reduction of oil trade with Bolshevik Russia created obstacles to reform and worsened the situation of the population, and the support of the Entente leaders of the white movement with its slogans of a United and indivisible Russia, led to political crises in the leadership of the ADR. Against this background, the independent existence of the Azerbaijani democratic Republic was threatened, and the defeat of the white movement opened the way to Transcaucasia and Baku for the Bolsheviks, whose social equalizing slogans were close to the masses and partly to the political leaders of Azerbaijan.
Keywords: The civil war in the Caucasus, the Azerbaijan democratic Republic, the armed forces of South Russia, occupation of the Caucasus, A. I. Denikin, W. Thompson.


Liulei (Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, People’s Republic of China). Precondition of the origin of white emigration in Xinjiang

a first-year postgraduate, department of historical regional studies,
Institute of History, St. Petersburg State University,
193231, Solidarity Avenue, 27, Building 1.
People’s Republic of China, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region,
Urumqi, st. JianQuan, 35.
Tel.+7 (996) 938-39-75, e-mail:liulej@yandex.ru

The article is devoted to the history of Russian settlers in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China before revolution. There are several stages of Russian penetration in Xinjiang, in the process we examined economic, political and religious circumstances. Particular attention is paid to the process of forming the Russian merchants and the activities of the imperial consuls in Gulja, Chuguchak, and Urumqi. The author concludes that the relocation to Xinjiang began at the end of the 18th century, the conclusion of the Kuldzhinsky and Petersburg agreements led to the growth of trade operations and the formation of consulates. This stimulated a new resettlement of Russians in this region, as well as the development of infrastructure. Therefore, until 1917 all necessary conditions were existed on the territory of Xinjiang, which helped the white emigration then.
Keywords: Xinjiang, Old Believers, trade, merchants, emigrants, Treaty of Kulja, Treaty of Saint Petersburg, white emigration.


Magomedkhanov M.М. Bakanov A.V., Garunova S.M., Emirova M.N. (Makhachkala). Russian-Dagestan trade and economic communications during the existence of the Moscow Kingdom (Part Two, Section 2)

D.Sc. (in History), Prof., Head of Dept. of Ethnography
The Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the
Daghestan Scientific Centre of RAS
Russia, Makhachkala, M. Yaragskogo 75 st.

Junior Researcher
The Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography of the
Daghestan Scientific Centre of RAS
Russia, Makhachkala, M. Yaragskogo 75 st.

Junior Researcher
The G. Tsadasa Institute of Language, Literature and Art of the
Daghestan Scientific Centre of RAS,
Russia, Makhachkala, M.Gadzhieva 45 st.

In the first half of the 17th century, the geopolitical formation around the West Caspian coast underwent dramatic changes. Safavid Iran, which during this period several times defeated the Ottoman Empire, began to sovereignly control the Eastern Transcaucasia. The kingdom of Moscow, located in this part of the Caucasus in military-political interaction, in turn, controlled the basin of the lower reaches of the Terek River. The change in the policy of the Russian State in its relations with the territorial-political entities of the “Country of Mountains” de facto contributed to the revitalization and very dynamic development of Russian-Dagestan trade and economic relations. In the first half of the 17th century, merchants of feudal lords and other merchants of the Caspian region regularly visited Moscow, Astrakhan, and Tersky Gorod to implement commercial initiatives. At that time, Russian-Dagestan trade was also carried out in the markets of Transcaucasia. The Kingdom of Moscow in the second half of the 16th century, and the first half of the 17th century, considered Dagestan as a transit region, extremely important for the implementation of eastern trade.
Keywords: Kingdom of Moscow, the Volga-Caspian highway, Dagestan, handicraft and manufacturing, raw materials, Tersky Gorod, Astrakhan, Transcaucasia, Iran, Ottoman Empire.


Odinokov A.S. (Moscow). Crimean question in Russian-Turkish relations

Postgraduate 3 years of study 
of the Department of Russian History of the XX-XXI centuries 
of Lomonosov Moscow State University.
119991, Russian Federation, Moscow, Leninskie gory St., 1.
E-mail: GERQO@yandex.ru

This article discusses a brief description of the Crimean crisis, which was a consequence of the Ukrainian crisis, explores its consequences for Russia. The article also highlights the inconsistency of the principles and norms of international law, which have largely influenced the current situation with the accession of Crimea to Russia. The article discusses a similar controversial situation regarding the recognition of a new state on the example of the conflict in Cyprus between the Republic of Cyprus and the self-proclaimed Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. It is concluded that the non-recognition of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus by Russia could, inter alia, affect the non-recognition of the legal accession of Crimea to the Russian Federation by Turkey. The article provides a brief historical background on the Crimean peninsula, provides evidence of the duration of ownership of the peninsula by various states throughout history, and considers Turkish interests in the “Crimean” issue in the context of relations with Ukraine and Russia. The article provides a brief historical background on the Crimean peninsula, discusses Turkish interests in this matter in the context of relations with Ukraine and Russia. The current relations of Turkey with Russia and Ukraine are investigated. Particular attention is paid to the current conflict between Turkey and Russia in Syria, and also highlights the possible prospects for its development.

Keywords: Crimean crisis, UN, Russian-Turkish relations, Russian Empire, Ottoman Empire, Crimean War, Syrian conflict, international law.


Sosin М.А. (Yakutsk). Population size of Yakut region in first third of XIX century according to data of Soviet historians

Federal Research Centre “The Yakut Scientific Centre of
the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences”,
the part-time work:
History Teacher, “Special (correctional) basic secondary school No. 22
(VII type)” of the City District “City of Yakutsk”

The article is devoted to the Soviet historiography of the historical demography of Yakutia of the first third of the XIX century in terms of population size. This most important parameter of the population at the time studied received different and ambiguous assessments. Although conditions for studying this problem were formed in Soviet times and this was the most important stage in the historiography. The article considers the causes of this situation.
Keywords: Soviet historiography, historical demography, Yakut region, the first third of the XIX century, population.


Khasyanovа A.D. (Moscow). «Tauride province news» as a symbol of the birth of the provincial periodicals in Crimea

3-year graduate student of the faculty of public administration of Moscow State University. M.V. Lomonosov St. (Address: 199 Lenin Hills, Russia, Moscow, 119991)
tel. +79199659528 positivchic3d@mail.ru

“Tavricheskiye Gubernskiye Vedomosti”, published since 1838, was the first periodical on the territory of the Crimea. The history of the newspaper was determined primarily by legal conditions, changes in economic and socio-political relations in the country, which were reflected on the pages of both the official and unofficial parts of the publication. “Gubernskie Vedomosti” served the cultural development of the region, the birth of new types of publications and the formation of the printing system in the province. The unofficial part of the publication, according to historians of journalism, was a prototype of the Russian private provincial newspaper. The newspaper was published from 1838 to 1920, and became one of the main sources for studying the history of the Tauride province at the turn of the XIX – XX centuries.
Keywords: Periodicals, Tauride province, newspaper, Crimea, formation, background.


Yakhimovich S.Yu. (Khabarovsk). Functioning of the Soviet trade Union of education workers in the CER zone (1920 – 1931)

Ph. D in History, Associate Professor the department of
social and humanitarian and economic disciplines
Far Eastern Legal Institute of Internal Affairs Ministry of Russia.
680042, Russia, Khabarovsk, Shelest St., 83 – 20.
E-mail: sergyahim-69@yandex.ru

The article is devoted to the activities of the Soviet professional Union of educational workers in the former exclusion zone of the Chinese Eastern railway from the moment of its transformation in 1920 to the entry of Japanese troops into Northern Manchuria in late 1931. His work is shown in the context of transformations of the political situation and the education system in the CER. It is established that the Soviet trade Union, which United education workers, performed two main tasks. The first, official, was to establish the work of educational and various educational institutions on the Soviet model. The second, unofficial, was aimed at sovietizing the Russian population of the CER zone, controlling the part of it that had taken Soviet citizenship, and covertly propagating Communist ideals. It was the latter component that was the main argument for the close attention and claims against the trade Union by the Chinese authorities.
Keywords: Northern Manchuria, the Chinese Eastern railway (CER), trade Union, Sorapros, education, Training Department.


Zlobin A.N. (Voronezh). Radio of the Central Black Earth Region during the First Five-Year Plan

Candidate of historical sciences, associate professor of the Department of Philosophy and History of Voronezh State University of Engineering Technologies. Russia, Voronezh, Revolution Ave., 19.

The article considers various aspects of the development of the radio channel in the Central Chernozem region at the first stage of industrialization, based on the archive data that is being put into scientific circulation for the first time. This paper analyzes the plans of the radio service, as well as difficulties hindering the implementation of planned programs. The most important negative factors that hindered the development of the radio channel were: lack of funding, equipment, and qualified specialists, haphazardness, confusion in management and campaigning. The author studies various aspects of radio identification management, including the relationship between organizations that carried it out: Radio center, the Regional society of friends of radio, and the Regional Headquarters for the elimination of breakthroughs on the radio front. On the example of the creation of the Regional broadcasting Committee, the difficulties of radio channel administration are shown. The article focuses on the mass campaigns aimed at the development of radio communication in the CSO, such as the radio walk and the two-decadent review and assistance of radio. The paper also examines the nature of broadcasting, examines changes in the broadcast of radio programs, addresses issues of children’s radio broadcasting, and draws Parallels with the organization of the radio channel in other regions of the country. The conclusion summarizes the development of the radio of the Central black earth region in the first five years Noted in particular that in 1933, it was covered by radio about 64,000 families, as well as all the major companies and new buildings.
Keywords: radiofication, radio production, radio campaign, cultural revolution, industrialization, collectivization.


Antoshkin A.V. (Sterlitamak). State trade of Bashkortostan during the monetary reform of 1947

Candidate of Historical Sciences, teacher of history and social science of the municipal autonomous educational institution “Gymnasium No. 2” St. Friendship, 37, Sterlitamak, Republic of Bashkortostan
E-mail: aav151284@rambler.ru

The State Trade in Bashkiria during the monetary reform in 1947 Abstract: the article is dedicated to the work of state-owned trading organisations and workers supply departments in Bashkiria during the monetary reform of 1947. Based on documents from the National Archive of the Republic of Bashkortostan, which had never been subjected to scientific scrutiny, the article analyzes the preparation of the state trading network and workers supply departments of the relevant ministries on the central and regional levels to the transition from rationing to open trade without the use of rationing cards. The author traces the dynamics of the growth of centralized provisions stocks and the trading network in Bashkiria. Special attention is paid to training the staff for open trade organizations. The research disclosed significant problems in the work of trading organizations in the Republic. On the one hand, workers supply departments at plants and factories in Bashkiria developed several models for rationing supply of the limited stocks for their employees. The system of passes was introduced; differential rationing of manufactured goods was illegally re-established; sales outlets were placed within high-security areas. On the other hand, the open trade system did not supply sufficient amounts of foodstuffs to meet the people’s demands, which caused panic, enormous queues and also generated resentment against open trade among both blue-collar and white-collar workers. Furthermore, besides the deficit of foodstuffs, there were multiple cases of overstocking, especially with old-stock and low-demand goods, mainly due to their low quality and high prices. As a result, the author concludes that the Ministry for Trade paid little attention to analyzing the demand structure in the Republic, which resulted in an assortment of manufactured goods was formed that did not meet the demands of both city and country people in Bashkiria.
Keywords: rationing system, open trade, workers supply department, Ministry for trade, food stocks, monetary reform of 1947, Bashkiria.


Grechkin V.N. (St. Petersburg). Cinema services for the population of Leningrad in 1945-1960s (problems of building cinemas)

St. Petersburg State University, Institute of History,
Department of History of the Nations of the Commonwealth of Independent States, 3 years post-graduate study.
7–9, Universitetskaia nab., St. Petersburg, 199034, Russian Fеderation.
vitalij-grechkin@yandex.ru, +79533518115

The present research is devoted to the problem of building cinemas in postwar Leningrad. The article aims to study the development of the film distribution network in the cultural capital of the USSR. The source base of the research is office documentation, periodical press materials, architectural directories. The study is based on materials from the Central State Archive of Literature and Art of St. Petersburg (CSALA SPb). Business documentation is the most informative type of written source because it contains comprehensive information on projects to improve film services for the population of Leningrad. The scientific novelty of the research is to study the problems of organizing mass leisure time in post-war Leningrad, the effectiveness of film distribution for the city budget, and its role in the life of Leningrad citizens. The author concludes that even though a lot of work has been done in Leningrad’s post-war cinemas to organize the free time of the citizens, the use of outdated approaches and the lack of a thoughtful policy to expand the opportunities for leisure for several decades has been irrational and inefficient.
Keywords: Leningrad, cinema, film distribution, leisure, architecture.


Zimonin V.P. (Moscow). About the «eve» of the Second world war with more than 10 million victims and problems for modern international security

Doctor of historical Sciences, Professor,
honored scientist of the Russian Federation,
adviser to the Russian Academy of rocket and artillery Sciences,
member of the Scientific Council of the Russian military-historical society,
full member of the Academy of Military Sciences of the Russian Federation
117648 Russia, Moscow, Severnoye Chertanovo, 6 bldg, sq. 605, flat 565
E-mail: vp-zimonin@mail.ru

The World has turned upside down over the past three decades. There is an active redrawing of the borders that developed after the Second world war, rewriting the history of that war, and a powerful blow is being dealt to the historical and spiritual consciousness of Russians and peoples of other countries. Recently, the leaders of a number of Western countries have joined the outright falsification of military history. There are also deep concerns about military actions by the United States and other NATO countries to interfere, sometimes using armed force, in the affairs of sovereign UN member states, with the destruction of their integrity in some cases, as was the case with the beginning of the Second world war. In these circumstances, it is very important to commemorate the 75th anniversary of the victories over Nazi Germany and militaristic Japan, to which the Soviet Union made a huge contribution, in order to demonstrate its determination to prevent the outbreak of new world wars.
Keywords: World war II, eve, initial period, falsification, lessons, security.


Soldatenko V.F. (Kiev, Ukraine). The end of World War II and collegiality of Ukrainian lands

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Corresponding Member of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Chief Researcher at the I. F. Kuras Institute of Political and Ethno-National Studies of NAS of Ukraine
E-mail: soldatenko.v.f@gmail.com

In essence, the article continues to cover the problems that began in the publication of the “Klio” journal (2020. No. 3. 75 – 92 pp.) and chronologically related to the eve of World War II – 1938 – 1940. The result achieved then – the reunification of Western Ukrainian, as well as North Bukovinian and Bessarabian lands within the Ukrainian SSR – was already crossed out at the beginning of the military invasion of Nazi Germany and its satellites in the Soviet Union. Throughout the entire Great Patriotic War country’s leadership, its diplomats had the opportunity to uphold historical correctness and justice of the acts committed, inviolability of Ukrainian territories unity, their ethnic population, the new western borders of USSR in difficult relations with Western countries. The principled position was reinforced by the brilliant victories of the Red Army. Decisive victories at the fronts allowed lands of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, which were populated mainly by Ukrainians, to be returned to the natural borders. With slight deviations from the 1939 borders, the demarcation line between Eastern Galicia, Western Volhynia and Poland was restored. Democratically, the question of Czechoslovakia’s transfer of Transcarpathia, according to the will of its population, to Ukrainian SSR was resolved. So, as a result of a historic victory over Nazi Germany and its allies, the ethnic lands of Ukraine were united into state integrity, completing the long process of implementing catholic ideas.
Keywords: collegiality, historical justice, anti-Hitler coalition, post-war borders, USSR, Ukrainian SSR, USA, Great Britain, Poland, Romania, Czechoslovakia.


Sheudzhen E.A., Gubzhokov M.N., Khotko S.H. (Maykop). Game Culture of Circassians in Context of Military Historical Anthropology

Emilia ayubovna Sheudzhen
Ph.D. in History,
Professor of the Department of National History,
Historiography, Theory and Methodology of History,
Adygean State University.
385000, Russian Federation, Republic of Adygea,
Maikop city, Pervomaiskaya, 208.
E-mail: emil.scheujen2013@yandex.ru

Ph.D. in History,
Head of the Ethnology and Folk Art Department,
Adygean Republican Institute of
Humanitarian Researches named after Kerashev.
385000, Republic of Adygea, Maykop, Krasnooktyabrskaya, 13.
Тел.: (8772) 52-16-23, e-mail:marat_gubjok@mail.ru

Ph.D. in History,
Principal Researcher of the Ethnology and Folk Art Department,
Adygean Republican Institute of
Humanitarian Researches named after Kerashev.
385000, Republic of Adygea, Maykop, Krasnooktyabrskaya ul., 13.
E-mail: inalast@mail.ru

In this article on the basis of the anthropological approach an attempt to present the originality of the paramilitary cultural traditions that were shown in the daily life of Adyghe society, is made. Basically, it is the question of the culture as a “way of life”, the ways of organizing and developing life activities – such as customs, rituals, holidays, competitions which form the normative system of the game culture. War stands out as a sphere in which the gaming component is visible most clearly (J. Huizinga). In the most obvious way the agonistic spirit appeared in fights before battles and duels. Sports games were nothing more than some practicing military techniques – attacking an equestrian and foot enemy, capturing prisoners, overcoming obstacles, storming fortified positions, tactical evolutions and quick changings of a strike direction. The historically established lifestyle of Circassians, their constant physical exercises contributed to the development of bodily strength and, most importantly, the confidence that the «body» could solve the most complex tasks in the military strategic sphere. The process of “body civilization” (N. Elias) among Circassians was aimed on achieving the harmonious state of “body and soul”. The passion for military-applied types of competitions was shared by all the strata of society; moreover, in the game arsenal of the Adyghe traditional culture there were “scenarios” that reinforced in the society the high social status of “warrior” and “hero”.
Keywords: Circassians, military history, heroization of mode of life, game culture, anthropological approach, customs, traditions.


Stolbova N.P. (St. Petersburg). Did Tropinin paint a portrait of Sukhanov? (Mistake of one attribution)

regional history researcher, historian.
DYUT “On Lenskaya”, a methodologist of regional history, a teacher.
195423. St. Petersburg, Lenskaya St., 2, bldg. 2
Tel. 526-43-85, 8-921-334-25-10, npstolbova@gmail.com

This article is about a painting by V.A. Tropinin “Old Mason” located in the Museum of V.A. Tropinin and Moscow artists of his time in Moscow and mistakenly considered as a portrait of S.K. Sukhanov. The earliest mention of the painting “The Old Mason” dates back to 1823, the year it was created. The second time under the name “Mason” the picture is given in 1859 by the sculptor and artist Ramazanov. The painting “Mason” is mentioned by the art critic N.N. Kovalenskaya in the 1930 edition. In 1966, the Moscow collector F.E. Vishnevsky, the future founder of the museum, acquired a picture. In 1968, based on the essay by P.P. Svinin “The Adventures of Sukhanov Russian natural sculptor” without reference to archival documents, the portrait was attributed by art critic T.V. Buevskaya as a portrait of S.K. Sukhanov. The researcher understood that without referring to the sources, attribution could not be correct, she acknowledged that she could not find documents related to the history of the portraiture. Half a century has passed, but no documentary evidence confirming the version has been found. Attentive attitude to the circumstances of portrait writing and analysis of archival documents give every right to doubt it.
Keywords: V.A. Tropinin, S.K. Sukhanov, P.P. Svinin, “Homeland Notes”, Academy of Arts, “Russian Museum”, “Old Mason”, “Mason”.


Greben D.E. (Moscow). Dynamics of changes in official views on Buddhism in Tuva during Perestroika

Postgraduate Student, Moscow State University, Department of History, Department of Ethnology
Russia, Moscow, Lenin Hills 1, 119234
+7 915 419 68 75 grebendaria@gmail.com

Based on interviews with local intellectuals and politicians, the article deals with the transformation in official views on Buddhism in Tuva during Perestroika in the context of national and cultural revival. During the Soviet period, religion was suppressed and Buddhism became underground. The revival of the traditional syncretic form of Buddhism was initiated by local intellectuals in the mid-eighties and firstly was strongly suppressed by the authorities. But in the early 1990-s religion gradually became an instrument of strengthening of power for some local politicians. At that time local activists and nonprofit organizations were ousted from the process of cultural revival by local government and it was government initiative to inculcate the Tibetan form of Buddhism.
Keywords: Perestroika, Republic of Tuva, Buddhism, national-cultural revival.


Rakovskii D.O. (St. Petersburg). Museums in the context of memory studies

St. Petersburg State University, graduate student, 3 year, Department of Russian History from ancient times to the beginning of XX century.
Russia, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya nab., 7/9, 199034
8 (921) 896-80-43; E-mail: racovskyd@mail.ru

The article focuses on the analysis of historiography in the field of memory sudies related to museums and museum case. In this context, theories and concepts of Russian and foreign museologists, historians, philosophers, sociologists, which affecting this issue in one form or another, are considered. The article shows both achievements and those research difficulties and unresolved issues that are relevant for scientific studies in this area of memory studies. At the theoretical level and in the framework of case studies, various mechanisms of the influence of museum space on the cultural and communicative memory of society, and also problems of falsification of history through museums, the importance of museums and museum politics in overcoming public amnesia in relation to objects of social memory, and other aspects related with the role of museums in historical politics and public history were studied. At the same time, in modern historiography there are no systematic studies devoted to the study of the role of museums of a particular era in the formation of the historical and social memory of Russian society at a particular time.
Keywords: historical memory, memorial researches, memorial policy, museums, museum exposition, historiography.


Kuzenkova M.V., Semenov V.A. (St. Petersburg). Why the scientific-technical revolution took place in Europe, not China: the comparison of cultural and historical conditions

PhD in History, Associate Professor of the department
of International relations, Medialogy, Political Science and History
Saint-Petersburg State University of Economics
191186, Russian Federation, Saint Petersbutg, Kanal Griboedova Emb., 30/32
e-mail: marinahistory@yandex.ru

PhD in Philosophy Associate professor of the department of International Relations, Medialogy, Political Science and History
Saint-Petersburg State University of Economics
191186, Russian Federation, Saint Petersbutg, Kanal Griboedova Emb., 30/32
e-mail: semenov3786@mail.ru

The article describes those aspects of the cultural and historical development of Europe and China which were conducive to the development of innovation and to the ensuring of technological progress. Based on the conducted analysis, the authors try to determine the main causes of the decline of the Chinese development and the unique breakthrough of Europe, which both occured in the 17-18 centuries. The article focuses on the most important, according to the authors’ opinion, cultural factors which have caused the transition from the traditional distributive economy to the market-oriented policy, in the framework of which technological progress turned into a new European tradition. This system could not be viable without the purely European cultural and civilizational features like Christianity, ancient heritage, mentality specificities, traditions etc. The article also considers those factors, incentives and values which have contributed to the preservation of the static nature of social structure in China and have prevented the discovery of the laws of nature. This situation eventually led to the fact that the scientific-technical revolution in China has not occurred. The authors consider the cultural and historical processes which has led to the fact that by the end of the Middle Ages China, although was not being a stagnant society, was incapable of the perception and implementation of innovations while Western European countries managed to create powerful empires and to lay the foundation for global market.
Keywords: scientific and technological revolution, Chinese civilization, European way, technological advances, traditional models, innovations, civilization cycles, sociocultural factor. 


Gogun A.S. (Berlin, Germany). The germ of Bolshevism

PhD in History, doctoral student at the Free University of Berlin, Institute Friedrich Menecke,
Berlin, Germany, Coserstrasse 20b cab. A 313,
Теl.: +49 (30) 838 54565; E-mail: a.gogun@fu-berlin.de

The book review of the book by the British researcher Anthony Rimmington gives a restrained assessment of his monograph about the program of Stalin for the development of bacteriological weapons. As for shortcomings of this book, a small number of used documents from Russia, a weak analytical component of the text, as well as confidence in reports of the special services are noted. Nevertheless, the work is a bona fide compilation – an orderly collection of information about the Soviet bacteriological program of the 1920s and 1950s, based primarily on published sources in different languages.
The book is good in that the readers themselves have questions – why did Stalin need this bacteriological weapon? What role did he play in the plot of World War III? The work is also valuable in its title, since it becomes clear that it was Dzhugashvili who demanded the development of this type of weapon, contrary to his own international agreements. Besides, in this case, one can see the tendency for the whole country to live “according to the residual principle” – the successes of Soviet medicine in the fight against bacteriological epidemics, especially the development of antibiotics, were a side effect of the program for the development of deadly misfortunes.
Keywords: Stalinism, bacteriological weapons, murderers in white coats, the Third World War, military medicine, antibiotics.


Mirenkov A.I. (Moscow). Right-flank of domestic historical science

First Vice-President of the International Academy of Historical and Social Sciences,
Full Member (Academician) of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences,
Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Missile and Artillery Sciences
195220, St. Petersburg, Grazhdansky pr., 11
+7 9500241405
E-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru

The article is dedicated to the outstanding Soviet, Russian scientist, philosopher, military historian, organizer of science Stepan Andreevich Tyushkevich, who celebrated his 102nd birthday on January 7, 2020. S.A. Tyushkevich, despite his venerable age, is an active participant in the development of the fundamental multi-volume work “The Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945” (in 12 volumes).
Keywords. Stepan Andreevich Tyushkevich, The Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945, Russian scientist, The Second World War.


Usov А.V. (Vladivostok). Teachers are not born – they become them: to the anniversary of Professor N.A. Shabelnikova

Cand. Sc. in History,
Member of the Council of the Russian
Historical Association (Vladivostok Branch),
690001, Russian Federation,
Vladivostok, Pushkinskaya St., 89.
E-mail: epronhist@gmail.com

The article considers the biography of Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor Natalya A. Shabelnikova, who devoted more than three decades of her life to pedagogical activity and study of the history of the Far East region. Attention is drawn to the fact that most of the labor route is connected with Vladivostok branch of the Far Eastern Law Institute of the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs. The merits of N.A. Shabelnikova in the creation of the scientific school “History of development of law enforcement agencies in the Far East of Russia” are noted. Of particular importance for researchers are individual monographs “Activities of law enforcement agencies to combat crime in the Far East of Russia in the 1920s” (2016) and “Militia of the Far East of Russia (1922-1930” s): historical experience of organization and activity” (2018).
Keywords: Shabelnikova, Derevyanko, science, education, history, Far East, law enforcement agencies, biography.