Klio #5 (161) 2020



Milezhik A.V. (Vladivostok). Far Eastern policy of the Russian Empire at the beginning of XX century: historiographic aspect

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Head of the Department of Humanitarian Disciplines of the Vladivostok Branch
Far Eastern Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia.
690087, Russia, Vladivostok, st. Kotelnikova, d. 21.
e-mail: avmilezhik@yandex.ru

The article presents a historiographic analysis of the study of the implementation of the Far Eastern policy by the Russian government in the late XIX – early XX centuries. The Far Eastern policy was based on an attempt to implement an active foreign policy program, the aim of which was to strengthen Russia’s positions in Northeast China (Manchuria), Mongolia, and Korea. Under favorable conditions, the possibility of accession of Manchuria and the creation of a special region on its territory – Zheltorossiya – was considered. Such an ambitious program required strengthening the vertical of power and changes in the governance system of the Russian Far East. The answer to these challenges was the establishment of the Far Eastern Viceroyalty and the non-departmental Committee for the Affairs of the Far East. An attempt at non-economic strengthening in East Asia ended in the defeat of Russia in the war with Japan and the curtailment of active Far Eastern policy. The author summarizes the main directions of research of the problem, gives a General description of scientific works. The author concludes that it is necessary to further study the foreign and domestic political aspects of the Russian government’s activities in the Far East based on expanding the source base and identifying new research tasks.
Keywords: historiography, historical science, the Far East, the Russian Empire, foreign policy, administrative reform, management system, Far Eastern Viceroyalty, Russo-Japanese war of 1904 – 1905.


Shabelnikova N.A. (Vladivostok). On guard of law and order: History of Russian internal affairs agencies in modern Far Eastern historiography

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Full Professor,
Department of Humanitarian Disciplines
Vladivostok branch of Far Eastern
Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal
Affairs of the Russian Federation
690087, Russian Federation, Vladivostok, Kotelnikova st., 21,
E-mail: nhistorik@mail.ru

The article is devoted to the analysis of modern far Eastern studies on the history of internal Affairs bodies. The author draws attention to the fact that without the study of internal Affairs bodies as a special structure of society, it is impossible to study the problems of optimizing law enforcement activities carried out by this system. This has a negative impact on the legal regulation of public relations and contributes to the growth of social tension. The study of the history of internal Affairs bodies is particularly relevant in the modern period, which is characterized by both an active transformation of the law enforcement structure of Russia as a whole, and the reform of internal Affairs bodies in particular. The article outlines the main directions for studying the problem and provides a brief description of them. The author concludes that along with the emergence of new approaches to assessing the essence, specificity, main directions, forms, and methods of work of internal Affairs bodies, it is necessary to further study and preserve the previous legacy. The emergence of new research areas creates the basis for continuing the study of the history of internal Affairs bodies.
Keywords: modern historiography, regional aspect, Far East, Russia, internal Affairs agencies, study, main directions, new approaches.


Kanevskaya G.I. (Vladivostok). «Sent» and «trophy» citizens of the USSR in Manchuria. (The image of a Soviet man of the first post-war years in the memoirs of Russian emigrants)

Doctor of Historical Sciences,
Senior Researcher of the Scientific Laboratory of International Institutes
and Multilateral Cooperation of the APR.
Eastern Institute – School of Regional and International Studies
of the Far Eastern Federal University.
690105, Russia, Vladivostok, Davydov, 36.
E-mail: g.i.kanevskaya@gmail.com

Studies written in the imagological perspective are a relatively new trend in domestic emigrant studies, and the stated problem has not yet become the subject of special analysis. Meanwhile, on the eve of the 75th anniversary of the end of World War II, it is appropriate to pay attention to the Russian emigration to Manchuria, which has witnessed its final stage. The purpose of this article, based on the theory of historical imagology, is to present the image of a Soviet man that had developed among emigrants during the crucial period of their first post-war years, to identify factors that influenced the transformation of their views. The main source was the memoirs of Russian emigrants with a Chinese past, published in separate publications or periodicals, both in our country and abroad.
Keywords: Russian emigration to Manchuria, the image of the Soviet man, memoirs of Russian emigrants, imagology.


Simonenko E. S. (Ussuriysk). Canada and the problem of creating a collective defense system of the British Empire at the 1902 Colonial Conference

PhD in History, research associate of the Department of psychology ,
Far Eastern Federal University (FEFU).
692500, Russia, Primorsky Krai, Ussuriysk, Nekrasov st. 35.
E-mail: eka-1982.82@mail.ru

The article represents the study of the Canadian political elite’s position on Canada’s integration into the system of collective naval and land defense of the British Empire at the beginning of the 20th century. The events’ chronology confines to 1902 when it was held the Colonial conference, where it was voiced and recorded the official position of the Canadian leadership on this issue. The publication defines the genesis of the concept of collective responsibility of Great Britain and its overseas possessions in ensuring the security of the imperial space. It examines the background to the transformation of Canada into a central object of interest for mother-country in the field of Imperial defense. It analyzes the details of strategic planning developed by the British General Staff and the Admiralty in the field of collective naval and land defense of the Empire and determines Canada’s role in this process. It formulates the official position of the Canadian Prime Minister W. Laurier on the problem of integration, by which the dominion refused to participate in its implementation of any schemes of imperial interaction without making adjustments to the general scheme of managing the Empire.
Keywords: Canada, the British Empire, the Colonial Conference of 1902, imperial defence, imperial integration, dominion, Wilfrid Laurier.


Likharev D.V. (Ussuriysk). The Reform of Naval Officers’ Education in Great Britain in 1902: Social Aspect and the Reaction of Public Opinion

Doctor of Historical Science, Professor
School of Education, Far Eastern Federal University (FEFU)
692500, Russian Federation, Primorsky Krai, Ussuriysk, Nekrasova ul.35
E-mail: liharev.dv@dvfu.ru

The article contains an analysis of the naval education reform in Great Britain in 1902. The so-called “Selborne Scheme” named after the Minister of the Sea was designed to give equal status to executive and engineering officers to reflect the increasingly technological nature of the navy. The reform proposed common entry and training of executive, engineering, and Royal Marine officers at the Osborne and Dartmouth naval colleges. The authors of the reform aimed to improve the position of engineering officers giving then equal possibilities to promotion and salary. However, the “Selborne Scheme” failed to achieve its objects on account of hostility from the established executive officers. The author concludes that the five main changes of J. A. Fischer’s reform of training of naval officers can be considered the most unsuccessful since it did not achieve its goals. Almost a century of unchallenged naval hegemony in the absence of strong opponents had turned the British naval hierarchy into an ossified tradition that proved extremely difficult to break.
Keywords: Great Britain, naval education, the reform of 1902, naval engineers.


Serdyuk M.B., Rodionova K.I. (Vladivostok). Religious Life of Harbin: Lutherans

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Far Eastern Federal University, School of Arts and Humanities, Department of Arts and Design
690922, Russian Federation, Vladivostok, island Russky, Ajax 10, FEFU campus, building F, room 614.
E-mail: userdyuk@mail.ru

Postgraduate student of the 3rd course, junior researcher, Far Eastern Federal University, School of Arts and Humanities, Department of History and Archeology
690922, Russian Federation, Vladivostok, island Russky, Ajax 10, FEFU campus, building F, room 614.
E-mail: rodionovadvfu@gmail.com

The article discusses the history of the emergence and development of the Lutheran community in the city of Harbin (1898-1940s). Lutherans were a religious minority in a multi-faith city. The ethnic composition of the community was represented by Germans, Estonians, Latvians. The research of the history of the Lutheran community is based on unpublished documents from the collections of the Russian archives and scientific publications. During the study, there have been identified the stages of the history of the Harbin Lutherans and the reasons that influenced the development of the community. As a result of the study, there have been made some conclusions about the transformation of the Lutheran community of Harbin from a single local church during the Imperial period to separate national church communities during the period of Manzhou-di-go. The conditions of emigration led to a split in the Lutheran community based on nationality and political preferences. National and political interests prevailed over church unity for a significant part of the Harbin Lutherans.
Keywords: Harbin, Evangelical Lutheran Church, history of emigration, Chinese Eastern Railway


Garusova L.N. (Vladivostok). Evolution of US Immigration Policy and the Problem of Integration of Migrants into American Society

Doctor of Historical Sciences,
Professor of Asia Pacific Department, Far Eastern Federal University,
Chief researcher of the Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the peoples of the Far East FEB RAS
Russia, 690922, Vladivostok, Ajax-10, D 415.
E-mail: lgarusova@mail.ru

Effective immigration policy and the ability of the host society to integrate foreign migrants is a factor in the successful socio-economic development and stability of any state. The United States of America has accumulated a huge immigration experience that can be demanded by the world community. Based on the analysis of American sources (immigration laws and presidential decrees, documents of ministries and departments of the United States, materials of statistical collections and sociological surveys), as well as domestic and foreign literature, the author concluded that in the United States there are two main approaches to the implementation of immigration policy. The state not only quantitatively and qualitatively regulates the immigration process but also forms the legislative and institutional framework for the integration of migrants. At the same time, non-governmental (NGOs) and non-profit (NGOs) organizations play an important role in the implementation of state programs on socialization and adaptation of migrants to the local places. All state and public institutions of the United States are oriented to the preservation of the basic American system of values. However, the actions of state and non-governmental organizations are often accompanied by a conflict of interests.
Keywords: immigration policy, legislation, USA, illegal migrants, adaptation, integration.


Tolstokulakov I.A., Voloshchak V.I. (Vladivostok). Creation and Evolution of South Korean Military Doctrine

PhD, Doctor of Science (History), professor at the Chair of Korean Studies
Far Eastern Federal University
(Russia, Vladivostok)
Russia, 690105, Vladivostok, Davydova str., 42 – 75
FEFU Address: Russia, 690091, г. Vladivostok, Sukhanova str., 8
E-mail: tolstokulakov.ia@dvfu.ru

Assistant professor at the Chair of International Relations,
post-graduate student at the Department of History and Archaeology
Far Eastern Federal University
(Russia, Vladivostok)
Russia, 690922, Vladivostok, Russky Island, 10 Ajax Bay, Building D, of. D928
FEFU Address: Russia, 690091, г. Vladivostok, Sukhanova str., 8
E-mail: tolstokulakov.ia@dvfu.ru

The article examines the evolution of the military doctrine of the Republic of Korea, its role in the policy line of state authorities during different stages of South Korean state history. The authors attempt to discern South Korean military doctrine during the period of I – VI Republics, to distinguish any differences and alterations in defense policy. Special attention is devoted to distinctive features of military politics of Rhee Syngman administration (1948 – 1960) as the principal basis for modern military doctrine in the Republic of Korea. This article offers also an analysis of the current stage of armed forces reform (a.k.a. «Armed Forces Reform 2.0») since 2017. It has been observed that earlier dominated military-political directives (such as a close political and military alliance with the USA; tough regulation in military and defense sphere; maintaining the high degree of confrontation with the DPRK) were changing by gradual liberalization of military sphere including armed forces reorganization and reducing, its effectiveness increase and management transparency, development of the military service culture and modernization of the social and juridical realities. The main attention has been given to measures for the promotion of South Korean army self-dependency and readiness to provide the national security under continuing conditions of the mutual hostility on the Korean peninsula.
Keywords: military doctrine, military policy, Korean peninsula, Republic of Korea, armed forces, defense, reform, national security.


Usov А.V. (Moscow). Study of ensuring maritime security of the Russian Far Eastern basin according to documents Russian State Historical Archive of the Far East (1860s - 1917)

Cand. Sc. in History,
The Centre of Humanitarian and Socio-Economic Disciplines
State Academic University for Humanities (GAUGN), Associate Professor
119049, Russian Federation, Moscow, Maronovsky Lane, 26
e-mail: epronhist@gmail.com

The article is devoted to the problems of forming a source base of research on the history of ensuring the maritime security of the Far East Basin of Russia, a topical direction in modern research over the last decade. Documents of the Russian State Historical Archive of the Far East (RSHA FE), which provide information on how maritime security was ensured in conditions of pre-revolutionary development of the region, have a special role in the development of this issue. The example of separate archival cases shows the information capabilities of the records of the maritime rescue industry. The need to improve methods of identifying and introducing into scientific circulation sources on the history of rescue operations is stressed. The absence of unified maritime rescue service in the Far East Basin of Russia is confirmed. The author concludes that the fragmentation of materials containing information on the problem under study slows down the process of data detection, as well as their subsequent verification and interpretation. Further prospects for the development of the scientific direction are linked with the use of the whole set of documents on the history of marine security, on the basis of which it is possible to expand the subject matter of research.
Keywords: historical research, marine security, historical source, Far East basin, archival fund, source research, RSHA FE, Far East.


Toschenkova V.A. (Vladivostok). Agricultural societies of the Amur and Primorsky regions at the beginning of the twentieth century

The postgraduate student of the Far Eastern Federal University’s Department of History and Archeology.
Vladivostok, Russian Island, FEFU campus, building F, level 4, F426
e-mail :ekimova_va@dvfu.ru

The article is devoted to the activities of agricultural societies on the territory of the Amur Governor-General in the late XIX – early XX centuries. The information on their number is systematized, types of societies are highlighted. The study is based on identifying common features and specific features of agricultural societies operating in the Amur and Primorsky regions, comparing the structure, management, membership, forms, and methods of work. Horizontal (non-power) ties are considered (interaction of public organizations, information exchange, mutual assistance, joint actions); and also vertical ties – the interaction of agricultural societies with the government. The study was performed on the materials of the Russian State Historical Archive of the Far East and the State Archive of the Amur Region.
Keywords: Far East, history of the Far East, agriculture, public organizations, agricultural societies, Amur Governor General, Primorsky Society of Agriculture, Amur Society of Agriculture.


Belevschuk G.P. (Vladivostok). Organizational aspects of regulating the «working question» in the Russian Far East during the civil war

Post-graduate student of Department of history and archaeology
Far Eastern federal University
690091, Vladivostok, Sukhanov St., 8.
e-mail: belevschuk_gp@dvfu.ru

The article considers the activities of institutions created to regulate the “working issue” in the Russian Far East. The first ideas about the need to form local government bodies in the region that are responsible for the working question arose in October 1910. Finally, the system of state institutions responsible for the” working question” developed in the Far East of Russia at the beginning of the First World War, when the factory inspection and the Primorye reference Bureau on the working question were created and actively operated. During the civil war, the issue of the need for a labor policy continued to be relevant to every government. During the existence of the government of A.V. Kolchak, the powers of the pre-revolutionary factory inspection were maintained, and labor exchanges were restored. The provisional government of the Primorye regional Zemstvo created the Chamber of labor, which had broad powers.
Keywords: The Far East, the civil war, social policy, the labor question, government agencies, factory inspection, the Chamber of labor.


Tkacheva G.A. (Vladivostok). The local industry and producers cooperation of the Far East region in days of the Great Patriotic War (1941 – 1945)

of Historical Sciences Leading Researcher
FGBUN Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography of Peoples
Far East, FEB RAS, Russia, 690001, Vladivostok, ul. Pushkinskaya, 89
Е-mail: tkacheva@ihaefe.ru

The article, using sources introduced into scientific circulation, defines a change in the network and production capacities of local industry, field cooperation, and cooperation of people with disabilities in the Far East of the USSR during the Great Patriotic War (1941–1945). It was revealed that the change in the network of local industry and cooperation in the Far East was due to the organization of small, poorly mechanized cooperatives and workshops that manufactured industrial products and provided repair services, consumer services that did not require special technological innovations and equipment. The plans for the release of consumer goods, both in gross output and in assortment, were not fulfilled. During the years of World War II, the socio-economic development of the region had a pronounced military-defense orientation. Enterprises of union subordination engaged in the implementation of basic production programs with limited labor resources did not practically release consumer goods from production wastes. Extensive methods failed to increase the production of consumer goods; the local industry, industrial cooperation, and the cooperation of the disabled of the Far East objectively could not expand the range of products and improve the quality of manufactured goods, provide the Far East with full consumer goods.
Keywords: Great Patriotic War, Far East of the USSR, local, cooperative industry, supply, convenience goods, rated distribution.


Fedirko O.P., Peshkov D.A. (Vladivostok). The Zeya hydroelectric power station as part of the integrated mega project of development of the Far East. Building a social infrastructure

D.Phll. in History
Leading Researcher of the
Social and Political Studies Department
The  Far Eastern Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography
89 Pushkinskaya street, Vladivostok, 690001,RUSSIA

post-graduate student The Far Eastern
Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences Institute of History,
Archeology and Ethnography
89 Pushkinskaya street, Vladivostok, 690001, RUSSIA
E-mail: peshkov275@mail.ru

The article discusses the history of the construction of the Zeya hydroelectric station as an integral part of a comprehensive megaproject of development of the Far East of the USSR in the 1970-1990s. Using the documents identified in the State Archives of the Amur Region in the funds of the Zeya HPP party committee, the Komsomol committee ZeyaHESstroy, the construction department of the Zeya hydroelectric station, the construction stages of the Zeya hydroelectric station are considered, the construction of its main structures are correlated with the development of the housing and social infrastructure of Zeya. The influence of the construction of a hydroelectric power station on the economic potential of the region as a whole is revealed. The construction of the Zeya hydroelectric station became not only a model for the construction and launch of an industrial facility in hard-to-reach areas but also the experience of creating a network of social infrastructure facilities for builders and discussing personnel of the hydroelectric station to secure specialists from other regions of the USSR in the Far East. The experience of building hydro-engineering villages was actively used in the process of building the BAM.
Keywords: the Far East of the USSR, the Baikal-Amur Railway, Zeya Hydroelectric Power Station, Bureyskaya Hydroelectric Power Station, megaproject, social infrastructure.


Medvedeva L.M. (Vladivostok). Railway transport of the Russian Far East at the stage of updating the development of regional economic potential

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor,
Head of the Department of History, Archeology and Ethnology,
Federal State Budget Establishment of Science
«Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East,
Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences»
690001, Russian Federation, Vladivostok, Pushkinskaia Str., 89
E-mail: medvedeva_l@mail.ru

The article is devoted to the process of modernization of railway transport in the Russian Far East. It is noted that the creation of transport infrastructure, which ensures the unity of the economic system and largely determines its dynamics and viability, occupies an important place in the strategy for the integrated development of the Far Eastern region. It is concluded that the modernization of railway transport in the Far East is taking place in the context of a complicated financial and economic situation and imperfect management processes, which is reflected in the pace, volume, and material security of the projects. The development of transport infrastructure is carried out mainly in the main directions serving the export and raw materials complex of the economy, which leads to a high subordination of its contents and results to the influence of external factors. The low involvement of the regional resource in the development of the transport system determines its high dependence on the federal budget and inhibits the economic recovery of the Far East.
Keywords: transport, railways, Trans-Siberian Railway, Baikal-Amur Railway, transit traffic, the Far East


Vashchuk A. S. (Vladivostok). The Far East in the political Agenda of Russia (90s of the XX century)

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor,
Head of Department of Socio-Political Researches
Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far-East, Far- Eastern Branch of the RAS,
690001, Russian Federation, Vladivostok city, Pushkinskaya street, 89
E-mail: va_lina@mail.ru

The political agenda in the article refers to a wide range of regional topics, which was discussed at the highest level in Moscow, with the emphasis on identifying the attitude of the first President of Russia to emerging situations in the Far East during the period of the beginning of radical transformations. The study takes into account the results of the work of predecessors who studied the process in the framework of the concept of center-peripheral relations. The article is based on archival and published sources. Complexes of events in the region that were in the focus of attention of the first Russian President and his team were examined: the political confrontation between left-wing and pro-presidential forces in the Amur Region, the use of «diplomacy» of pressure on political decision-making by the regionals, as well as political answers of B.N. Yeltsin and the team. It was concluded that from the late 1980s until 1991 the Far Eastern agenda was influenced by a number of circumstances, among which there was a confrontation between Gorbachev and Yeltsin. It was established that in political experience the «Far Eastern theme» was sometimes used by the President to strengthen authority, the set of tools was different: decrees, compromises on the eve of the Russian referendum of 1993 and the presidential election of 1996, the first target program of socio-economic development of Siberia and the Far East.
Keywords: Russia, historiography, authority, Far Eastern politics, the first President of the Russian Federation, Center-regions, regional elites, «Far Eastern separatism».


Popravko E.A. (St. Petersburg). The Specifics of Professor and Teaching Staff Recruiting at the Intendant Course (Intendance Academy) in 1900–1917

Elena Alexandrovna Popravko
Doctor of History, Professor,
Army General A.V. Khrulev Military Academy of Logistics
8, MakarovaNaberezhnaya, Saint-Petersburg, 199034, Russian Federation
E-mail: elena_popravko@mail.ru

The Intendance Course was opened in St. Petersburg in 1900 (in 1911 it was transformed to the Intendance Academy). It was researched the specifics of professor and teaching staff recruiting of those military educational institutions in 1900-1917. It was researched quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the professor and teaching staff: the percentage of staffers and teachers; the proportion of full-time teachers to some students; payment for teaching; publication activity for Intendance (Intendance Academy). Biographies of some of the professors of the Intendance Course (Intendance Academy) was researched by archival materials (that were first introduced into scientific circulation) and published materials. The research of the professor and teaching staff of the Intendance Course (since 1911 – the Academy) allows us to concluded that the educational institution had a highly qualified and motivated teaching staff from the first days. This indirectly indicated that the foundation of the Intendance Course satisfied not only the dream of the Main Intendance Directorate and its departments to have «their Academy», but also reflected the urgent need of the Army (as well as society and the state) to make the activity of the maintenance service more professional and transparent.
Keywords: Intendance Course (Academy), professor and teaching staff, Russian military high education.


Anisimov A.L., Zinjatova M.N. (Khabarovsk). U.S. Secretary of State Daniel Webster is one of the first and leading ideologues and practitioners of U.S. expansion policy in the Far East

Alexander Leonidovich Anisimov
doctor of Historical Sciences, professor of Department of socio-humanitarian and economic disciplines of the Far Eastern Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation

Marina Nikolaevna Zinjatova
Ph.d. (philos.), Associate Professor, head of Department of socio-humanitarian and economic disciplines of the Far Eastern Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation

The article examines the activities of U.S. Secretary of State Daniel Webster as one of the first and leading ideologues and practitioners of U.S. expansion policy in the Far East. Daniel Webster played a major role in the preparation of the first U.S. military-diplomatic expedition to China, the development of Washington’s policy on the Chinese issue and the drafting of relevant documents. He is the author of the first Pacific Doctrine of the United States of America, the Tyler Doctrine, proclaimed on December 30, 1842 by President John Tyler. D. Webster was the author of the message to President J. Tyler told the U.S. Congress on December 30, 1842, which justified the need to immediately send a military and diplomatic mission to China in order to conclude the first U.S.-China treaty and establish formal relations with Beijing. For Webster, ideas of Americanism, a special mission of the United States, were close. He considered his great, free, fast-developing country an example for others. Webster was associated with leading New England missionaries and businessmen who were involved in missionary activities in China and trade with that country. He never forgot their interests and pursued policies that met their aspirations. In turn, traders with the East did not forget to thank D. Webster for his patronage to American merchants in China.
Keywords: Tyler Doctrine, U.S. Policy, China, Qing Empire, U.S. Secretary of State D. Webster, President J. Tyler, expansion policy, Caleb Cushing, first military and political mission, New England, missionaries, traders with China.


Belyaeva N.A. (Vladivostok). Investigation Case of Illarion Ksenofontovich Kovalevsky, Head of Vladivostok Customs

Doctor of historical Sciences, Professor of the Department of History and Archaeology of the far Eastern Federal University
Russian Federation, 6900012, Vladivostok, Nadibaidze street, 17, 204
E-mail: minava204@rambler.ru

The article is devoted to the biography of a Customs official – the head of Vladivostok Customs from 1907 to 1923. It focuses on one episode connected with his arrest in spring 1920. The study was conducted based on the official’s investigation materials which are preserved in the Far East Russian State History Archive. Some documents were analyzed including the minutes of the Customs officials’ meeting both condemning and supporting the official, letters of customs employees and Vladivostok business representatives characterizing his blameless activity and the documents compiled by Kovalevsky himself, his relatives and friends. The events resulting in his arrest and following his release were reconstructed. Events in spring 1920 are considered not only as facts from a person’s private life in the epoch of catastrophe but as the embodiment of this very catastrophe.
Keywords: Civil war, Far East, Customs, Customs officials, archive documents, biography study.


Tikhiy K.T. (Ussuriisk). L. Fischer and Soviet Russia

Doctor of History, Professor
Of the Department of the Historical Education,
School of Pedagogics, Far Eastern State University/
692500, Russian Federation, Ussuriisk, Nekrasova St. 35.
E-mail: kontih@mail.ru

This article is devoted to the publican activity of the recognized specialist on Soviet Russia in the muddle-war period American journalist Louis Fischer. Fischer L. was one of few foreigners who knew a lot about the Soviet system. Present time his name usually is associated with the terms as “fellow-travelers of communism”. Those times he was being sympathetic to the soviet program of “social experiment”. These ideas and projects were especially were needed in the US during the “Great Depression». But two events, at least, had chosen his point of view on the situation in Soviet Russia – the situation in agriculture at the beginnings of 1930-s with numeral victims, and mass political repressions after Kirov’s death. L.Fischer knew many members of the government in different structures of guidance of the USSR. Fisher L. during the 20-s was under suspicion as many left-liberals from abroad. Anyhow, once upon a time, soviet censorship admitted L.Fischer to be as “independent” foreign expert on the publication of soviet foreign policy documents. L.Fischer was a sincere enthusiast of the soviet system, considering that regime had made only his first steps to the political, social, and economic progress.
Keywords: American journalism and press, Louis Fischer, Soviet Union (Soviet Russia), American public opinion.


Elantseva O.P., Yue Wang (Primorsky Krai, Russky Island). An example of serving Russian Sinology: from the jubilee testimonies of Apollinarius Vasilievich Rudakov, 1924–1946

Doctor of History, Professor,
Far Eastern Federal University:
Department of history and archaeology, School of Arts and Humanities,
690922, Russia, Primorsky Krai, Russky Island,
Ajax 10, FEFU campus, building F, Room
E-mail elantseva.op@dvfu.ru

PhD student, Far Eastern Federal University:
Department of history and archaeology, School of Arts and Humanities,
690922, Russia, Primorsky Krai,
Russky Island, Ajax 10, FEFU campus, building F, Room 427;
E-mail: wangyuedvfu@mail.ru

The article is dedicated to a graduate of the Imperial University of St. Petersburg in 1896 – Apollinarius Vasilievich Rudakov. For half a century, from 1899 to 1949, he worked in Vladivostok, where he gained fame as an authoritative Sinologist and professor in Russia and abroad. The topic of the article is of particular relevance in connection with the recently celebrated 120th anniversary of Oriental studies in the Russian Far East. As a result of the study, it was possible to establish three main anniversary dates of the life and work of the Sinologist A.V. Rudakov, noted in 1924, 1936 and in 1946. Anniversary articles allow you to better understand the identity of Rudakov. His colleagues (students, university management and institutions of the Far Eastern and Primorsky Territories) highly value Rudakov’s professional level. He made a significant contribution to the training of young Sinists and to the development of such scientifically significant problems as the grammar of the Chinese literary language.
Keywords: Russian sinology, history of Far East sinology school, Far East university, Apollinariy Vasiljevich Rudakov, anniversary dates.