Klio # 5 (149) 2019





Agapov V.L. (Vladivostok). The opinion journalism of Novikov-Sibirsky in Vladivostok newspapers of the World War I period …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 13

VADIM L’VOVICH AGAPOV — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Department of Communications and Media, School of Arts and Humanities, Far Eastern Federal University. 690090, Russian Federation, Vladivostok, Sukhanova St., 8. E-mail: agapov_vl@mail.ru, agapov.vl@dvfu.ru

The article deals with opinion journalism of Novikov-Sibirsky (pseudonym of Vladivostok lawyer, journalist and public figure M. Voznesensky) of the World War I period. It shows that in the field of foreign policy Novikov-Sibirsky held a “defensive” position, that is, he believed that the war was in the interests of Russia and the people had to sacrifice themselves in the name of victory. But his “War Essays” were simple comments on official military reports. The latter exaggerated the victories and kept silent about the defeats of the Russian army. The journalist perceived them uncritically, and his works for a long time created the impression that the war was going on successfully for Russia. In the field of internal life, the journalist called for the unity of society and power, the development of public initiative, but the purpose of this was not to increase freedom, which equated anarchy, but to strengthen power. He even criticized autocracy for its weakness and inability to cope with the crisis and lead the country to victory, and not for restricting their freedom. Thus Vladivostok journalist supported the main slogans of the liberal opposition: the war to victory and strong power. Both of them did not meet the aspirations of the broad masses.

Keywords: World War I, Far East, Vladivostok, society, periodicals, opinion journalism, Novikov-Sibirsky 

(M. Voznesensky).


Uvarov P.B., Sitdikov V.V. (Chelyabinsk). Sources and methodological problems of studying Lev Tikhomirov’s diary entries …………………………………………………………………………….. 23

PAVEL BORISOVICH UVAROV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Professor, South Ural State Humanitarian Pedagogical University. 454080, Russian Federation, Chelyabinsk, pr. Lenina, 69. E-mail: pbuvar@mail.ru

VLADIMIR VITAL’EVICH SITDIKOV — Senior Lecturer, Chelyabinsk Institute of Retraining and Advanced Training of Education Workers. 454091, Russian Federation, Chelyabinsk, Krasnoarmeiskaya St., 88. E-mail: sitdikovw@yandex.ru

In the article the authors consider the sources and methodological problems of studying Lev Tikhomirov’s diary entries for 1917 in the light of modern historiographic trends. L.A. Tikhomirov for the Russian history is a unique personality, since in his life he managed to visit both the role of a revolutionary and the role of a monarchist. In both cases, the thinker occupied the key role of the ideological leader and mastermind. Monarchical and religious historiosophy of L.A. Tikhomirov in modern Russia received a wide scholarly and socio-political interest. The thinker’s diary entries for 1917 provide a unique picture of the socio-political, economic and religious crisis in Russia, especially in comparative understanding with its key historiosophical concepts. The article analyzed: historiography on this issue, published and unpublished personal sources, including archival materials of the State Archive of the Russian Federation and the Russian State Archive of Literature and Arts, as well as the fundamental historiosophical works of L.А. Tikhomirov – “Monarchical statehood” and “Religious and philosophical foundations of history”. Evaluation of the ideological turn of L.A. Tikhomirov from his associates in the revolutionary movement. In addition to comparativistics, source study and historiographical analysis, the theory of communication of the historical process is used as the methodological basis of the study. In the article, the authors came to the conclusion that the key to a comprehensive understanding of Lev Tikhomirov’s worldview is a religious-centrist “image of truth”, which is characterized by imperative behavior, God – approximation and accurate adherence to dogma. It is also very doubtful to refer the diary to intentional sources, and with a high degree of probability the end of the diary can be linked to October 16, 1917.

Keywords: L.A. Tikhomirov, Tikhomirov’s diary, conservatism, historiosophy, historiography, source study, the Great Russian Revolution.





Varnakova G.S. (Moscow). Non-Marxist party press of St. Petersburg and Moscow 1905–1914 (Studies of the historiography of the problem) ……………………………………………………………………….. 34

GALINA SERGEYEVNA VARNAKOVA — Ph.D. in History, Applicant of Doctor Degree in History, Department of Source Studies, Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University. E-mail: varngal@mail.ru

The article reflects the development of research in the history of the party press in St. Petersburg and Moscow since the appearance of the first major monograph on this problem in the 60s of the twentieth century up to nowadays. The contents of these studies are investigated: from the emergence of interest of Russian scientists to the reflection of the program installations of political parties in their party press and the identification of sources of financing of their party publications by Russian banks up to the party press typology determination. It is noted that the investigations of the party press formation in Russia in the early twentieth century show us that this process was at the initial stage of its development. A lack of consensus in the scientific community in attribution of a particular political party main mouthpiece is identified. The cause for this situation is shown and the problems that should be solved by Russian party press researchers are highlighted.

Keywords: historiography of political party press, the system of party press, party belonging of newspapers and magazines, the main party mouthpiece, semi-official party publication.


Pogodin S.N., Li Jingcheng (Saint Petersburg). Soviet historiography of Russian ecclesiastical mission in Beijing (part I) …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 42

SERGEY NIKOLAEVICH POGODIN — Doctor in history, Professor, Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, 29, Polytechnicheskaya str., St. Petersburg, 195251, Russian Federation; E-mail: pogodin56@mail.ru

LI JINGCHENG — Lecturer, Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, 29, Polytechnicheskaya str., St. Petersburg, 195251, Russian Federation; E-mail: li_ts@spbstu.ru

This article is focusing on the research of Soviet historians’ study of the Russian ecclesiastical mission in Beijing. The Soviet historical period, in the history of national historical science, is evaluated ambiguously. It was qualitatively different from the pre-revolutionary and modern stages of the development of historiography in Russia. Built on the basis of Marxist ideology, Soviet historiography was based on the conviction that economics and class struggle are the only correct force for the development of society. The authors of this article believe that it is necessary to take into account the positive experience of Soviet historiography. The works of Soviet Russian historians on the history of the Russian ecclesiastical mission in Beijing are of a positive nature and make a definite contribution to Russian historical science. The Russian ecclesiastical mission in Beijing throughout its existence has played a significant role as a representative of the Russian Empire during the Qing Dynasty. In the Soviet period, the study of religion, missionary work was difficult. Therefore, the history of the Mission and the activities of its members were mentioned only on the pages of publications devoted to issues of Oriental studies, within the framework of the history of Russian Sinology. In the first decade of Soviet power, historical science paid great attention to the social structure of China. In the 20s-30s of the 20th century, the theory of “commercial capitalism” was widely spread in Soviet historiography, developed as a special formation in Russian history, defining the internal and external policies of the tsarist government with commercial capital. The second half of the 20th century was characterized by significant changes in the political life of the country, which was also reflected in historical science. Complex scientific works appeared, scientific articles were published, theses of reports of conferences devoted to the history of the Russian spiritual mission in Beijing and its members. A characteristic feature of these works is that they focus on the scientific achievements of the Mission.

Keywords: Russian ecclesiastical mission in Beijing, historiography, Soviet historical science, history of Russia, history of China, Sinology, history of Orthodoxy.





Benammar Djamel (Touggourt, Algeria), Grifa Omar Mohamed (Sud Zintan, Libye). Growth of organized criminality and drug trafficking in the Maghreb due to the Arab Spring ………………. 51

DJAMEL BENAMMAR — Postgraduate student, People’s Friendship University of Russia. 117198, Russian Federation, Moscow, Miklouho-Maclay St., 6. Str. 315 № 02 Beniasoad, Touggourt, wilaya of Ouargla, Algeri.  E-mail: djomaman87@gmail.com, alzentane111@gmail.com

OMAR MOHAMED GRIFA — Postgraduate student, People’s Friendship University of Russia. 117198, Russian Federation, Moscow, Miklouho-Maclay St., 6. Sud Zintan, Str. Ibrahim Khalil, 218, Libye. E-mail: djomaman87@gmail.com, alzentane111@gmail.com

This article examines the growth of organized criminality and drug trafficking in the Maghreb after the Arab Spring, as well as human trafficking and illegal immigration across the border, which is becoming increasingly important in the Maghreb and the Sahel, which already suffer from security threats. The article also discusses the causes of organized crime at the regional level, as well as some prevailing patterns of illegal activities in the region. The Maghreb countries play a key role in cross-border legal and illegal trade for neighboring African countries. This article provides the necessary analytical tool of the arrangements relating to the national policies of the Maghreb countries, which aims to combat each of the consequences of organized crime, terrorism and drugs in the Maghreb region.

Keywords: the Maghreb, Sahel, the Arab Spring, arms trade, drug trafficking, human trafficking, organized

criminality, terrorism.


Zhilina E.V. (Moscow). Highlights of housing legislation developments in New York under rapid urbanization at the turn of the 19th–20th centuries ………………………………………………………………………………… 55

EVGENIYA VLADIMIROVNA ZHILINA — Postgraduate student, Department of Modern and Contemporary History, Faculty of History of Lomonosov Moscow State University,  8 (915)078-76-72. E-mail: jane.zhilina@mail.ru

The article focuses on the New York State Tenement House Act of 1901 that was to improve housing conditions in the US largest metropolis. The author considers how ideas and views on residential building standards changed on the backdrop of accelerating urbanization and high population growth, and analyzes attempts of progressive social figures to improve the life of the poor in the city. This study looks into some sources for the first time in Russia to show the causes and effects of the New York State Tenement House Act of 1901 that came as a preface to further larger social reforms.

Keywords: urbanization, housing legislation, New York State Tenement House Act, New York City, L. Veiller, J. Riis, reform movement, social reformation.


Kim In Gyu (Seongnam City, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea). The history and contribution

of early Protestantism in Korea …………………………………………………………………………………………… 62

KIM IN GYU — Postgraduate student, Department of Foreign Regional Studies and Diplomacy, Kuban State University. 350058, Russian Federation, Krasnodar, Stavropolskaya St., 149. Republic of Korea, Gyeonggi Province, Seongnam City, Bundang-gu, Suhyon-dong, 289–2. 경기도 성남시 분당구 서현동 289–2. E-mail: kimkras@yandex.ru

The article discusses the history of the early Korean Protestantism, associated with important moments of the beginning of the spread of Protestantism in Korea. It describes the hard work and the sacrifices of the Catholic missionaries in spreading the gospel, about the beginning the missionary activities of the Protestants and the appearance of the first Korean missionaries. It gives a brief description of the political situation in the country and the division within public during the time of the formation of Protestantism in the country. Society itself in a difficult period of moral falls among high-ranking state officials sought a way out of situations. People wanted change, and were ready for it, and at that difficult moment of Korean History Protestant missionaries came and changed the situation in the country. It analyzes the activity and influence of missionaries in society, and the content of the main directions of Protestant history. It is concluded that the history of Korean Protestantism reflects some important characteristics of the Korean people.

Keywords: Protestantism, missionary, Bible, transfer, preaching, Hangul, Spread, contribution, situation,

history, society.





Voronina M.M., Soldatov A.V., Shevchenko M.M. (Saint Petersburg). Little-known pages about working

in Russia Spanish engineers in the field of engineering in the nineteenth century …………………………… 66

MARGARITA MIKHAILOVNA VORONINA — Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Professor of Higher Mathematics Department at Emperor Alexander I Petersburg State Transport University. 190031, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Moskovsky Prospect, 9. E-mail: voronina.pgups@gmail.com

ALEXANDER VASIL’EVICH SOLDATOV — Doctor of Philosophy, Professor, Chief of Philosophy and Sociology Department, Saint Petersburg State Marine Technical University. 190008, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Lotsmanskaya St., 3. E-mail: soldatov2012@yandex.ru

MIKHAIL MAKSIMOVICH SHEVCHENKO — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the Interuniversity Center for Education in History and Philosophy of Science and Technology, Saint Petersburg State Marine Technical University. 190008, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Lotsmanskaya St., 3. E-mail: mixail.shevchenko.44@mail.ru

In Russia, until the beginning of the 19th century there were no engineers in the field of transport and construction – there were only military engineers. In 1809, the country’s first institution of higher education opened, which began to train engineers in these areas. But while their number is not enough. In this regard, Spanish engineers were invited to the country – Bausa, Monteverde, Viado, Espejo brothers, who performed works related to engineering art, not only in St. Petersburg. They worked in Warsaw (Poland at that time was part of Russia), Moscow, Odessa, Sevastopol, in Nizhny Novgorod. The Espejo brothers worked a lot in the Caucasus (the territory of Georgia at the beginning of the 19th century, at the request of the Georgian king, was annexed to Russia). The Russian government sent engineers, including Spanish specialists, to work there. In particular, I. Espejo was the director of all engineering works, in 1837 he was appointed manager of Imereti – this is the western part of Georgia with the center in Kutaisi. M. Espejo became head of the VIII (Caucasus) Railway Circuit, in 1840 he was appointed Director of the military communications of the Caucasus Territory and in subsequent years carried out numerous works to improve roads in the Transcaucasian Territory. All Spanish engineers have made a decent career in Russia.

Keywords: Spanish engineers, engineering works, Russia, first half of the 19th century.


Marusenko M.A., Petrov V.V. (Saint Petersburg). Forensic analysis of some aspects of the Beria case …….. 71

MIKHAIL ALEKSANDROVICH MARUSENKO — Doctor of Philological Sciences, Professor of the Department of Romance Languages, Saint Petersburg State University, Chief Researcher, Institute of Applied Russian Studies, A.I. Herzen Russian State Pedagogical University. 199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Universitetskaya Emb., 7/9. E-mail: mamikhail@yandex.ru

VADIM VADIMOVICH PETROV — Ph.D. in Forensic Medicine, Associate Professor, Department of Criminal Procedure and Forensic Science, Saint Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Universitetskaya Emb., 7/9. E-mail: v.v.petrov@spbu.ru

The article discusses some aspects of the removal of L.P. Beria from power. Various versions of the fact that the official date of the execution of L.P. Beria on December 23, 1953 is false are analyzed. On the basis of the analysis of literary sources, the authors put forward a version that the order to the commandant of the Special Judicial Presence of the USSR Supreme Court, Colonel-General P.P. Batitsky about the shooting of L.P. Beria, in accordance with the accepted forensic terminology, is counterfeit. Analysis of the documents of the trial of Beria and his accomplices (including the so-called “Letters of Beria from Imprisonment”) showed that they are also falsified. This confirms the hypothesis that Beria was killed immediately after the arrest, and the trial was imitated to create the appearance of respect for the law.

Keywords: Beria case, investigative case, criminalistics, technical and forensic investigation of documents, author research, attribution, Delta measure, clustering.





Tarasov O.Y. (Khabarovsk). History of settlement sakhalar on the geospace within the borders of Yakutia:

isogloss and geographical approaches ………………………………………………………………………………… 81

OLEG YURIEVICH TARASOV — Ph.D. in History, Senior Researcher of the Department of Scientific and Innovation Development and Additional Education of the Khabarovsk Infocommunications Institute (branch of the Siberian State University of Telecommunications and Information Sciences). 680019, Russian Federation, Khabarovsk, Lenina St., 73–100. E-mail: oltar-1972@mail.ru

The study is directed to the mastering’s history of The Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) through the prism of regional toponymy. The author examines the possibilities of research aspects of the geospatial exploration’s history through the isogloss approach and the historical and cultural classification. An important aspect of the presented research is the geographical and linguistic analysis of the Yakut toponymy’s distribution at different historical stages. In particular, considered the first stages of the Yakut culture’s emergence and spread on the modern Sakha Republic’s territory. 12th–15th centuries in the history of the Yakut ethnos are the distribution’s key areas, segments of interaction with other cultures’ representatives in the region are the basis for further conflict-free intercultural contacts. As a result of the long joint “cultural drift” of several ethnic groups (Yakuts, Evenks, Evenies, Chukchi, Russians), a unique toponymic picture emerged. The possibilities of modern decoding allow us to find out the directions of the movement of human communities. This direction is promising for studying the mastering processes in the Far East of the Russian Federation. This is due to the minimization of costs for field research and a visual description of the migration routes and population settling. Because of the research, the main routes of the movement of the Yakut ethnos, the areas of its local settlement through the principles for the name of geographical objects: hydronyms, oronyms and oikonyms have been determined and substantiated. We also note a comparison of the results of toponymic, historical and cultural studies, which confirms the results of toponymic analysis. The proposed approaches also confirmed the established chronology in the ethnic history of sakhalar in the Far East of Russia.

Keywords: toponymy of Yakutia, history of development and settlement of the Far East.


Baishev I.N. (Ufa). Features of the organization of leisure of Russian teachers at the beginning of the 19th century (on the materials of the Ural region) ……………………………………………………………… 86

IL’DAR NARIMANOVICH BAISHEV — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Department of Russian History, Bashkir State Pedagogical University named after M. Akmulla. 450000, Russian Federation, Ufa, October Revolution St., 3a. E-mail: ildarbaish@list.ru

The article reveals the features of leisure among the teachers’ intelligentsia of the Ural region in the early twentieth century. There is an increase in the professional load of teaching staff and, as a consequence, the need for rational organization of leisure. Considering features of the organization of leisure in the environment of rural teaching attention is focused on employment of the last in household farms. The issues of organization of leisure of city teachers are studied in connection with a significant expansion of cultural and information space, the opportunities of a wide range of intellectuals to visit cultural and educational institutions. The article presents the facts of increasing the role of cinema as one of the important sources of leisure. Various public activity of teachers is touched upon, materials on educational trips of teachers of secondary educational institutions in Russia and abroad are given. The author of the article draws attention to both reasonable, intellectual forms of leisure and destructive (alcohol abuse among a certain part of the teaching). Little-known information from archival sources and materials of periodicals of the early twentieth century is given.

Keywords: teaching, intellectuals, cultural and information space, leisure, cinema, household economy, travel, cultural and educational organizations.


Tarasov J.Yu., Warady E.A. (Khabarovsk). To the question about the use of geographic information potential of the place names of the districts late arrival in the field of balneology: problems and prospects …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 90

OLEG YUR’EVICH TARASOV — Ph.D. in History, Senior Researcher, Department of Scientific and Innovation Development and Additional Education Khabarovsk Infocommunications Institute, branch of Siberian State University of Telecommunications and Information Science. 680019, Russian Federation, Khabarovsk, Lenin St., 73–102. E-mail: oltar-1972@mail.ru

EUGENE ANDREEVICH WARADY — Senior lecturer of the Department of pharmacy and pharmacology, Far Eastern state medical University. 680000, Russian Federation, Khabarovsk, ul. Muraveva-Amurskogo, 35. E-mail: jammedjohn@rambler.ru

The article is devoted to the problems of the use of geoinformation potential of toponymy of the Far East of the Russian Federation. The study is at the junction of historical Sciences (Ethnography, history of geographical discoveries) and medical (balneology, pharmacy) sciences. The paper presents examples of identified names and examples of historical use of the health potential of a particular area. The authors consider the possibility of analyzing the etymology of geographical names related to the languages of indigenous peoples and identify explicit and hidden layers of place names that indicate the therapeutic and health potential of the regions, their flora, mineral springs. In conclusion, the proposed areas of work of specialists of the health resort in the future. The possibilities of productive cooperation of ethnographers, historians, philologists and medical workers are also indicated.

Keywords: toponymy of the Far East, Ethnography, balneology, geoinformation potential of the name of the area.


Ivanov V.A. (Saint Petersburg). Power and population of Leningrad on the eve of the fall of the Soviet state-legal system (1990–1991): interests, moods, actions ……………………………………… 94

VIKTOR ALEXANDROVICH IVANOV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Professor of the Department of Theory of Law and Humanities, Saint Petersburg Branch named after V.B. Bobkov of Russian Customs Academy. 197227, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Prospekt Ispytatelei, 28, bldg. 3. E-mail: iva0603@mail.ru

The article attempts to reconstruct the most visible manifestations of the socio-political atmosphere in Leningrad in 1990–1991 – the period of the sharpest crisis of the power generated by scrapping of key priorities of policy of reorganization and come to the end with falling of all Soviet state and legal system. It is curious how easily collapsed once mighty machine of control and dominion in one of the largest regions of Soviet Russia with a fairly high “party-political” layer in it, and how ambiguous was acting the part of the intelligentsia of the city, of choice and action which much depended. The catastrophic disbalance of the entire national economic organism of the country was deftly used by the near-liberal heralds of the so-called “people’s capitalism”, clamoring for the imminent demise of “dull socialism” in the USSR.

Keywords: power, population, social and political processes, public moods, radicalization of social movement, B.V. Gidaspov, A.A. Sobchak, crime.





Temchuk E.I. (Moscow). The policy of the military administration of the Russian Empire in the occupied territories of the Central Powers 1914–1917 …………………………………………………… 100

EVGENIY IGOREVICH TEMCHUK — Researcher of the Research Center of the Military University of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation. E-mail: Evgeny.temchuk@yandex.ru

This article raises the little-studied topic of military-administrative activity of the tsarist Russian authorities in the territories of their main opponents during the First World War of 1914–1917, during the fighting under the control of the Russian Imperial Army. The author considers both successful and unsuccessful attempts of the government and the supreme command of the armed forces of the Russian Empire to establish its own management system in the occupied areas of enemy states, as well as a set of political measures of Petrograd against controlled foreign provinces taken to achieve their military and geopolitical goals, in particular cultural, religious, national policy, organization of the rear structures of the army, building relations with the local population and the solution of its pressing problems.

Keywords: World War I, Russian Empire, Central Powers, Russian Imperial Army, occupation regime, military Governor-General, East Prussia, Galicia, Western Armenia.





Yang Soon Yean (Seongnam City, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea). Formation of national cinematography in Korea ……………………………………………………………………. 106

YANG SOON YEAN — Postgraduate student, Department of Foreign Regional Studies and Diplomacy, Kuban State University. 350058, Russian Federation, Krasnodar, Stavropolskaya St., 149. Republic of Korea, Gyeonggi Province, Seongnam City, Bundang-gu, Suhyon-dong, 289–2. 경기도 성남시 분당구 서현동 289–2. E-mail: kimkras@yandex.ru

The article deals with the history of the development of Korean cinema in 1910–1921. The author explores the initial stage of cinema, its evolution, social and aesthetic functions. For a long time, Korean cinema remained little known outside the country. The first films of foreign production were focused on the Korean public. Busan became the place and harbinger of the organization of the national film festival, which allowed in the 1990s create the Asian Cinema Foundation. The Korean Peninsula was at the center of an active historical and cultural interaction associated with extensive migration processes, and at the same time a starting point in the formation of the Korean nation and its culture. Cultural contacts of this period played a dual role, eroding the ethnic and cultural specifics of the population of certain parts of the country and synthesizing common, consolidating features of various Korean tribes. Cultural pressure from China and Japan was a constant factor in the development of the historical process on the Korean Peninsula. However, the Korean people managed to endure all the burdens of life and create national cinematography, widely known today. Of course, the themes and form of the first moving photos introduced the Koreans to new information about the world, technical, economic achievements, and the development of the art of cinema. Nevertheless, the first films made a great contribution to the formation and development of Korean cinema. The interest in cinema among Koreans remained at a fairly high level, and the principle of Koreanism allowed a little later to preserve the uniqueness of Korean cinema culture. The unavailability of external influences has become a source of pride for Koreans, a stimulus for the preservation and multiplication of the cultural specifics of Korean cinema. It is concluded that the national cinema reflects the important features of the Korean mentality.

Keywords: Korean cinema, censorship, independence, silent films, first cinemas, moving photo.





Mikhaltsov N.G. (Shchelkovo, Moscow region). World wars – the beginning of an era of automatic infantry weapons …………………………………………………………………………………………. 110

NIKOLAY GENNADIEVICH MIKHALTSOV — Ph.D. in Engineering Sciences, Leading researcher Research center of Military University Ministry of Defense of Russian Federation. 8-915-166-23-31. E-mail: Nickolay.Gen@yandex.ru

The article on the basis of archival materials, documents, numerous reference books and other sources reveals the causes and history of the development, use and further improvement of mass samples of automatic small arms in the early twentieth century. The Author provides a review and comparative analysis of the tactical and technical characteristics of various models of automatic weapons used by the armies of the leading States in the First and Second world wars, and also considers the main directions of its further development in the interwar period and during the Second world war. The estimation of the combat effectiveness of the most massive samples of automatic small arms used on the battlefields in the first half of the twentieth century, and their role in the creation of modern small arms systems.

Keywords: First and Second world wars, automatic rifle, ammunition, cartridge, machine gun, submachine

gun, self-loading rifle, machine gun, manual, aviation and tank machine guns.


Verbovoy A.O. (Saint Petersburg). The role of Aral and Amudarian military flotillas in the enforce

of Russian positions in Middle Asia ……………………………………………………………………………………. 116

ALEXEY OLEGOVICH VERBOVOY — Ph.D. in History, Researcher of the science-issue department-12, Naval Academy named after Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union N.G. Kuznetcov. 197045, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Ushakovskaya nab., 17/1. E-mail: a.verbovoy@mail.ru

In the paper there is analyzing an activity of Aral and Amudarian flotilla during subjection Middle Asia. The article touches a period of Russian history from Nicolas epoch till revolution events of 1917th year. In the work an attention was given to the period of Alexander II and Alexander III rule when happened the basic events of adding Middle Asia territories and there were turning out causes and prerequisites of making and activity of Amudarian flotilla. The article contains so causes subjection of Middle Asian states and observe there in further inclusive Soviet period and present time. With reference to Amudarian flotilla there is issue a history of its predecessor Aral flotilla and its activity during the campaign in Hiva. Then in the work is shown strictly a process of making Amudarian flotilla and there functions after subjection Middle Asia in logistics of the troops that were in that region. The issue is finished a show a history of transformation Amudarian flotilla from military to civilian flotilla and its further disbandment. So in the finish of the article was shown a restoration and activity of Amudarian flotilla and Aral flotilla during the Civil War after that there were finally disbanded.

Keywords: Aral flotilla, Amudarian flotilla, Middle Asia, Hiva, Buhara, Kokand state, steamships, barges, boats, logistics, Aral Sea, Amu Darya, Syr Darya.





Gessen V.Y. (Saint Petersburg). Rabbi I.S. Olshvanger in St. Petersburg ………………………………………… 122

VALERII YUL’EVICH GESSEN — Ph.D. in Economics, Independent Researcher. 196233, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Zvezdnaya 11/ 2, 140. E-mail: geen27@mail.ru

This article is the first of our publication, dedicated to individual Jewish religious leaders in Saint Petersburg. The speech is about Rabbi, about which information is available are very limited. Meanwhile, its role in the development of Jewish religious life in the capital has so far patently underestimated. And this is to some extent due to the fact that he belonged to the traditional, rabbinic in Judaism, in contrast to St. Petersburg, which is in the Chassidic religious institutions acquired more and more importance, particularly since the beginning of the 1990s. The article summarized the history origin and development in St. Petersburg Jewish religious life that is considered necessary for the understanding of the historical context in which the activity took place of Rabbi I.s. Olshvangera.

Keywords: Rabbi, Judaism, I. S. Olshvanger, Jewish religious life, religious institutions.


Mankov S.A., Mikhaylov V.V. (Saint Petersburg). The case of Kostroma landowner M.V. Ivashintsova: an episode from the daily life of serfs of the first half of the 19th century …………………………………….. 128

SERGEI ALEXANDROVICH MANKOV — Senior Researcher of the State Museum “Tsarskoye Selo”, Member of the Governor’s Heraldic Council of the Novgorod region. 196240, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Pulkovskoe shosse, 5/1, ap. 385. E-mail: mankov21@mail.ru

VADIM VIKTOROVICH MIKHAYLOV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation. 196135, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Gastello St., 15. E-mail: batukom@mail.ru

The article on the case of abuse of power of Kostroma landowner Maria Vasilyevna Ivashintsova, examines the specifics of the nobility and peasant relations in the first half of the 19th century. The struggle of landlord peasants and yard for their rights, socio-economic interests and the defense of human dignity took on various forms. The outrageous circumstances of the high-profile cases of landowner Darya Saltykova (1730–1801) and Lieutenant-General Lev Izmailov (1764–1834) forced government agencies to respond to the landlord arbitrariness, which opened up opportunities for the peasantry in similar cases to seek legal and administrative protection from the authorities. In this situation, landlord peasants showed the ability to organize themselves and find leverage on landlords, use facts from their personal (intimate) life to draw attention to their position. At the same time, the provincial authorities could not, as before, remain indifferent to the position of the people and their aspirations, because otherwise accumulated discontent could escalate into mass unrest and illegal acts.

Keywords: nobility, peasantry, serfdom, Kostroma Province, Russia in the 19th century.


Samorodov D.P. (Sterlitamak). Russian founder of psychohistory. Doctor of Medicine Vladimir Bekhterev ………………………………………………………………………………. 133

DMITRY PETROVICH SAMORODOV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the Department of History of the Fatherland and Methods of Teaching History of the Sterlitamak Branch of the Bashkir State University. 453103, Russian Federation, Republic of Bashkortostan, Sterlitamak, Lenin Ave., 49.

The article discusses milestones in the life and career of V.M. Bekhterev, an outstanding Russian and Soviet psychiatrist, a neuropathologist and the founder of collective reflexology. It is shown that V.M. Bekhterev by creating an “objective” psychology, derived 23 laws of collective reflexology, by means of which he tried to explain the course of historical events, thereby laying the foundations, the so-called psychohistory (V.M. Bekhterev himself did not use the term), an interdisciplinary science of the psychological motivation of the actions of man and the whole of society in the unfolding of the historical process. It is emphasized that the model of psychohistory, developed by the Russian scientist in the first quarter of the twentieth century, appeared long before the birth of French historical psychology and the American school of psychohistory, based almost entirely on the ideas of Freud. It is proved that from the height of our time, the historically determined limitations of the psychohistorical views of V.M. Bekhterev, who biologized the psychic life of a person, proceeding from the starting generally accepted (to this day) premise that human consciousness is the essence of brain function. It is concluded that the spiritual nature of man, his soul did not correlate with the theoretical core of V.M. Bekhterev’s collective reflexology, who perceived man as a biosocial rather than spiritual being. The undoubted contribution of the scientist to the development of innovative approaches to the understanding of history and to the emergence of alternative historiography in the 1920s is recognized. The methodological substrate of the article is the principle of metahistoricism and the theoretical orientation to the non-mechanical (spiritual) scientific picture of the world.

Keywords: V.M. Bekhterev, psychohistory, collective reflexology, world history, psychological motivation in history, behaviorism, psychoanalysis.





Bondarevskiy A.V., Kuzenkova M.V. (Saint Petersburg). To the question of the historical origins and modern problems of low prestige of business and business community in Russia …………………… 142

ALEXANDER VITAL’EVICH BONDAREVSKIY — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Department of History, Culture, State and Law, Saint Petersburg Electrotechnikal University. 197022, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Professora Popova St., 5. E-mail: alex.bondarevskiy@mail

MARINA VICTOROVNA KUZENKOVA — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Department of International Relations, Media Studies, Political Science and History. Saint Petersburg State University of Economics. 191186, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Kanal Griboedova Emb., 30/32. E-mail: marinahistory@yandex.ru

Paperwork raises the issues on the historical factors for skepticism and even prejudice of the significant part of the society concerning representatives of businesses, especially large and connected with state ownership. Author considers geographical, historical, religious and mental causes of low entrepreneurial activity of the population, although, according to the Yegor Gaidar’s reformation team concept, it was precisely a private initiative to ensure the effectiveness and the economic recovery after the dismantling of the Soviet centrally planned economy. The theme of the article is relevant for understanding the reasons of low popularity of market reforms and liberal ideology, as well as grounds of crisis in modern Russia.

Keywords: historical values, property, morals, motivation, justice, resource model, fraud, civilizational forms.





Volkovsky N.L. (Saint Petersburg). «Support points» of the researcher. Are they always reliable? ……………… 150

NIKOLAY LUKYANOVICH VOLKOVSKY — Doctor of Philological Sciences, Professor of the Department of Theory of Journalism and Mass Communications, Saint Petersburg State University. 199004, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, 1st line of Vasilyevsky Island, 26. E-mail: vnluk@yandex.ru

The article deals with the problems of terminology that first of all, are reduced to questions of uncertainty of terms, their ambiguity, subjectivity of researchers, the lack of critical analysis of “well-established” concepts and clear them use, to achieve requirements of multi-variant categories of its adequate interpretation and formation of conceptual a device that approaches the unity of the invested sense. The author draws attention to the fact that the problems in the use of categorical apparatus in media research can be of different properties. For example, in addition to ambiguity, polysemy of some concepts, there is also the problem of synonymy, because different concepts can mean the same thing. There are attempts to eliminate certain categories, absolutization of some of them. There is also a problem associated with the subjectivity of researchers. It is concluded that the previously developed terminology needs clarification and development.

Keywords: categories, concepts, term, research, theory, historical cognition, science, polysemy, subjectivism.





Ippolitov G.M. (Samara). Review of the dissertation of E.V. Godovova «Daily life of the Russian Cossacks in the second half of the 19th – early 20th centuries» presented for the degree of Doctor of Historical Sciences, specialty 07.00.02 – national history ……………………………………….. 156

GEORGIY MIKHAYLOVICH IPPOLITOV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Professor of the Department of National History and Archaeology, Samara State Socio-Pedagogical University. 443099, Russian Federation, Samara, Maxim Gorky St., 65/67. E-mail: gippolitov@rambler.ru

In the below published review of the official opponent of the doctoral dissertation of Godovova Elena Viktorovna “The daily life of the Russian Cossacks in the second half of the 19th – early 20th centuries», its positive aspects are revealed, as well as certain shortcomings that are not systemic, that do not reduce the scholarly quality of this qualification work. It is concluded that the applicant deserves the award of the required degree “Doctor of Historical Sciences” in the specialty 07.00.02 – national history.

Keywords: official opponent, E.V. Godovova, source base, scholarly and qualification work, thesis, scholarly novelty, Cossacks, history of everyday life, frontier modernization.