Klio # 6 (114) 2016





V.N. Baryshnikov, V.N. Borisenko, T.M. Demicheva  (Saint Petersburg). Colonialism and Empire in Abbe Raynal’s «History of the two Indies» ………………………………………………………………………….. 13

VLADIMIR NIKOLAYEVICH BARYSHNIKOV – Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Head of the Department of Modern and Contemporary History, Institute of History, Saint Petersburg State University. 199304, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Universitetskaya nab. 7/9.

e-mail: v.baryshnikov@spbu.ru

VIKTOR NIKOLAYEVICH BORISENKO – Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Modern and Contemporary History, Institute of History, Saint Petersburg State University. 199304, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Universitetskaya nab. 7/9.

e-mail: v.borisenko@spbu.ru

TAISIIA MAXIMOVNA DEMICHEVA – Postgraduate Student, Department of Modern and Contemporary History, Institute of History, Saint Petersburg State University. 199304, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Universitetskaya nab. 7/9.

e-mail: demicheva_taja@mail.ru

The article considers the colonialism and Empire in «History of the two Indies» written by Abbe Raynal. Nowadays the «Empire» concept is being reconsidered from the historical term into an analytical model. Therefore it is important to know what meaning was put into this concept by the contemporaries of the initial phase of construction of the European colonial empires. Using the analysis of Abbe Raynal’s «History of the two Indies» authors present the model of Empire, as it was saw by the figures of Enlightenment. The colonial policies via such topics as law, ethics, trade, exchange, among others are presented. The authors show the structural features of the Raynal’s work, main components of the criticism of the Empire and the colonial policy. The article notes that the radical criticism of the Empire coexisted with the concept of the «enlightened colonialism». That colonialism included the idea of a gradual liberation of all slaves. The authors conclude that the model of Empire as presented by Abbe Raynal anticipated many elements of analytical models currently suggested.

Keywords: Abbe Raynal, «History of  the two Indies», Enlightenment ideology, Empire, colonial policy,

expansion, slavery, anti-slave discourse.




F.K. Yarmolich  (Saint Petersburg). Ethnic politics of the USSR: the basic concepts in historiography ………….. 23

FEDOR KUZMICH YARMOLICH – Candidate of Historical Sciences, Researcher, St. Petersburg Institute of History of Sciences. 197110, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, ul. Petrozavodskaya 7.

e-mail: f.k.1985@mail.ru

The article considers the basic views of the Soviet and Russian historiography on the national policy in the USSR. Despite the difference in the research methodology and the general political and ideological situation the article  emphasizes the existence of a certain continuity in the research perspective of the national issue in the Soviet Union. Soviet historical science is paid great attention in the study of the national issue to the analysis of socio-economic, cultural and educational policy of authority towards national minorities. The development of economy, culture, social security, etc. national region was considered an important factor in solving ethnic problems and the creation of conditions for the incorporation of different nations into one relatively homogeneous socio-economic, cultural and political space. Soviet historiography from 1920 to 1991 has come a long way – from uncritical coverage of national relations to the isolation and analysis of problematic issues in the Soviet national policy. In the 1920s–1930s writing of works which were devoted to the national issue, mostly occurred without the involvement of documentary material and was mainly based on the memoirs and diaries of participants in those events. Since the 1950s–1960s scientists began to attract archival materials and use sociological methods. In general, in the 1960s Soviet historiography greatly expanded the research perspective – it actively studied linguistic issues in multinational state, the psychology of the people living in the USSR, etc. Russian historiography largely continued to analyze certain problems in Soviet science, surely, a little corrected estimates and judgments related to specific issues of national policies of the Soviet Union. A distinctive feature of the Russian historiography is the great involvement of archival documents, which were deposited in the central and regional archives. Russian researchers emphasize the problems that couldn’t be formerly studied because of ideological reasons, such as the problem of people deportation. In general, the Russian historiography is more critical shows the national policies.

Keywords: historiography, national policy, culture, economy, Soviet people, internationalism, minorities  and indigenous people.

N.N. Evseev  (Tula). Russian Orthodox Church in the context of relations with the government in 1917–1927 on materials of the Tula diocese: historiography of the problem ………………………………. 33

NIKOLAY NIKOLAYEVICH EVSEEV –Priest, Cleric of the Twelve Holy Apostles in Tula, Associate Professor at the Department of Theology, Tula State University. 300045, Russian Federation, Tula, Novomoskovskaya ul. 13a, #100.

e-mail: evseevnikolay@yandex.ru

The article contains information about historiography of the most important stage of Russian history in the XX century: 1917–1927, time of formation the Soviet state and formation the domestic policy, in particular, policy to religious organizations, including the Russian Orthodox Church. The historiography of question can be divided as chronologically – on Soviet (1917–1991) and Post-Soviet (since 1992) – as political geographically: domestic, foreign and emigrant. In the context of studied question, the domestic historiography of the Soviet period pays attention to place of official Orthodoxy in system of church and state relations in pre-revolutionary period, treating it as a role of performer of commands of autocratic power and part of an exploiter class. This thesis concludes about need of a tough state policy concerning Church, and in general, justice of carried-out repressive measures concerning certain church figures. The emigrant historiography, as well as a domestic historiography of the Post-Soviet period proves the thesis about the war against the Church initiated by the Soviet authority. Foreign authors sometimes are poorly distinguishable from representatives of emigrant historiography, focus the main attention on all-religious questions in the Soviet domestic policy. Also the analysis of the most interesting theses dedicated to the church and state relations in the first quarter of the XX is considered to be important.

Keywords: Church, Soviet authority, cathedral, clergy, atheism, emigration, parish, diocese, Patriarch.





S.K. Khotko  (Maikop, Republic of Adygea). Tribe and necropolis: archeological monuments of Adyghean area in the XIII–XVI centuries and their connections with sub-ethnic groups ………………………………….. 38

SAMIR KHAMIDOVICH KHOTKO – Candidate of Historical Sciences, Leading Researcher,   Department of Ethnology, Kerashev Adyghe Republican Institute of Humanitarian Studies.  385000, Republic of Adygea, Maikop city, ul. Krasnooktyabrskaya 13.

e-mail: inalast@mail.ru

The ethno-cultural history of Circassians in the XIII–XV centuries was largely determined with the processes of sub-ethnic groups’ separation. Those processes took place in close connection with formation of principalities.  Formation of new principalities proceeded in the conditions of territorial and demographic growth of the Circassian area and inclusion into the scope of its political and cultural influence of significant frontier territories inhabited by neighboring Caucasian and Turkic ethnic groups. The existing sources do not allow to fully understand whether the sub-ethnic separateness was the necessary condition for formation of a principality or a prolonged separate, in political meaning, existence of initially unified community promoted a division of the ethnos on sub-ethnic groups. The author of the article on the basis of archaeological sources traces the territorial and, apparently, «tribal» (family, clan) connection between the two Adygeyan sub-ethnic groups – Zhaneys and Hatukays – with those Adygeyan groups which had left burial mounds of the XIII–XV centuries. Zhaneys were allegedly connected with inhabitants of the valley of Abin (necropolis Gruzinka–VII and Gruzinka–X), as Hatukays – with population that left Ubinskiy burial mound. Similar comparisons of narrative and archaeological materials were successfully undertaken by researchers in relation of big feudal estates – Kremuk (Kemirgoy, Temirgoy) and Kabarda. Within the circle of Kabardian monuments the specific features of the area of burial cemeteries of Little Kabarda stood out.Rather clear connections of the period of the XIII–XV centuries, mostly famous owing to the basis of known archaeological monuments with the later period of the XVI–XVIII centuries, which is perfectly known by narrative sources, allows to trace the genesis of princely estates and sub-ethnic groups of Circassia.

Keywords: Zhaneys, Abin, burial mounds Gruzinka–VII, Gruzinka–X, Sobays, Hatukays, Ubin burial mound.




G.B. Izbassarova  (Moscow). «Honorary hostages» as a reflection of the Russian Empire state policy towards the people under authority in the XVIII–XIX centuries (on the example of the Kazakhs of the Junior Horde)  ………………………………………………………. 44

GULBANU BOLATOVNA IZBASSAROVA – Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Doctoral student at the Faculty of History, Moscow State University. 119234, Russian Federation, Moscow, Leninskie gory 1.

e-mail: iz_gulbanu@mail.ru

Based on the archival sources and the published materials the article considers the Institute of amanat-hostages as a guarantee of the political stability in the process of active inclusion of the Kazakh Junior Horde territory in to the Russian Empire. Empire used the experience gained in its relations with other nations, in particular, the Bashkirs, the people of the Caucasus, Siberia and in relation to the Kazakhs. Amanat-hostage policy is analyzed as a guarantee of fulfillment of obligations and a tool of retaining the Kazakh rulers within obedience. The article presents the life of Kazakh Chinggizids in Orenburg and their entering into the foreign cultural environment. The article describes the ceremonial meeting with Khan Orenburg superiors to change the hostages. The author studies the life of the hostages – children of Abul Khair Khan, and later of Nuraly in Orenburg.

Keywords: amanat, Kazakh Chinggizids, Russian Empire, state policy, Kazakh-Russian relations, Khan.

M.N. Kibalna  (Moscow ). Imperial University of St. Vladimir in the urban space of Kiev in the end of the XIX–beginning of the XX centuries ………………………………………………………………………… 52

MARINA NIKOLAEVNA KIBALNA – Postgraduate Student, Higher School of Economics. 101000, Russian Federation, Moscow region, Myasnitskaya ul. 20.

e-mail: m.kibalna@gmail.com

This article is dedicated to the research of the place of the Imperial University of St. Vladimir in the urban space of Kiev of the late XIX–early XX centuries. The article discusses the structure and location of the university complex, and the expansion of its role in the urban landscape in the late XIX–early XX century. Particular attention is paid to training and supportive institutions, their foundation occurrence and reorganization within the organizational structure of the university. The main obstacle to efficient work of teaching and supporting university institutions was the lack of funds. An important place of intersection of the university and city life was the university clinics that provided urban residents with medical care. The article analyzes some attempts and projects of the university administration to transform and expand the work of university clinics, as well as other parts of the university complex.

Keywords: history of education, university history, Imperial University of St. Vladimir, Kiev, urban space, educational institutions, supportive institutions, university clinics.

L.V. Zhukova  (Moscow). Participation of military clergy in «cases against Chinese people» (1898–1901) ……………………………………………………………………. 59

LEKHA VILEVNA ZHUKOVA – Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of History of Russia in XIX–beg. of XX c., Historical Faculty, Moscow State University. 119991, Russian Federation, Moscow, Lomonosov Prospect, 27, 4.

e-mail: lekha963@yandex.ru

This article analyzes the activities of the military clergy in Russian participation in the suppression of the Boxer Rebellion and «Beijing campaign». At this point, the institute of military clergy existed for about a hundred years, and since 1890 headed by own Protopresbyter. At the very beginning of held the rank of Protopresbyter A.A. Zhelobovsky  made a number of changes which also related to the practice of military priests, a large turnover of staff was carried out. Some of the decisions made already embodied in practice, becoming a guide to practical actions of priests.  Participation in military operations in the Far East was a «baptism of fire» for most military priests who did not have  military experience before it.  The relevance of the present study attached to the use of documents not previously introduced into  scientific circulation.

Keywords: Boxer rebellion, China, Far East, military priest, Protopresbyter, military church, worship, church  property.

A.V. Filinov  (Moscow). The Soviet leadership and the Manchurian crisis: political assessments and mobilization efforts in 1931–1933 …………………………………………………………………………………. 71

ANDREY VLADIMIROVICH FILINOV – Candidate of Historical Sciences, Department of the Russian History of the XX–XXI c., Faculty of History, Moscow State University. 121108, Russian Federation, Moscow, Kastanaevskaya ul. 27, korp. 5, #18.

e-mail: fiann@inbox.ru

The article deals with the impact of the Manchurian crisis on the external and internal solutions the top Soviet leadership in 1931–1933. It investigates the evolution of estimates of the Manchurian crisis in the Soviet government, as well as the measures taken in response to this new threat. The author proposes to consider the Manchurian crisis not only as a foreign phenomenon which aggravated the diplomatic and ideological confrontation between the USSR and Japan, but also as a factor of intensive mobilization efforts within the country. In this regard, we study the impact of the Manchurian crisis on the development of military-industrial complex, the increasing of the Red Army size, as well as the activities of political and economic nature which were held in the Soviet Far East.

Keywords: USSR, Soviet Far East, 1930s, Soviet leadership, military construction, mobilization, Manchurian crisis, Manchurian incident, Japan, Manchuria.

V.G. Burkov  (Saint Petersburg). The history of the Order of Alexander Nevsky ……………………………… 83

VLADIMIR GERMANOVICH BURKOV – Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Head of the Department of the Post-Soviet Studies,  School of International Relations,  Saint Petersburg State University, Honored Worker of Higher Education of Russian Federation. 191060, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, ul. Smolnogo 1/3, entrance VIII.

e-mail: burkeg@rambler.ru

The article deals with the history of the Order of Alexander Nevsky, which is a single Russian phaleron that has existed for about three centuries and at the present time it’s one of the highest awards in Russian state. The author divides the history of the Order into three parts: Pre-revolutionary period (1722–1917), Soviet period (1942–1992), and Modern period (from 1992 until present). The issue of particular interest is when and why the Order was instituted by Peter I. The author managed to find the exact date of the establishment of the Order and described its evolution in the XVIII–XIX centuries. The Soviet epoch in the life of the Order is also of great interest. The article shows the history of its rebirth, describes the first awards, and determines the exact number of people awarded this combat insignia for personal and collective achievements during the Great Patriotic War (1941–1945). The Order of Alexander Nevsky kept its place in the system of the New Russian awards, which appeared in 1992. In 2010, it received its clear definition (the statute, description) and became one of the top Russian phalerons awarded both for civilian and military merits to the Fatherland.

Keywords: phalerone, Order, emblems and symbols, state awards, Russian Empire, USSR, Soviet regime,

Russian Federation.

A.V. Zotova  (Saint Petersburg). The state budget of the USSR in the conditions of the Second World War ………………………………………………………………………………………….92

ANASTASIYA VALERYEVNA ZOTOVA – Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of History and Regional Studies, Bonch-Bruevich Saint Petersburg State University of Telecommunications.  193232, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, pr. Bolshevikov 22.

e-mail: anastasiyazotova@mail.ru

This article for the first time in historiography based on the documents of the Russian archives analyzes the USSR state budget in the period of the Second World War. In the author’s opinion, the USSR only formally didn’t participate in the military actions of the Second World War before the 22nd of June, 1941. In real military actions of the Red Army besides the Lake Khasan, on the Khalkh River, in the Winter War and also its actions according to the Secret Protocol signed by German and USSR authorities in Moscow on August 23, 1939 (the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact) are some kinds of parallels actions to the events of the Second World War which inherently they were nothing but a global struggle for the division of spheres of influence.

Defending this innovative approach to the evaluation of the Soviet Union actions during the ensuing World War II, the author offers to analyze the military budget of the USSR not for the period since June 1941 till May 1945 but for the whole period of the Second World War. Supporting this approach with practical studies which were made on the basis of the archival documents and published works, the author of the article not only clarifies the previous information about the military expenditure of the USSR but also significantly expands the time frame in which considers it appropriate to analyze the budgetary expenditures of the Soviet Union. As a result of this research into the scientific circulation for the first time are introduced valid data of that fact the military expenditure of the Soviet Union during the Second World War was 666,4 billion rubles and it corresponds to 125,7 billion dollars at the exchange rate at that time.

Keywords: Second World War, State budget, financial system of the Soviet Union, revenues of the USSR

state budget, military expenditure of the USSR.




M.M. Kochedykova, L.P. Roshchevskaya  (Syktyvkar, Republic of Komi). Zoological Station of the Imperial Academy of Sciences in Ust-Tsilma village of the Arkhangelsk province …………………. 101

MARIA MAKSIMOVNA KOCHEDYKOVA – Researcher, Department of Comparative Cardiology,  Komi Science Center, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences. 167982, Russian Federation, Republic of Komi,  Syktyvkar, Kommunisticheskaya ul. 24.

e-mail: masha_k90@mail.ru

LARISA PAVLOVNA ROSHCHEVSKAYA – Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Senior researcher, Department of Humanities Interdisciplinary Research, Komi Science Centre, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences. 167982, Russian Federation, Republic of  Komi,  Syktyvkar, Kommunisticheskaya ul. 24.

e-mail: lp@presidium.komisc.ru, lp38rosh@gmail.com

In the early XX century the implementation of research programs studying the Northern Urals required to create a subsidiary of the Imperial Academy of Sciences. The article shows a brief characteristic of units of the Academy (Solovki and Murmansk Biological Station), the history and activities of the first academic institution (Zoological station of the St. Petersburg Imperial Academy of Sciences in Ust-Tsilma village of the Arkhangelsk province, Komi Republic nowadays). The article gives a characteristic of goal, research area, activities and results of the researching.

Zhuravsky A.V. organizer of the station was a pioneer of agricultural development on the North. The article tells that gathering was a priority for the station, but in its structure there were the foundations for creating library and museum. The main statutory postulate based on the principle that all of the materials constitute full ownership of the Imperial Academy of Sciences. The structure of the station was due to the academic principles, one of which was to attract the correspondent staff. The author shows that the activities of the zoological station witnessed the expansion of the infrastructure of the Academy of Sciences in the new territory.

Keywords: science infrastructure, biological station, expeditionary activities, entomological and zoological collections, Bolshezemelskaya tundra, A.V. Zhuravsky.

E.V. Prokhorova  (Saint Petersburg). The organization of the food control  in Saint Petersburg (1900–1917) ………………………………………………………………………………. 109


Department of the Modern History of Russia, Institute of History,  Saint Petersburg University .194356, Russian Federation, Saint Petersbur, ul. Kompozitorov 4, #239.

e-mail: karnellia@rambler.ru

Since the beginning of the XX century the number of commercial houses engaged in manufacturing, storing and selling the products increased year by year in Saint Petersburg. By the beginning of the First World War there were over 16,000 commercial enterprises in the capital. Taking into account the great amount of provisions coming into the city it was an urgent need to organize an inclusive system of sanitary and food supervision. The article shows that the foundation of trade–sanitary organization had been laid (in 1900) incorrectly: there was no well-functioning connection with other structures, particularly, veterinary supervision. Due to lack of food law food-sanitary doctors had to spend more time testing and culling of foodstuffs. However, the major problem was the shortage of professionals. Twenty food-sanitary inspectors physically could not control the quality of all products in a big city. But the reorganization projects of trade and sanitary dealing in Saint Petersburg before the revolution of the 1917th year had remained to be purely nominal.

Keywords: food control, Saint Petersburg, quality, falsification, food establishment, substandard quality of food.




L.S. Khejfets, M.M. Borisov  (Saint Petersburg). The participation of Latin American countries in the UN peacekeeping operations in the XXI century ……………………………………………………………. 115

LAZAR SOLOMONOVICH KHEYFETS – Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Department of American Studies, St. Petersburg State University. 191060, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, ul. Smolnogo, 1/3, entrance VIII.

e-mail: ilaranspb@hotmail.com

MIKHAIL MIKHAYLOVICH BORISOV – Master of International relations, Specialist of the Research department on international relations, political sciences, sociology and economics  at the University Administration, St. Petersburg State University. 191060, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, ul. Smolnogo 1/3, entrance VIII.

e-mail: borisovmikhail@hotmail.com

The article deals with the history of Latin American countries’ participation in the peacekeeping activities of the United Nations, as also with the main characteristics of such participation at the current moment. Special attention is given to the South American countries’ involvement into the operations carried out by the «blue helmets». The authors indicate who are the Latin American «leaders» in the UN peacekeeping operations and show the motives of their inclusion in those operations, they also make some assessments of Latin American contribution in the peacekeeping operations. The article reveals main difficulties and challenges for the «blue helmets» (authors refer to the operations with Latin American countries’ involvement) and indicate some modes to overcame the difficulties connected with finding qualified personnel for peacekeeping operations in Latin American sub-continent. Finally, there are some conclusions about Latin American contribution and their perspectives into the UN peacekeeping activities.

Keywords: Latin America, peacekeeping operations, UN, «blue helmets», challenges.




A.O. Verbovoy  (Saint Petersburg). The Danube military flotilla in the Russian-Turkish war in 1877–1878 ……………………………………………………………………………. 127

ALEXEY OLEGOVICH VERBOVOY – Candidate of Historical Sciences, Researcher of the Science and Research Department-12, N.G. Kuznetsov Naval Academy.  197342, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Ushakovskaua nab. 17/1.

e-mail: a.verbovoy@mail.ru

This article describes the use of the Danube military flotilla forces during the Russian-Turkish war in 1877–1878. It shows in detail the process of making the flotilla before the war and causes that leaded to it. The article considers how the flotilla supported the troops’ actions during the battles in riverine areas and transported the war cargoes and private military staff. It particularly describes actions of flotilla in forcing Danube and capturing fortresses on its shore. It talks It in detail about the first torpedo attacks in world history and that was concretely undertaken by Russian Naval forces during that war. The article has a brief review and results of military actions during the assault of Plevna and Shipka ridge. The author of this article gives a general assessment of causes and results of the war, and also he shows the fate of the Danube military flotilla after that war.

Keywords: Russian-Turkish war, Danube, Danube military flotilla, floating battery, steamship, steam cutter, mine cutter, barge, arm, torpedo, Nikopol, Rutchuk, Sulin, Izmail, Brailov, Shipka, Plevna, Berlin congress.

N.V. Turygina  (Saint Petersburg). Sales Etrangers: status of Russian emigration in France before and during the Second World War …………………………………………………………………………………….. 132

NATALIA VALERIEVNA TURYGINA – Postgraduate Student, Department of Historical Regional Studies, Institute of History, St. Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Mendeleevskaya liniya 5.

e-mail: turyginan@mail.ru

The article examines the dynamics of the legal status of the Russian emigration in France on the eve and during the Second World War. It contains the analysis of their worsening living conditions based on a wide range of historical sources. They include the Convention on the International Status of Refugees, Soviet legislation concerning compatriots living abroad, French legislation in respect of apatrides, legislation of Nazi Germany in occupied France, Vichy legislation, legal cases in relation to Russian emigrants on their belonging to Jews, statistic data, memoirs of participants and eye-witnesses of the events. While reconstructing the everyday life of the Russian diaspora in France during the Second World War, the author unexpectedly came to conclusion that there were Russian emigrants who became architects of the Resistance movement in Europe and in France particularly. In search for means of subsistence, with deep insult and revenge spirits many Russian emigrants turned to become collaborationists, especially as France itself took the position of active collaboration with the occupants. But what motivated them to active resistance? Adventurism? Call of duty? Sacrifice? Perhaps driven to extremes they rose to defend the right of everyone not depending on their nationality, confession or ethnicity to be a man and live on the planet. The answer to this very question was not the task of this article, but the author appeals to analyze the motivation of Russian emigrants taking part in the Resistance movement on the basis of collected factual data.

Keywords: Russian emigration, occupation of France, collaborationism, resistance, refugees, apatride, French army, Jewish issue, Vichy.




M.M. Galanov (Saint Petersburg). Fighting between Uniate monasteries and the Russian Orthodox Church for monastery’s fundusheys in 1796–1801 ……………………………………………………………………. 143

MIKHAIL MARKOVICH GALANOV – Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of International Relations, History and Political Science, Saint Petersburg State University of Economics. 191023, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, ul. Sadovaya 21.

e-mail: dept.kipie@unecon.ru

The article considers the process of transferring the Uniate monasteries to «piety» and the withdrawal of fundusheys in favor of the Russian Orthodox Church. The material, according to the author, shows sufficient fundusheys wealth of monasteries, regardless of their property differentiation. In this regard, the dominant Orthodox Church conducted the illegal confiscation of fundusheys and disguised it as a transfer of monasteries and churches to «piety». Autocracy, based on the Roman Catholic Uniate Department and local bishops, tried to stop the process. The article identified and listed the Uniate and Basilian monasteries and churches, which were forcibly seized by the Russian Orthodox Church, discussed in detail the correspondence of public figures Orthodox and Uniate bishops on this matter. According to the author, procurator-general Prince A.B. Kurakin, generals A.A. Bekleshov and P.H. Obolyaninov actively reacted against the Orthodox Church within the process under study.

Keywords: Uniate monasteries, «piety», Russian Orthodox Church, fundusheys, diocese, Synod, Archbishop.




I.V. Damulin, R.V. Shurupova, A.A. Strutsenko  (Moscow). The Third Reich, medicine and eponyms. Memory and Ethics ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 148

IGOR VLADIMIROVICH DAMULIN – Doctor of Medicine, Professor, Professor at the Department of Nervous Diseases and Neurosurgery, Medical Faculty, Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University. 119021, Russian Federation, Moscow, ul. Rossolimo, 11, 1.

e-mail: damulin@mmascience.ru

RAISA VIKTOROVNA SHURUPOVA – Doctor of Social Sciences, Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences, Associate Professor, Teacher of English language and literature; Speech therapist at a special school. Professor at the Department of Theory and Technology of Education in Higher Education, Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University. Senior researcher of the Research Institute of Sociology  of Medicine, Health Economics and Health Insurance.  119992, Russian Federation, Moscow, ul. Trubetskaya 8/2.

e-mail: akraisa@gmail.com

ALLA ANATOLYEVNA STRUTSENKO – Candidate of Medicine, Associate Professor, Department of Nervous Diseases and Neurosurgery, Medical Institute, PFUR.  117198, Russian Federation, Moscow, ul. Miklukho-Maklaya 8.

e-mail: doctoralla08@rambler.ru

The article deals with the fate of the doctors who have left their mark in the form of eponymous names in the field of neuroscience. Some of them lived in Germany at the time of the Nazi regime and actively fought against it, and some actively collaborated with the Nazis. The memory of the people who fought against the Nazi regime should remain in the scientific medical literature and in medical practice, including in the form of eponyms.

And at the same time, if the use of an eponymous name of the disease or syndrome is associated with the violation of ethical pioneer, the use of such names seem immoral, and the name should be forced to «forget» by removing it not just from practice and medical literature, but also from the memory. The article emphasizes the importance of ethical issues in the medical activity. But the doctor has much greater moral responsibility, as the medical doctor – one of the few that has real power over human destiny.

Keywords: eponyms, struggle against Nazism, Nazi doctors, euthanasia, genocide, ethic in neuroscience, medical experimentations on humans.

E.N. Kogan  (New York, USA). Thoughts about the booklore ……………………………………………………….. 155

ELENA ILYINICHNA KOGAN – Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences, Professor, Chelyabinsk State Academy of Culture and Arts, Bibliographer, Ethnographer, Bibliologist. 10002, 179-181 Henry St., Apt. 10C, New York, NY, USA.

e-mail: yelenakog@yahoo.com

Mostly within my internal thoughts which were caused likely by the reports on the activity of the Free Community «Dissernet», I wanted to politely share some thoughts with the readers. It’s not my first appeal to this topic.




V.Y. Gessen  (Saint Petersburg). Colleague of Peter the Great  P.P. Shafirov:  state and business activities ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 158

VALERIY YUL’EVICH GESSEN – Candidate of Economic Sciences. 196233, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Zvezdnaya 11/2, #140.

e-mail: gessen27@mail.ru

There are a lot of works about P.P. Shafirov who was one of the leading companions of Emperor Peter the Great. His personality, activity, sad fate, and his much ramified posterity were the subjects of interest of many historians. This article mentions a number of little-known evidences of his state activities and it based on rarely referred sources. Moreover the author of article tries to show in detail Shafirov entrepreneurial activities. This side of issue related to his business activity was almost given no attention in previous publications of other authors. The article shows how established and developed Russian first basics of creating a «kompaneiskaya» organization (cooperation), ie collective commercial and industrial enterprises and organizations. Unfortunately, not all of the attempts were successfully. The author pays attention to the conflicts related to traditional prejudices of the old merchants against their occurrence. All of this was accompanied by competition. That competition took place between the closest allies of Peter the Great who were involved by him in the commercial and industrial activities and also between the old and the new merchants.

Keywords: Saint Petersburg, Peter the Great, Peter Shafirov, Menshikov, Chancellor, manufactories-Collegium, Senate, foreign policy institutions, companies, silk production, whaling.

V.E.Vozgrin, O.Yu. Plenkov  (Saint Petersburg). Menshikov A.D. – a brave pioneer of Russian corruption of the Modern Times ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 170

VALERIY EVGENYEVICH VOZGRIN – Doctor of Historical Sciences, Senior Researcher, Professor at the Department of Modern and Contemporary History, Institute of History, Saint Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Mendeleevskaja liniya 5.

e-mail: valerijvozgrin@mail.ru

OLEG YURYEVICH PLENKOV – Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Professor at the Department of Modern and Contemporary History, Institute of History, Saint Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Mendeleevskaja liniya 5.

e-mail: oleg.plenkoff@yandex.ru

The article shows a brief historical overview of corruption as a characteristic phenomenon of many nations and historical periods. There have been some features of corruption in its Russian version as well as futile attempts to overcome it by legally enforceable administrative and punitive means. Particular attention is concentrated to the period of the reign of Peter the Great in which was noticed the repeated penalties and other measures in relation to Menshikov A.D., who early emerged as corrupted. He reached his apogee as a royal duke in 1713, when he, tempted by a large bribe, contributed to a weakening of internal connections of the Northern Union, as well as Russian political position in the North-Western Europe. In conclusion, the author shows that there were some corruption events that took place in the Petrine era, which were so unusual that they should be attributed to a number of characteristic features of Russian history of the Modern Times.

Keywords: Menshikov, corruption, Peter the Great, Denmark, Holstein-Gottorp, the Modern Times.

K. Windle (Canberra, Australia). Soviet Russia’s First Consul in Australia, Petr Simonov:  His Friends and Foes ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 176

KEVIN McNEIL WINDLE – Doctor of Philosophy, Associate Professor, School of Literature, Languages and Linguistics, Australian National University. A.C.T. 2601, Australia, Canberra, Acton, Ellery Crescent, 110. Tel.: 61(2)6125 2885;

e-mail: Kevin.Windle@anu.edu.au

This article investigates the work of Petr Fomich Simonov, Soviet Russian first consul in Australia, on the basis of documents in the National Archives of Australia and the archives of the Russian Federation, and material in the press. Simonov arrived in Australia from Harbin in 1912, at the age of 28. Although he had never previously been engaged in political activism, he quickly came to prominence among the radicals of the Russian community in Queensland and in 1917 became secretary of the Union of Russian Workers and editor of the Russian newspaper «Workers’ Life». Soon after the October Revolution, in January 1918, the Soviet government appointed him Consul General in Australia, but since the Australian government, following Britain’s lead, did not recognize Soviet Russia, his appointment did not receive de jure recognition. That apart, many in the local Russian community felt that the new consul lacked the necessary experience and expertise. Nevertheless, he represented the interests of the Bolshevik government for three years, working in very difficult conditions and with no more than minimal funding. While doing his best to perform his consular duties, he also supplied valuable information to the Executive Committee of the Communist International on the growth of the workers’ movement in Australia, and played an active part, with the leaders of the Australian socialists, in the founding of the Communist Party of Australia.

Keywords: P.F. Simonov, Russian-Australian relations, Communist Party of Australia, Comintern, Russian community in Australia, Artem (F.A. Sergeev), A.M. Zuzenko, K. Kliushin, P. Freeman.




V.M. Shadrova (Saint Petersburg). Nomadic military service as a motivator writing communication of the family ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 189

VALERIYA MIKHAILOVNA SHADROVA – Candidate of Philosophy, Associate Professor, Department of Foreign Languages, Saint Petersburg Electrotechnical University «LETI». 198152, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, ul. Primakova 4, #35.

e-mail: valeriashadrova@gmail.com

This article represents the diary letters and those letters which were related to 1930 year. The last letters written in March, 1951, are kept in home archive of the author’s family. These letters were written by the father of the author M.A. Shadrov who was military soldier and his military service was connected with frequent changing of the living place. This condition of his life left only one way for communication with his family – writing letters. It was only reliable way to communicate. Author’s mother kept all of these husband’s letters as the most valuable thing. The author decided to publish her father’s letters because of the thought that was met once in some book. That thought is that the unwritten life disappeared without a trace. So if there are some letters talking about someone’s life and kept over 80 years they should be published. As Herzen said the blood of events clotted on them. The author’s father understood the importance of this way of communication in the time of limited communication options. Now these letters help to show the atmosphere of life of military soldier with its difficulties and joyfulness which were specified only for that time.

Keywords: military soldier, diary, letters, M.A. Shadrov, Red Army, Soviet Russia.