Klio # 5 (125) 2017





Makhlina S.T. (Saint Petersburg). Semiotics of revolution……………………………………………………13

SVETLANA TEVELIEVNA MAKHLINA — Honored figure in higher school of Russian Federation, Doctor of Philosophy, Professor, Department of Theory and History of Culture, Saint Petersburg State University of Culture. 191186, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Dvortsovaya emb., 2. E-mail: makhlina@pochta.tvoe.tv

The history of revolutions has a long temporal distance. All revolutions are inevitable. As a rule, the revolution gives an opportunity for people to achieve their personal interests at the expense of others. Usually revolution accompanied the fighting, which caused the civil war due to the fact that the masses of people in different ways oriented to the new developments. These phenomena gave rise to political jokes. Some anecdotes based on historical facts. Initially people greeted the revolution with enthusiasm. However, the terrible traits of the revolution appear shortly. Such as the bloody clashes, terror and dire living conditions of most people.

The appearance and signs of revolution have a new original image. The role of women becomes active.

Rejection of the values of the previous epoch becomes one of the most significant characteristics of the revolution. Deviant patterns of behavior, changing moral attitudes are getting a big spread. Behavioral motives change. The practice of «residential redistribution» gets spread.

Any revolution creates conflict of political symbols. Symbols become the most important tool of political mobilization. The new «festivals of freedom» appear. Onomastics, premium system and the naming are change. The consequences of the revolution often give rise to nationalism. Effects of the revolution become the source of new revolutions.

Revolutionary transformation is reflected in art.

Keywords: signs of revolution, civil war, terrorism, expropriation of expropriators, theory of materialism, nationalism.





Ye Fan (China, He Nan province, Zhengzhou city). Chinese historiography on the problem of education the Chinese citizens in Soviet schools in the 1920s years…………………………………………………………………25

YE FAN — Postgraduate Student, Department of Russian history of the XIX — early XX century, History Faculty, Lomonosov Moscow State University. China, He Nan province, Zhengzhou city, Huashan street 227, build. 8, entr. 2, apt 6. E-mail: ye5125172@mail.ru

This article examines the Chinese historiography about the education of Chinese citizens in the Soviet Union. The training of Chinese revolutionaries in the USSR during the 1920-30s proved to be highly important not only for the Communist and national liberating movement in China, but also for the evolution of the CPC, the ruling party in China. However, historical studies of this problem, despite their importance and relevance, were practically banned in China. The political and historical reasons for this ban is explained and formulated by the author in the article. Only in the late 1970s Chinese scholars started examining this topic, when Deng Xiaoping, a former student of the Communist University of the Toilers of China, came to power. Still, due to several objective reasons, the topic remains insufficiently explored in Chinese historiography. This article summarizes the results of Chinese scholars from the end of the 1980s till today. This historiographical evolution of the topic is analyzed, its current state is defined. The author also points out several shortcomings and problems in contemporary Chinese historiography.

Keywords: Chinese historiography, state of the art, USSR, CPC, Chinese Revolution, education of Chinese citizens.


Ippolitov G.M.(Samara), Poltorak S.N. (Saint Petersburg). Soviet historiography of the Civil War in Russia in the second half of 1960s and first half of the 1980s. The second article. Analytical review of historiographical sources………………………………………………………………………………………………………………32

GEORGIYI MIKHAYJLOVICH IPPOLITOV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Leading researcher of Institute of Russian History RAN (Povolzhsky branch, Samara), Professor of Department of Philosophy, Volga State University of Telecommunications and Informatics (Samara). 443101, Russian Federation, Samara, Novomolodezhnihyi pereulok, 21, 58. E-mail: pfiri@ ssc.smr.ru; gippolitov@rambler.ru

SERGEYI NIKOLAEVICH POLTORAK — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Editor-in-Chief of the journal «Klio». Head of the Department of International Relations and Foreign Regional Studies, St. Petersburg Institute of Foreign Economic Relations, Economics and Law. 195220, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Grazhdanskii pr., 11. E-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru

This article is a logical continuation of the authors’ works published in the journal «Klio»: Early Soviet Historiography of the Civil War in Russia. 1981–1922. 2016. No. 1 (109). January. Pp. 43–61; Historiography of the Civil War in Russia in the first post-war years (1922–1932). 2016. No. 3 (111). March. Pp. 21–38; Soviet historiography of the Civil War in Russia in the 1930s — the first half of the 1950s. 2016. No. 8 (116). August. Pp. 120–140. Soviet historiography of the Civil War in Russia during the Khrushchev thaw (the second half of the 1950s — the first half of the 1960s). 2017. No. 3 (123). March. Pp. 13–28.; Soviet historiography of the Civil War in Russia in the second half of 1960s and first half of the 1980s. The first Article. The terms of the development of Soviet history in the study period. 2017. No. 4  (124). April. Pp. 46–57.

Now the authors analyze a large array of historiographic sources that are chronologically related to the period of the second half of the 1960s — the first half of the 1980s (the historical sources analyzed in the first article). At this time, many positive trends in the development of Soviet historiography were seriously devaluated or just stalled. Soviet historiography which embraces the problems of the Civil war in Russia (1918–1922) is multidimensional. Therefore, the authors of the article analyze it briefly, focusing research efforts only on specific aspects. The paper was written in the format of topical historiography. The material is presented in an analytical manner. The authors do not pretend to the completeness of the coverage of the problem.

Keywords: Soviet historiography, the Civil war in Russia, reanimation of Stalin’s approaches, special monographic studies, academician I.I. Mintz, academician D.S. Likhachev, N.G. Dumova, V.D. Polikarpov, G.Z. Ioffe, L.M. Spirin, ideological and socio-political order.





Portsel А.К (Murmansk). Russian mines on Spitsbergen and state support of them…………………………51

ALEXANDR KONSTANTINOVICH PORTSEL — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor of the Department of Philosophy and Law, Murmansk State Technical University (MSTU), Corresponding Member of the Academy of Geopolitical Problems. 183010, Russian Federation, Murmansk, ul. Sportivnaya, 13. E-mail: portsel@inbox.ru

The paper deals with the state’s participation in the organization of the domestic coal mining on Spitsbergen.

The first Russian coal companies had emerged on Spitsbergen before the World War I. The tsarist government provided them with hidden financial support to secure a domestic presence in the archipelago.

After the Civil War, the Soviet government showed the interest in the work of «Anglo-Russian Grumant» company. In 1923, the trust «Severoles» became a shareholder of this company and then bought into the ownership the shares of the English partners. All these activities of «Severoles» were unofficially controlled and financed by the Soviet government.

State Trust «Arcticugol» led coal mining on Svalbard since 1931. His activity was unprofitable, but the government provided the trust with the state support for political reasons.

In 2012, the «Strategy of the Russian presence on the archipelago of Spitsbergen until 2020» was approved. «Arcticugol» was the leading national organization on the archipelago according to this document.

Keywords: Spitsbergen, coal, «Grumant», «The Russian Spitsbergen coal company», «Severoles», «Arcticugol».


Barkova O.N. (Moscow). How was organised the system of food supply for foreign diplomats, foreign correspondents, and their families in the USSR during the Great Patriotic War of 1941–1945……………59

OL’GA NIKOLAEVNA BARKOVA — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Assistant Professor of Legal Disciplines Department, Supreme State Audit School (Faculty) of Lomonosov Moscow State University. 119992, Russian Federation, Moscow, GSP-1, Leninskiye Gory, 1, bld. 13–14. E-mail: olgabarkova@list.ru

The article is dedicated to the problems of the organisation of standardised food supply for employees of the foreign diplomatic corps, who worked in the USSR during the first years of the Great Patriotic War. By 1 July, 1941, there were 310 foreign diplomats, foreign correspondents and their families in the Soviet Union. On July 15, 1941, it was decided to organise a monthly food allowance for diplomatic workers and their families in the USSR, instead of card system introduced throughout the country. Realisation of food and industrial products was conducted strictly according to the lists of embassies and missions, including children under 12 who received half the monthly marginal rate, which was significantly higher than that of Soviet citizens. Providing foreign workers and their families with food and industrial goods systematically and at fixed prices was organised in an extremely difficult period for the economy of the USSR, when the whole country was experiencing enormous material difficulties. This article is based on the archival documents.

Keywords: food supply, foreign diplomats, the card system, the Soviet rear during the Great Patriotic War of 1941–1945.


Kupriyanov V.N., Losik A.V. (Saint-Petersburg). The space flight of Yuri Gagarin: a view at the real events of those years from the 21st century perspective. Part II. Flight in 12 April 1961……………………65

VALERIJ NIKOLAEVICH KUPRIYANOV — Corresponding member of the K.E. Tsiolkovsky Russian Academy of cosmonautics, Chairman of the section of the history of cosmonautics and rocket technology of the North-West interregional public organization of the Federation of Cosmonautics of Russia. 197046, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Petropavlovskaya krepost’, 11. E-mail: kuvnik@yandex.ru

ALEXANDER VITALIAVICH LOSIK — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, The Baltic State Technical University «Voenmech» of D.F. Ustinov, Deputy Editor of the scholarly journal «KLIO». 197374, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Shkoljnaya str., 88, 2, 81. E-mail:poltorak2006@yandex.ru

In the article the attempt is made on the basis of historiography and all currently available to the researcher of open sources to reconstruct the real events associated with the drafting history of the first orbital flight of man into space. The authors tried to point to some facts of the last days before the first flight, which were until recently, largely excluded from stories about the event.

Special attention is paid to specific information that reflects the contribution of specialists of Saint Petersburg in the research of this outstanding achievement of human genius.

New details about the well-known events are presented, basing on the newly discovered eyewitnesses and participants of activities providing the world’s first manned flight into space.

Also the article presents the facts clarifying the details of the communications of the first cosmonaut in the start position. They are tested by comparison of the memoirs of many different individuals.

The ongoing recent discussion about the reliability of the previously reported information about the flight of Yuri Gagarin is considered. The authors present arguments supporting their point of view on this debate.

Using the available documents, certificates the authors tried to get away from a kind of mythologizing of the events, which are often habitual in the publications that have appeared over the past fifty-six years after the flight of Yuri Gagarin. This helped to clarify the chronology of some events important for the understanding of the process of preparation. The authors draw attention to the need to take account of new information declassified in recent years.

Keywords: flight, space, Yuri Gagarin, Belka, spaceship, Vostok, press conference, memoirs, OKB-1, Sergei Korolev, Sputnik.





Gergilev D.N. (Krasnoyarsk). The administrative and territorial reform of Catherine II in the context of the Russian Empire government problem (by the example of Siberia)…………………………………………75

DENIS NIKOLAEVICH GERGILEV — Ph.D. in History, Associate professor, Department of Russian History, Director of the Institute for the Humanities of Siberian Federal University. 660041, Russian Federation, Krasnoyarsk, Svobodnyi st. 82a, Room 460. E-mail: turilak@yandex.ru

The main issue of the article is the administrative and territorial reform of Catherine II. The article covers the reasons, essence and consequences of the province reform. The peculiarities of the government of the Russian Empire in the 1770s by the example of Siberia have been shown. The relation between the capital and the regions has been shown.  The social problems in Russia in considerable extend connected with the acuteness of management problems particularly in Siberia region. The author by multitude examples reveals the problems of interaction between the superior and local governments.  It has been proved the administrative and territorial reforms were caused by the necessity of state system consolidation. The author shows the Russian Empire had distinctive and unique experience of the vast territories government. The territories were complicated by their ethnic and religious structure.  Special attention has been given to the concrete embodiments of the administrative and territorial reforms in Russian history. The author proves the government system of Catherine II keeps its actuality. By the author’s point of view the government experience could be important in the present-day global world where the reformatory experience of Catherine II takes on special significance.

Keywords: public administration, province, administrative and territorial reform, system of administration, social problems, Siberian region.


Patrash N.V. (Pskov). The First World War as the factor of influence on the activity of the judicial institutions of Pskov province………………………………………………………………………………………………………79

NATALIA VASILI’EVNA PATRASH — Postgraduate student, Department of native history, Faculty of History of Pskov State University. 180006, Russian Federation, Pskov, Pozemskogo str., 6, cab. 206. E-mail: npatrash@yandex.ru

The article examined changes in the judicial institutions of the Pskov province influenced by the First World War. Based on historical sources from Central and local archives the following aspects were analyzed: personnel capacity, financial parameters (salary levels, office funding, and current office activity), interaction between the judiciary and the local authorities. The author analyzes the probability of doing proper justice in Pskov province under on the one hand, the restricted frontline position of the region, and on the other hand its near-capital location. The author concludes that the First World War challenged activities of the local courts, which were not able to function properly under the restricted war-fair conditions.

Keywords: judicial institutions, Pskov province, the First World War, personnel, judicial officials and employees.





Korolev M.S. (Saint Petersburg). The theoretical basis of Poland’s security policy during the presidency of Bronislaw Komorowski……………………………………………………………………………………………84

MIKHAIL SERGEEVICH KOROLEV — Postgraduate Student, Department of World Politics, School of International Relations, Saint Petersburg State University. 195298, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, pr. Entuziastov, 41–14. E-mail: mechnik2004@mail.ru

Poland is the largest CEE country, a member of the EU and NATO, one of the important elements of the modern European security system. It is actively involved in the activities of the world community. In this regard, the study of the theoretical aspects of the security policy of this CEE country is important not only in the context of regional security issues, but also at the global level. The article analyzes the theoretical foundations of the security policy of the Republic of Poland during the presidency of Bronislaw Komorowski. It is the continuation of the author’s previous article entitled «A comparative analysis of the theoretical foundations of Polish security policy before and after accession to the European Union». The main documents in the sphere of Poland’s security of the relevant period are used as the sources, such as the Strategy of Development of the National Security System of the Republic of Poland 2022, National Security Strategy of the Republic of Poland 2014, and the Komorowski Doctrine. A detailed analysis of the submitted documents in association with the conclusions made by the author in a previous article allows to trace changes in the theoretical foundations of Poland’s security policy which occurred during the first ten years of its EU membership.

Previous papers assessed Poland’s security environment as favorable, confirmed Poland’s intention to participate actively in international stabilization missions, recognized the triad EU — NATO — USA as the basis of country’s external security. The documents adopted during the presidency of B. Komorowski assume for the first time the possibility of Poland’s involvement in armed conflict, displace to background Poland’s participation in international stabilization missions, give paramount importance to the ability and willingness to protect the country and its allies, do not mention cooperation with the United States as a factor of security guarantees for Poland, recognize Poland’s own defense capabilities as the main pillar of the country’s security.

Keywords: foreign policy, European integration, security, European Union (EU), NATO, the countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), Poland.


Magerramova F.E. (Saint Petersburg). The problem of determining the international legal status of the Caspian Sea after the collapse of the USSR………………………………………………………………………………94

FATMA ETIBAR KYZY MAGERRAMOVA — 4th year student, Ethnopolitology Department, Faculty of Political Science, Saint Petersburg State University. 191124, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Smolnogo str., 1/3, 7th entrance. E-mail: fatimamagerramova95@gmail.com

The article analyzes the problem of determining the international legal status of the Caspian Sea, which arose in connection with the collapse of the Soviet Union, and presents the interests and views of the Caspian states on the solution of this issue. The work provides a historical background on agreements concluded before 1991, which did not affect the definition of the status, delineation, and order of use of the Caspian Sea and its resources. The disputed territories of rich oil and gas fields seem to be the main obstacle in the multi-year negotiation process between the Caspian littoral countries in the development of the Caspian Sea Convention, the main stages of which also are presented in the article. The conclusion is drawn that the settlement of the problem of determining the international legal status of the Caspian Sea is possible if only Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Turkmenistan will reach a consensus within the framework of international law.

Keywords: Caspian Sea, Caspian region, summit of the heads of the Caspian states, Convention on the legal status of the Caspian Sea, geopolitical interests, Caspian states, international legal status, hydrocarbons, oil.





Travkin S.N. (Saint Petersburg). Hoard of coins from Bessarabia and monetary circulation in Eastern Europe…………………………………………99

SERGEY NIKOLAEVICH TRAVKIN — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Pushkin Leningrad State University. 196605, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Pushkin, Peterburgskoe shosse, 10. E-mail: trawkin09@yandex.ru

In 1908, in the village of Cocorozeni Bessarabia (Cucuruzeni Republic of Moldova), was found a Treasure of coins. It was published in 1913 and 1976. The materials of the Manuscript Department of the scientific archive of the Institute of history of Material Culture (Saint Petersburg) allow specifying the composition of the hoard.

The treasure included 1 520 silver coins. The youngest coin belongs to the beginning of the XVII century.

In the treasure dominated coins from Poland, Lithuania and the Rzeczpospolita. Significant place in the treasure occupied coins of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation and the Netherlands. In the hoard were coins of Prussia, Courland, Teutonic, Transylvania, Turkey.

Most Western European coins were the thaler. Cost coins of Western Europe were superior to coins of Poland, Lithuania and the Rzeczpospolita.

The total value of the coins of the treasure was equal to the price per 14–17 bulls. Probably, the hoard belonged to a small merchant or rich peasant.

The composition of the hoard reflects the situation on the market of South Eastern Europe at the turn of XVI and XVII centuries.

Keywords: Bessarabia, penny, Dniester, treasure, Moldavian Principality, coin, Rzeczpospolita, Middle Ages, thaler, Shelyag.





Naumov O.N. (Moscow). Pushkin and the Soviet government (experience of socio-genealogical discourse)………………105

OLEG NIKOLAEVICH NAUMOV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Department of the Newest History of Russia. Moscow State Regional University. 105005, Russian Federation, Moscow, ul. Radio, 10a. E-mail: onnaum@mail.ru

In the article, on the basis of a wide range of sources, including archival ones, for the first time in historiography, the relationship between the Pushkin family and Soviet power is investigated in the 1920–1930s. The article uses the latest method of socio-genealogical analysis of family history. The tendencies of development of the Pushkin family after 1917 in the USSR and in emigration are revealed; the process of family adaptation to new social conditions is shown. A study was made of the age and gender composition of the genus; the dynamics of his material and official status is shown, and repressions among descendants of A.S. Pushkin are described. It is convincingly proved that the attitude of Soviet power to the poet influenced the fate of the whole clan. For the first time a conclusion was drawn about the dual attitude of the Soviet authorities towards Pushkin family as to the relatives of the genius A.S. Pushkin and as to «class enemies» belonging to the nobility.

Keywords: Pushkin family, A.S. Pushkin, genealogy, nobility, emigration, repression of the 1930s, Soviet power, adaptation.





Zubkov A.A. (Nizhny Novgorod). The creation of production associations in the automobile industry of the USSR in the 1970s………………………………………………………………………………………………………………115

ALEKSANDR ALEKSEEVICH ZUBKOV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Department of Methodology, History and Philosophy of Science, Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University n.a. R.E. Alekseev. 603163, Russian Federation, Nizhny Novgorod, Verhne-Pecherskaya, 9/1–40. E-mail: azubkov51@yandex.ru

Study and generalization of experience of organizing the domestic automotive industry, namely the creation of production units in the 70s of XX century, is of particular scientific and practical interest. During this period, the automotive industry has become one of the leading sectors of the economic complex of the country. In accordance with the requirements of economic reform, increased levels of concentration of production in the automotive industry a lot of work associated with the organization of industrial associations has been done. In this regard, the automotive industry has increased dramatically organizational efforts to improve production management. An important role in optimizing the organizational structure of the management was played by the relevant decrees of the highest state management bodies, the Ministry of the Automobile Industry (regulatory acts, the Regulations on the Scientific and Production Association, etc.). As a result, the production associations ZIL, GAZ, Auto-VAZ, etc. were created. Despite the difficulties that arose as a result of the formation of new structures, the system of automobile production associations gained a certain development, becoming an effective form of automobile industry management. The source of the research were the materials of the Research Institute of the automotive industry information intended only for the use of intra-industry professionals auto industry.

Keywords: automotive industry, production, production association, production structure.





Novikova S.A. (Moscow). Vasiliy Ivanovich Nemirovich-Danchenko as a war correspondent………………………………119

SVETLANA ALEKSANDROVNA NOVIKOVA — Applicant at the Department of Russian History of XIX — early XX century, Department of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 119991, Russian Federation, Moscow, Lomonosov Prospect, 27, building 4. E-mail: novikova-86@mail.ru

Vasily Ivanovich Nemirovich-Danchenko was a war correspondent who took part in the rise of war journalism in Czarist-era Russia. This allows us to consider the role of war journalism, its features and its place in building propaganda support for military campaigns in the Russian Empire in the late 19th and early 20th centuries through the prism of his biography. The article is dealing with the early stage of Vas.I. Nemirovich-Danchenko’s biography, the factors that made him choose his profession and the path in later life. It is shown how Nemirovich-Danchenko’s journalistic style was formed and evaluates his professional evolution. The author demonstrates that the main stages of Nemirovich-Danchenko’s creative development were the four wars he took part in: Russo-Turkish (1877–1878), Russo-Japanese (1904–1905), the First Balkan (1912–1913) and the First World War (1914–1918). The article brings into focus the methods of working with the audience, feedback and Nemirovich-Danchenko’s reaction to responses. In conclusion, the role of this man in development of specific methods of war journalism is highlighted.

Keywords: Vas.I. Nemirovich-Danchenko, N.G. Chernyshevsky, war correspondent, journalism, censorship, propaganda, the Russo-Turkish War, the Russo-Japanese War, the First Balkan War, the First World War.


Budaeva L.A. (Moscow). A.M. Kollontay and the organization of diplomatic receptions in the Soviet Embassy in Sweden in 1930–1945: the human factor in the study of the anthropology of international relations in the twentieth century…………125

LINA ANDREEVNA BUDAEVA — Postgraduate Student, Department of history of social movements and political parties of Russia, Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 119991, Russian Federation, Moscow, Lomonosovskiy Prospect, 27/4. E-mail: linabudaeva7@yandex.ru

The article is dedicated to the personal contribution of Ambassador A.M. Kollontay in arrangement of diplomatic receptions in the Soviet Mission in Sweden in 1930-1945. Various protocol events — diplomatic receptions in honour of Soviet holidays, diners for envoys of other countries and the press, annual receptions for the diplomatic corps, etc. took an important place in the daily work of the Soviet embassy in Sweden. The extraordinary approach of the Ambassador of the USSR A.M. Kollontay and her attention to the smallest details of etiquette in preparing and holding protocol events in the Soviet mission in Sweden provided them with success, which was especially noted by foreign diplomats who worked in Sweden in the 1930s—1940s. The article is based on diary entries and personal correspondence of the Soviet Ambassador A.M. Kollontay, memories of contemporaries of those years and archival documents of the Archive of Foreign Policy of the Russian Federation. Particular attention is paid to the specifics of the organization of diplomatic receptions, taking into account the peculiarities of the national and cultural traditions of Sweden; and the personal impressions of the Soviet Ambassador A.M. Kollontay and other, which reveals the importance of the human factor in the history of diplomacy in the context of the anthropology of international relations.

Keywords: Alexandra Kollontay, diplomatic receptions, Soviet-Swedish relations in 1930–1940, history of diplomacy, anthropology of international relations, diplomatic protocol, cultural diplomacy, Sweden.





Gajiyev A.N. (Arkhangelsk). Review of the monograph V.V. Mikhailov “The great powers and the involvement of the Ottoman empire in the First World War” (SPb.: Izd-vo GUAP, 2016)…………………………………………………………………132

AYDIN NAZIMOVITCH GAJIYEV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Vice-rector of the Northern Institute of Entrepreneurship. 163001, Russian Federation, Arkhangelsk, Suvorov str., 2. E-mail: west011@bk.ru

The review praised the recently released monograph of the St. Petersburg historian V.V. Mikhailov «The Great powers and the involvement of the Ottoman Empire in the First world war». The reviewer is sure that the study is a serious contribution to the national and international history. It is also a general study of the impact of policy and diplomacy of the European Great powers and the Russian Empire on accession of the Ottoman Empire in the First World War, and the political and ideological motivations of the young Turk government, which led him to the Union with the bloc of the Central powers in their war against the Entente.

Keywords: Turkey in the First World War, the question of «Constantinople and the Straits», the young Turks, pan-Turkism, the cruiser «goeben», the mission of Liman von Sanders, the Dardanelles operation.


Kostyk R.V. (Saint Petersburg). From National States to the United Europe (Review of the collective monograph “From the national States towards the European Unity: problems of European integration in the XIX-XXI centuries” (SPb.: Pub. house of Russian Christian Humanities Academy, 2016)…………………………………………………………………………………138

RUSLAN VASILIEVICH KOSTYK — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Professor of Department of Theory and History of International Relations, Saint Petersburg State University. 198330, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Marshala Zakharova str., 60, 21. E-mail: rouslan_k@mail.ru

The review is devoted to the multi-authored monograph by teachers of Saint-Petersburg State University «From Nation-States to the European Unity: Issues of European Integration in the 19–21st centuries». The work examines separate problems and characteristics of the European integration on the basis of a wide range of sources. The monograph traces the evolution of the European unity from the end of the 18th century until the present day. Special attention is paid to the role of France and Germany in the development of European construction process.

Keywords: monograph, Europe, integration, idea, France, Germany.


Nazarenko E.Y. (Voronezh). Review of the monograph: Kondakov Yu.E. “Prince A.N. Golitsyn: a courtier, an official, a Christian”. (SPb.: OOO “Elexis” 2014)…………………………………………………………141

EVGENY YURIEVICH NAZARENKO — Ph.D. in History, Senior Researcher of the Voronezh Regional Museum. 394018, Russian Federation, Voronezh, ul. Plekhanovskaya, 29. E-mail: enazarenko.vrn@mail.ru

The author of the review analyzed a recently published monograph of Yu.E. Kondakov about the life and activity of Prince A.N. Golitsyn. In the monograph, there is a scholarly novelty, the breadth and diversity of the author’s sources of monographs, which allows him to vividly and convincingly recreate the life path of one of the most significant statesmen of the era of Emperor Alexander I.

Keywords: Prince Alexander Nikolayevich Golitsyn, Holy Synod, Ministry of Spiritual Affairs and Popular Education, Russian Bible Society, mysticism, Rosicrucians, Avignon society, Orthodox opposition.


Pilipenko S.A. (Samara). Loyal troops of the betrayed Kingdom (Review of the monograph of A. Yu. Timofeev  «Chetniks. Royal army» (M.: Veche, 2012)…………………………………………………………………145

STANISLAV ALEKSANDROVICH PILIPENKO — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Samara Technical University. 443100, Russian Federation, Samara, Molodogvardeiskaya ul., 244. E-mail: sa.pilipenko@gmail.com

The review highly appreciates the work carried out by the author in studying the peculiarity of the Chetniks, which were characteristic only of the Balkans. The detailed biography of Dragaljub Mikhailovich, presented by the author, allows to trace the process of formation of the future national hero deserves attention. The author paid much attention to the history of partisan movements in Yugoslavia. In the Serbian language there is a proper name for guerrilla actions — the «Chetniks’ war». The author distinguishes two sources in the emergence of this phenomenon — the historical tradition and the military idea. Particular attention is paid to the peculiarities of the preparation of the Chetnik units during the interwar period and their actions during the Second World War. The monograph of A.Yu. Timofeev is recommended for study by experts on the history of the Balkans and military history as a scholarly study carried out at a high methodological level. In addition, it may be of interest to a wide range of readers interested in the history of the Yugoslav peoples and the state of Yugoslavia.

Keywords: Balkans, World War II, D. Mihailovich, collaborationism, Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Serbia, partisans, Chetniks.


Pogodin S.N. (Saint Petersburg). A review of the textbook «International Integration and Integration Law» (textbook for undergraduate, specialist master’s and post-graduate / under total ed. V.A. Shamakhov, V.P. Kirilenko, S.Y. Kashkin). (Saint Petersburg: IPTs SZIU-RANKhiGS, 2017)…………………………………………………………………………………………150

SERGEY NIKOLAEVICH POGODIN — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Head of the International Relations Department, Peter the Great Saint Petersburg Polytechnic University. 195251, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Polytechnicheskaya ul., 29. E-mail: pogodin56@mail.ru

The peer-reviewed textbook is one of the first in Russian legal science to represent a conceptual approach to international legal studies of integration processes. As the basis of the feed material, the authors used a systematic and comprehensive comparative study of legal tools and the legal processes of different types of integration in various regions. The value of the textbook lies in the fact that it emerged from a fundamental, objective scientific dialogue between scientists from different countries.

Keywords: international law, integration, integration law, review, textbook.


Malinov A.V. (Saint Petersburg). Russian historiography in the works by S.N. Pogodin (book review: Pogodin S. N. Essays on Russian historiography (the end of XIX – beginning of XX century). SPb.: Publishing house of Polytechnic University, 2017…………………………………………………………………………152

ALEXEY VALER’EVICH MALINOV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the Department of Russian Philosophy and Culture of the Saint Petersburg State University, Professor of the Department of International Relations of the Peter the Great Saint Petersburg Polytechnic University, Associate Researcher at the Sociological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 199034, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Mendeleev l., 5. E-mail: avmalinov@gmail.com

The article is a review of a new book by Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor S.N. Pogodin. The general characteristic of creativity of S.N. Pogodin is given. It is pointed out that the essays collected in the book are devoted to the liberal-western historiography in Russia in the second half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century (D.I. Kachenovskii, V.I. Ger’e, A.D. Gradovsky, I.V. Luchitsky, N.I. Kareyev, M.M. Kovalevsky, P.G. Vinogradov, A.S. Lappo-Danilevsky). To a greater or lesser extent, they were guided by the philosophy of positivism, which served as the basis for developing by them questions of the philosophy of history, theory and methodology of history, and also the beginning of the teaching of philosophy and the methodology of history in Russian universities.

Keywords: Russian historiography, biography, positivism, philosophy of history, methodology of history, theory of history.





The 85th anniversary of Professor Boris Petrovich Belozerov…………………………………………………156

SERGEYI NIKOLAEVICH POLTORAK — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Editor-in-Chief of the journal «Klio». Head of the Department of International Relations and Foreign Regional Studies, St. Petersburg Institute of Foreign Economic Relations, Economics and Law. 195220, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Grazhdanskii pr., 11. E-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru

VASILY PAVLOVICH SIDORENKO — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Professor of the Department of History and Philosophy, St. Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation. 190000, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Bolshaya Morskaya, 67, lit. A. Е-mail: common@aanet.ru

The article is dedicated to the 85th anniversary of the birth of the famous St. Petersburg historian, Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor Boris Petrovich Belozerov. The article describes the work path of the scholar, his military service, scholarly and pedagogical activity. It is noted that B.P. Belozerov is one of the leading Russian military historians, a major specialist in the history of the Great Patriotic War, the history of the siege of Leningrad, the history of the troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. Attention is drawn to the contribution of B.P. Belozerova to the study of the activities of the outstanding Soviet commander Marshal of the Soviet Union L.A. Govorov.

Keywords: Boris Petrovich Belozerov, L.A. Govorov, Great Patriotic War, the siege of Leningrad, the history of the Ministry of Internal Affairs.





Professor Igor Pavlovich Leiberov — renowned scholar, brilliant lecturer and a talented teacher. Publication of Poltorak S.N. (Saint Petersburg)…………………………………………………………………………159

SERGEYI NIKOLAEVICH POLTORAK — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Editor-in-Chief of the journal «Klio». Head of the Department of International Relations and Foreign Regional Studies, St. Petersburg Institute of Foreign Economic Relations, Economics and Law. 195220, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Grazhdanskii pr., 11. E-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru

In the article dedicated to the memory of the famous Saint Petersburg historian Igor Pavlovich Leiberov, his scholar and pedagogical activities are considered. It is emphasized that he was one of the greatest experts who had studied the revolutionary events of 1917 in Petrograd. Moreover, for many years I.P. Leiberov was engaged in the study of the history of Caucasus, particularly Abkhazia. Attention is drawn to the remarkable talent of I.P. Leiberov as a teacher, lecturer. His lectures for students were always informative, entertaining and emotional. Being the author of over 400 publications, he surprised us with his resilience and scholarly longevity.

Keywords: Igor Pavlovich Leiberov, Leiberov’s family, Rozhdestvensky’s family, the February revolution of 1917, working class, Caucasus, Abkhazia.