Klio # 7 (139) 2018





Lapina I.Y., Kargapoltsev S.Y. (Saint Petersburg). Actualization of the qualitative features of the revolutions of 1917 and the Civil War in Russia for the era of post-industrial globalization…………………………………………………..13

IRINA YRIEVNA LAPINA — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Saint Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering. 1900005, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, 2-ya Krasnoarmeyjskaya ul., 4. E-mail: poli-kam@yandex.ru

SERGEY YRIEVICH KARGAPOLTSEV — Ph. D. in History, Associate Professor, Saint Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering. 1900005, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, 2-ya Krasnoarmeyjskaya ul., 4. E-mail: clio@spbgasu.ru

The article considers the main directions of revolutionary activity of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the circumstances of the deliberate imposition of political and social tension in the Russian Empire are analyzed. Summarizes components of the February revolution, which had the character of a palace coup: a coordinated conspiracy of the parliamentary opposition, the republican-minded generals and representatives of Western special services interested in removing the uncompromising Nicholas II from the throne.

Diagnose the main components and motivation of revolutionary violence as a paradigm of the extremist statements of leaders in power. Particular attention is paid to the cause-effect mechanisms and the chronological framework of the civil war as a systemic armed clash of irreconcilable ideologies and target orientations. The discussion of this issue in the domestic historiography and the inconsistency of the given data in the educational literature are indicated.

A conclusion is drawn about the harmfulness and utopianism of the idea of a revolutionary leap to a «brighter future» though terror and lawlessness, as well as the unproductive nature of liberal populism and demagogy. Established a semantic connection and a set of qualitative signs of the collapse of the Russian Empire and the USSR. The concepts of totalitarianism and leadership in the Russian sociogenesis are actualized. The epochal character of the catastrophe of 1917–1918 and its influence on the entire subsequent course of the Soviet and post-Soviet history of Russia are noted.

Keywords: Russia, Emperor Nicholas II, World War I, revolution, Lenin, Trotsky, Red terror, the Volunteer Army (White movement), Red Army, Politics of War Communism, formation of the USSR.




Kutueva N.А. (Moscow). Intelligentsia and common people in the polemics of Russian liberals and populists in the first half of the 1890s (according to the materials of the journals “Russkaya mysl’”, “Vestnik Evropy” and “Russkoe bogatstvo”)…………………………………………………………………………28

NATALIIA ALEKSANDROVNA KUTUEVA — Postgraduate student, Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 119234, Russian Federation, Moscow, Leninskie gory, 1, B 966 (l). E-mail: kutueva.natalya@yandex.ru

The article is devoted to the polemics of Russian liberals and populists on the social role of intelligentsia and common people that took place in the first half of the 1890s. The author analyzes the disagreements expressed in the course of this polemics and their role in the mutual relations of the parties. The methodological basis of this study is the comparative-historical method, which permits to identify the essential features of liberal and populist ideology by means of comparing their relations towards the problem of the influence of intelligentsia on ordinary people. The urgency of reviewing this issue is explained by the importance of studying the mutual influence of the leading trends in social thought during the formation of their programs. The article shows that the liberals and populists were ideologically close, but there were significant differences between them, which hampered cooperation.

Keywords: liberals, populists, intelligentsia, common people, education, «Vestnik Evropy» magazine, «Russkaya mysl’» magazine, «Russkoe bogatstvo» magazine.





Abrakova T. A. (Nizhny Novgorod). “Letters to the leaders”. The historiography of the issue…………………………33

TATYANA ALEKSANDROVNA ABRAKOVA — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Department of History, Philosophy, Pedagogy and Psychology, Nizhny Novgorod State Architectural and Construction University. 603950, Russian Federation, Nizhny Novgorod, Il’inskaya St., 65. E-mail: tatyana.abrakova@mail.ru

On the basis of the analysis of the achievements of modern historiography and source studies the article presents the phenomenon of the Soviet history of the twentieth century — letters of the citizens to the “leaders”.

The paper studied the reasons that encouraged applying to the political leaders of the USSR in 1920–1940s; analyzed stylistic features and emotional tricks that were used by workers while creating “letters to the leaders”. The motivating reasons, peculiarities of writing the data of references of the 1920s — early1940s and the mid-1940s — early 1990s were studied. Examined changes of subjects, stylistic appeals of the Soviet citizens in 1964−1984 and 1985–1988 years were analyzed. It was concluded that the “letters to the leaders” were one of the most important ways of interaction between society and the authorities in the Soviet period stories.

Keywords: “the letter to authority”, “letter to the leaders”, documentary sources, stylistic features, the elements of emotional impact of complaints, the reaction of the leadership, interaction of society and government.





Zakharova I.M. (Saint Petersburg). To the question of the Russian Imperial family at the turn of 19th–20th centuries………………………………………………………………………………………….41

IRINA MIKHAILOVNA ZAKHAROVA — Ph.D. in History, Leading Researcher, Chief Curator of the Russian Department of the State Hermitage. 190000, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Dvortsovaya Emb., 34. E-mail: zakharovairina@mail.ru

On the eve of the 150th anniversary of the birth of the last Russian Emperor Nicholas II and the hundredth anniversary of the tragic death of many representatives of the Romanov family, studies devoted to the fate of the Romanov dynasty, as well as problems of the functioning of the supreme power in Russia on the eve of the 1917 revolution, become especially relevant. With the use of archival documents and a rare memoir literature in the article traced the close relationship of related and state interests of the ruling Romanov dynasty, given an objective assessment and the current specific situation of the great powers — the Russian Empire in its sunset period. On the basis of a large group of historical sources, it is shown how intrafamily conflicts of Romanov’s house contributed to the strengthening of revolutionary chaos, exacerbated the internal situation of Imperial Russia and pushed it to death.

Keywords: Imperial family, Romanov’s House, the system of succession to the throne, revolutionary events of 1917, Alexander III, Nicholas II, Empress Alexandra Feodorovna, Tsarevich Alexei Nikolaevich, murder of the Imperial family.


Kostylev A.V. (Saint Petersburg). Russian peasants in the elections to the first State Duma: socio-cultural aspect of the election campaign………………………………………………………………………………56

KOSTYLEV ALEXANDER VLADIMIROVICH — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Department of Philosophy and Cultural Studies, St. Petersburg State Agrarian University. 196605, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Pushkin, Petersburgskoe schosse, 6–14, k. 205. E-mail: usala@rambler.ru

The article examines the socio-cultural aspects of the participation of the Russian peasants in the elections to the first State Duma (1906). The author makes a conclusion about the considerable interest of the peasants to the election. They are tied their hopes to increase the community land Fund by way of alienation of the landlords land with the Duma. The peasants showed themselves as an independent agent of the election campaign, the struggle for whose votes was important for the parties participating in the elections. Meanwhile, such negative features of social behavior of peasants as disorganization, locality, social isolation, low level of political culture and education were also shown at the elections. However, this was not an insuperable obstacle for uniting peasant electors at the final stage of the elections. In most provincial electoral assemblies, separate peasant groups were formed, controlled by the left politically educated descendants of the people. Their blocking with Cadet electors on the basis of recognition of the need for compulsory alienation of part of the landed estates in favor of the peasantry predetermined the final results of the elections.

Keywords: Russian parliamentarism, the State Duma, elections, election campaign, the Russian peasantry.


Feklistov A. I. (Moscow). To the question of emergence of political opposition between the military Minister V.A. Sukhomlinov and leader of Octobrist Party A.I. Guchkov with the assistant to the military Minister A.A. Polivanov…………………………………………………………………63

ARTEM IGOREVICH FEKLISTOV — Postgraduate student, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 117418, Russian Federation, Moscow, Tsyurupy Str., 18, building 1. Е-mail: metkouton@mail.ru

Domestic political confrontations in the court circles of St. Petersburg at the sunset of the existence of the Russian Empire played a significant role in the history of Russia and had far-reaching consequences. One of the key conflicts in this environment was the opposition of the Minister of war V. A. Sukhomlinov (1909-1915) and leader of the Octobrist A. I. Guchkov. In fight against Sukhomlinov Guchkov used the assistant to the military Minister A. A. Polivanov who wished to take a post of the military Minister. The contradictions between them led to the almost open actions of Guchkov and Polivanov against Sukhomlinov during the political campaign, which began in March 1912 and ended in the same year by defeat of the opponents of the military Minister. However, a few years later, in the midst of the First World War, the consequences of this event will lead to the resignation of the Minister of war, his trial and charges of treason. The trial of the war Minister, in turn, has led to discredit the Imperial family and the person of the Emperor Nicholas II.

Keywords: military and political history, First world war, military Minister V.A. Sukhomlinov, leader of Octobrist Party A.I. Guchkov, assistant to the military Minister A.A. Polivanov, «case of Myasoedov», secretary P.M. Mikhailov.


Gusev A.A. (Moscow). Soviet  foreign policy in 1939–1940 viewed by Boris Souvarine………………………………70

ANTON ALEXEEVICH GUSEV — Postgraduate student, Department of History of Russia of the 20th–21st centuries, Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 119991, Russian Federation, Moscow, Lomonosovskiy pr., 27–4.

The article is devoted to the relevant issue: analysis of the views on the Soviet foreign policy on the eve and in the first year of the World War II, presented by one of the most informed and original French publicists and political analysts of that time – Boris Souvarine. The ambiguity of the Soviet state’s foreign policy is still a subject of discussion among researchers. In 1939–1940 the main directions of the Soviet foreign policy changed. This was reflected in such events as the negotiations in Moscow between England, France and the USSR on the conclusion of a Treaty on mutual assistance between the USSR, Great Britain and France (June-August 1939), The Pact of non-aggression with Hitler’s Germany (August 23, 1939), the Treaty of friendship and borders with it (September 28, 1939) and the subsequent incorporation of the Baltic countries, the Soviet-Finnish war (November 1939 — March 1940). Souvarin’s assessment of them is of considerable interest, since he had lived for several years in the USSR and knew the Soviet system from inside, and most of his predictions concerning the foreign policy of the USSR came true.

Keywords: Boris Souvarine, Staline, USSR foreign policy, Great Britain, France, Germany, Finland, Pact, Communism.


Gnetova L.V., Solomakha E.N. (Nizhny Novgorod). Features of legal regulation of labor relations during the Great Patriotic War……………………………………………………………………………………………………77

LYUDMILA VALENTINOVNA GNETOVA — Ph.D. in Juridical Sciences, Associate Professor, Kozma Minin Nizhny Novgorod State Pedagogical University. 603005, Russian Federation, Nizhny Novgorod, Minin Square, 7. E-mail: gnotova@yandex.ru

ELENA NIKOLAEVNA SOLOMAKHA — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor of the Department of Shakhunsky Branch of Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod. 603137, Russian Federation, Nizhny Novgorod, Prospekt Gagarina, 23. E-mail: elenasolomakha@yandex.ru

The work of man, like his whole life, proceeds in time. For all types of socially useful activity of people, the total amount of labor expended is working time. Working time, on the one hand, fixes the measure of work, on the other hand, it provides the employee with time for rest and restoring the expended forces. The labor legislation of peacetime during the war years is rapidly changing. In peacetime, in the regulation of labor and leisure, the legislator takes care of the working population. During the war, the main concern is the mobilization of all available labor resources.

This article is written on the basis of the analysis of labor legislation in force during the Great Patriotic War. In addition, the changes in labor legislation introduced during the war are analyzed. The period of the Great Patriotic War in the USSR was characterized by a departure from the norms of the existing labor legislation (first of all it concerned the issues of work time and rest time). This fact was determined by extraordinary conditions. In wartime, labor mobilization, labor service, compulsory overtime were introduced, and regular and additional holidays were canceled. These new measures concerned not only the able-bodied population, but also adolescents, but also people with disabilities, even pregnant and lactating women. They tried to attract everyone to work as far as his strength and capabilities, but, at the same time, much attention was paid to the care of motherhood and childhood, even in the years of terrible trials.

Keywords: legal regulation, labor legislation, Great Patriotic War, working hours regime, labor regulation, mobilization of labor resources.


Zhuang Shiqi (Jinan City, China). The contract responsibility system in agriculture of the USSR: 1960s – the middle of 1980s………………………………………………………………………………………..82

ZHUANG SHIQI — Postgraduate student, Department of History of Russia of the 20th–21st centuries. Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University. China, Shandong Province, Jinan city, Jiefan Street. E-mail: shandongxutao@gmail.com  

In the conditions of enlarging collective farms’ and state farms’ autonomy at the turn of 1950’s and 1960’ssoviet agricultural laborers spontaneously created the contract responsibility system. In the second half of 1960s the contract responsibility system got further spread in agriculture of the USSR. However, in 1970s because of strengthening administrative management the number of contract collectives sharply decreased. In 1982-1986, although the soviet leadership requested local institutions to spread the contract responsibility system in agriculture, contract collectives were provided few preferential policies and guarantees. From 1960s to the middle of 1980s the soviet leadership didn’t create favorable conditions for the contract responsibility system, therefore it didn’t get essential development. The primary reason of lack of favorable conditions lies in the fact that the system contradicted official ideology of that period.

Keywords: agriculture, enlarging autonomy, the contract responsibility system, official ideology.





Bondareva V.V. (Tikhvin, Leningrad region). The history of the formation of the 321st Novgorod militia in Tikhvin (July — August 1914)………………………………………………………………………………89

VERA VIKTOROVNA BONDAREVA — Postgraduate student of the Department of Russian History, Herzen State Pedagogical University, Director of the Tikhvin Historical, Memorial, Architectural and Art Museum. 187550, Russian Federation, Leningrad Oblast, Tikhvin, Tikhvinskaya St., 1. E-mail: tikhvinmuseum@yandex.ru

During the First World War in the Russian Empire in addition to the army units more than 800 state militia units were created. More than a million men went through the militia. The majority of the militia were men who had not previously served in the army, the minority were men who called from the reserve of the army. After training, the militia units joined the regiments and took part in the fighting on different fronts. The creation and life of militias are an important component of Russia’s military history during the war. The article presents a detailed analysis of the formation of the 321st Novgorod army at the beginning of the war. The issues of mobilization and preparation of the city for the reception of warriors, weapons and equipment of the squad, food and life of warriors are examined. The problems of the officers of the squad are separately considered.

Keywords: First World War, the great war, Russian army, Tikhvin, militia, warriors, druzhina, mobilization, officers.


Tuzova O.V. (Samara). Music Schools in the Regional Space of the Volga Region in 1939–1945: Some Aspects of the Problem……………………………………………………………………………99

OLGA VLADIMIROVNA TUZOVA — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of Department of Sociology, Political Science and the Russian History, Samara State Technical University. 443096, Russian Federation, Samara, Dachnaya St., 5–33. E-mail: ovtuzova@mail.ru

Some aspects of the functioning of music schools of the Volga region in the years 1939-1945 are analyzed in the article. The materials of the Russian state archive of literature and art, local archives, periodicals formed the original sources of the study. Key elements of the methodological arsenal determined historical-genetic, historical, systematic, comparative approaches. For the first time the network of music schools in the Volga region in the years 1939–1945 in a dynamic perspective, and their diversity, including project options, are reconstructed. Such trends of development of musical schools, as an extension of the small provincial towns, a temporary reduction in connection with the beginning of the Great Patriotic war are identified and described. The main issues of the educational process, problems of staffing, accommodation and funding, involvement of teachers and pupils of music schools to concert life of the Volga region are examined.

Keywords: musical-cultural system; musical education, system approach; comparative approach; music school, the Great Patriotic War, the Volga region, Central children’s ten-years music school at the Moscow State Conservatory named after P.I. Tchaikovsky.





Gomon K.A. (Saint-Petersburg). Religious factor of political life of Azerbaijan in the period of Russian revolutions (1905–1917)…………………………………………………………………………………109

KONSTANTIN ANDREEVITCH GOMON — Postgraduate student, Humanitarian Faculty, Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation. 190000, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Bolshaya Morskaya St., 67. E-mail: kupigriliato@yandex.ru

The article is devoted to insufficiently studied in domestic historical science problems of religious differences in Islam on the territory of the Russian Azerbaijan, and the influence of Islam on the political development of the Azerbaijani society in the early twentieth century. The traditional and modern approaches to religion in the first Azerbaijani political organizations, their attitude to the all-Russian Muslim movement, the influence of Russian social-democratic and liberal parties on the formation of political life in Azerbaijan are explored. The influence of the first Russian revolution and the national conflicts in Transcaucasia connected with the all-Russian “liberal turmoil” in activating the political organization of the Azerbaijani intelligentsia and forming the ideology of Muslim “ecumenism” among political leaders of Azerbaijan, suggesting the overcoming of Sunni Shiite contradictions for the sake of common Islamic unity is shown. The activity of the first political parties “Difai”, “Musavat”, “Itiyihad” and their differences in relation to the religious issue is studied. The peculiarities of religious policy in Azerbaijan in the period between the February and October revolutions in Russia are investigated. Position of the supporters of Federalization of Muslim territories of the Russian Empire and the supporters of a unified state, the influence of the religious factor in their political dispute is considered. The conclusion is made that “liberal” or “ecumenical” religious policy, an example of which was filed in 1905–1917 by the Azerbaijani Democrats, was continued by the Soviet government in the early years of its power in Azerbaijan, and in modern Azerbaijan Republic it is put as a positive historical model. Keywords: Azerbaijan in the Russian Empire, Islam in Azerbaijan, Musavat Party, Ittihad Party, First Congress of Muslims of Russia, A.M. Topchibashev, M.E. Rasulzadeh.


Chernykh A.A. (Moscow). Russia and “the Kurdish issue”…………………………………………118

ALEKSANDR ALEKSANDROVICH CHERNYKH — Postgraduate student, Department of the History of Russia of the 20th–21st centuries, Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 119991, Russian Federation, Moscow, Lomonosovsky Pr., 27–4. E-mail: tchernykh.iskander@yandex.ru

The article is devoted to one of the aspects of the current regional conflict in the Middle East — the Kurdish problem. In connection with the increased activity of Russia in the Middle East, this issue has become relevant for it. The author traces the reasons for this issue. The article also examines examples of the participation of the Soviet Union in resolving the Kurdish issue in the middle and second half of the 20th century. Finally, the situation in Syrian and Iraqi Kurdistan is considered after the beginning of the “Arab spring”: the desire of the Kurds of these countries to gain autonomy, their role in the unfolding regional war. The Kurdish problem is viewed in conjunction with the interests of other political forces, both regional and global. Particular attention is paid to Russia’s interests in this issue, as well as other great powers.

Keywords: Russia, Kurds, Syria, Turkey, Iraq, Middle East, international regional conflict, foreign policy.


Shkoliarskaya T.I. (Saint-Petersburg).  Features of the Yalta-Potsdam system of international relations formation……………………………………………………………………………………123

TAISIYA IGOREVNA SHKOLIARSKAYA — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, North-West Institute of Management, Branch of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration. 199178, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Tuchkov Per., 7. E-mail: shtais@gmail.com

The article deals with the genesis of the formation of the Yalta-Potsdam system of international relations, the process of its creation, its peculiarities that led to the formation of «bipolarity» in international relations, and, as a result, the «Cold war» between the two powers. The nature of the confrontation and interaction between the USA and the USSR during the Cold War, as well as the causes of the destruction of the Yalta-Potsdam system of international relations are analyzed.

The stage of development of international relations that began after the collapse of the USSR is characterized. The consequences of the transition of the world to «monopoly», which is characterized by US domination, are analyzed. Trends are being investigated that testify to the rapid «replacement» of the «monopolar» world in a «multipolar» world. The peculiarities of the position of the Russian Federation in the modern system of international relations are revealed, and assumptions are made about the role of Russia in the emerging multipolar system of international relations.

Keywords: international relations, Potsdam, Russia, system, USSR, USA, Cold War, Yalta.


Pestich S.S. (Moscow). The policy of the USSR towards the settlement of the Arab-Israeli conflict in the framework of the Geneva Peace Conference (December 1973 — September 1974)…………………………………………………130

SERGEY SERGEEVICH PESTICH — Postgraduate student, Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 119991, Russian Federation, Moscow, Lomonosovskii Pr., 27–4. E-mail: stalker-orel@mail.ru

In this article the author makes an attempt to analyze the little studied issue: the Soviet policy towards the settlement of the Arab-Israeli conflict in the period after the end of the fourth war between the Arab countries and Israel, which broke out in October 1973. Geneva Peace Conference, convened in December 1973 as a result of this war, is a unique event for the Middle East settlement process, on which the USSR had pinned high hopes. The author tries to understand the goals of the Soviet Union during this period in the settlement of the conflict and how it responded to new emerging challenges related to the confrontation in this region with the United States in the framework of the “cold war” and the change in the regional balance in general. The Soviet Union during this conference haven’t succeeded in imposing on the parties in conflict and the United States its approach based on a comprehensive, integrated solution of all the issues of Middle East settlement. However, the Americans, on the contrary, finally seized the initiative, allowing them to conclude the settlement process in the region within the framework of separate agreements between the parties.

Keywords: Arab-Israeli conflict, the USSR, the USA, Egypt, Syria, Israel, the Palestinian question, the Middle East, the Geneva conference, the October war of 1973, the Middle East settlement, foreign policy.


Kryuchkova A. A. (Odintsovo, Moscow region). The Shamrock Ceremony in the context of Irish-Unites States relations…………………………………………………………………………………136

ALISA ARKADYEVNA KRYUCHKOVA — Postgraduate student, Department of Modern and Contemporary History of European and American Countries, Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 143002, Russian Federation, Moscow oblast, Odintsovo, Nedelina St., 7A, 65. E-mail: a.kriuch@gmail.com

The article explores the history of the Shamrock Ceremony held annually in Washington in the course of St. Patrick’s Day celebrations. The political and economic premises of the ceremony’s beginnings are determined. The principal stages of the ceremony formation and development are examined. The corresponding changes in the significance of the ceremony in the political life of Ireland and the USA are analysed. The principal issues and tendencies in the U.S.-Irish relationship are explored. The main contradictions in the Irish-American relations in different periods of their existence are revealed. A particular attention is given to a problem that remains unresolved, namely, the matter of the numerous Irish illegal migrants residing in the United States.

Keywords: Ireland, the United Stated of America,Irish-Unites States relations,St. Patrick’s Day, the Shamrock Ceremony, Irish Americans, migration, illegal migration.





Alfonso N.G. (Moscow). The prayer wheel mani in Buddhist ritual practice……………………………………………139

NONNA GENNADYEVNA ALFONSO — Senior Researcher, State Museum of the East. 119019, Russian Federation, Moscow, Nikitsky Boulevard, 12A. E-mail: orientmus@mail.ru

The prayer wheel is an important attribute of the Tibetan Buddhist tradition, which has become a sort of symbolic marker of Tibet-Mongolian Buddhism. There is no consensus about the origin and significance of this object in soviet and foreign historiography. Some scholars believe that the symbolism of the prayer wheel derives from ancient solar cults; others consider this practice as a deformed understanding of Buddhist teachings at later stages of its development. The attitude of modern Buddhists to the prayer wheel practice is also noteworthy. Moreover, the study of previously unpublished narrative sources, of structure, decor and symbolic content of prayer wheels as well as the analysis of the famous mantra Om mani padme hum makes it possible to clarify questions about the origin of “prayer machines” and their conceptual significance in Buddhism.

Keywords: prayer wheel, mani wheel, Tibet-Mongolian Buddhism, om mani padme hum.


Arkhipova M. N. (Moscow). Transformation of traditional culture in 20th century through the lens of use of phenologic knowledge………………………………………………………………………………………………144

MARYANA NIKOLAEVNA ARKHIPOVA — Instructional Development Staff Researcher, Department of Ethnology, Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 119192, Russian Federation, Moscow, Lomonosovsky Prospekt, 27–4. E-mail: marta_ko@mail.ru

The article analyses peculiarities of folk superstitions’ existence. The author affects the issue of the term’s definition. There is no common opinion among contemporary investigators. Furthermore, informants understand this term in different ways too. Using her fieldwork, the author tried to answer the questions: have changes in social, political and economic life influenced traditional culture and how do new Soviet culture’s norms interact with old ones? The “transit” theory’ supporters tell about the irrevocable losing of “traditional” pre-revolutionary culture after Bolsheviks’ coming and about the break with Soviet cutler after the Perestroika. But social norms’ investigators insisted that external factors couldn’t influence norms, traditions. The author worked at joint of these theories. She supposed that elder generation must know and use superstitions more, because pre-revolutionary generation brought them up partly. Generation of middle age people is children of kolkhozniks who were brought up in spirit of fight against religion and superstitions. These people should use superstitions less than their parents. The level of education influences the use of superstitions. People without education should believe in superstitions and use them oftener. Informants were divided in some groups depending on their age (pensioners and middle-age people) and professions (the intellectuals and agricultural workers without high or specialized secondary education). As a result the author concluded that there wasn’t a radical gap between generations of rural people who had lived greater part of their life in different social and political systems. The gap between generations happens if kolkhozniks’ children have education and concern to another social group.

Keywords: the North of European Russia, Arkhangelsk region, Vologda region, superstitions, traditional culture, Soviet culture, peasantry, theory of “transit”, social norms of behavior.


Naumova G. R., Shapovalova N. V. (Moscow). Cultural rent and cultural revolution…………………………………154

GALINA ROMANOVNA NAUMOVA — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 119192, Russian Federation, Moscow, Lomonosov Prospect, 27, korp. 4, E-445. E-mail: al.nikonof@yandex.ru

NATALIE VITALIEVNA SHAPOVALOVA — Postgraduate student, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 119234, Russian Federation, Moscow, Leninskie gory, 1, Sektor Б, Room № 967. E-mail: shapovalovanv1993@gmail.com

The modern stage of development of Russian culture and art leads to maintenance of such topic as circulation of cultural values and cultural rent. The article deals with its process of formation, allocation and reallocation. The stress is on the economic basis behind the development of Russian culture. The main emphasis is on contribution of the events of 1917 and further revolutionary transformations including cultural revolution in this process. The analysis of posed problem is based on the material concerning creating of new Soviet children’s literature, activities of new theater and artistic organizations. Of special interest is the question of using party and social procurement assignment. An important point to be made is the question of freedom of artistic expression.

Keywords: Russian culture, cultural rent, Soviet children’s literature, cultural revolution, social order, artistic creativity, cultural values.





Benda V.N., Kozlov N.D., Losik A.V. (Saint Petersburg). Formation and development of artillery as a type of weapons and equipment during the 18th century………………………………………………158

VLADIMIR NIKOLAYEVICH BENDA — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Department of History, Pushkin Leningrad State University. 196605, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Pushkin, Peterburgskoe shosse, 10. E-mail: bvn.1962@mail.ru

NIKOLAI DMITRIEVICH KOZLOV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Professor of the Department of Russian History, Pushkin Leningrad State University. 196605, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Pushkin, Peterburgskoe shosse, 10. E-mail: koznik49@yandex.ru

ALEXANDER VITALYEVICH LOSIK — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Chief Researcher, Baltic State Technical University “VOENMECH” named after D.F. Ustinov. 190005, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, 1st. Krasnoarmeyskaya St., 1. E-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru

In article on the basis of archival documents the history of formation and development of artillery as a type of weapons and equipment of the Russian army in the 18th century. It is pointed out that during Peter the Great times a number of measures were taken to streamline the artillery material, aimed at simplifying and uniformity of the structural features of the artillery material. It describes the events of finding the optimal alloy of the metal which manufactured artillery shells. It examines such issues as the reorganization of the artillery and its technical improvement over a specified period, the design and production of new samples of material part of artillery and acceptance by the army and Navy. The quantitative data of the various samples of artillery and a summary of the work General Feldzeugmeister, who led the Russian artillery during the eighteenth century, are considered. Authors first introduced into scientific circulation previously unpublished archival sources.

Keywords: 18th, Peter the Great, J.V. Bruce, P.I. Shuvalov, artillery, artillery armament and equipment, tactical and technical characteristics.





Kovalevsky D.G. (Saint-Petersburg). Working and living conditions of permanent craftsmen and workers of the Kronstadt Steamship Plant of the Maritime Department of Russia (1860s)…………………………………………167

DENIS GEORGIEVICH KOVALEVSKY — Ph.D. in Engineering Sciences, Researcher of the Military Educational and Scientific Centre of the Navy “The Naval Academy named after Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union N.G. Kuznetsov”. 197045, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Ushakovskaya Emb., 17/1. Е-mail: Kovalevskiy1963@mail.ru

The article is devoted to the study of materials about the working and living conditions of permanent craftsmen and workers of the Kronstadt Steamboat Plant of the Marine Ministry of Russia during the transition from wooden to iron shipbuilding in the 1860s. The source of the research is the Regulations on Permanent Craftsmen and Workers of the Kronstadt Steamship Plant in 1862, the Rules on the Procedure and Conditions for the Employment of Temporary Craftsmen and Workers for the Admiralty and Works of the Maritime Department in 1860, orders and circulars from the Assembly of Legal Orders, Decrees and Other Orders for the Maritime department, published in the period of 1860–1862. The socio-economic conditions that formed at the Kronstadt Steamship Plant of the Maritime Department after the replacement of the lower ranks of the crews with permanent artisans and workers in 1862 are analyzed. The description of the distinctive metallic sign of craftsmen and workers, as well as their appearance and clothing, is given. The amount of wages is indicated depending on the level of professionalism. The factory pension system is considered, in particular, the mechanism for receiving cash payments and other benefits in case of loss of efficiency due to accidents. Provisions are given for the factory partnership, an auxiliary cash desk for the issuance of benefits and pensions.

Keywords: permanent craftsmen and workers, working conditions, Kronstadt Steamship Plant, Maritime Department.


Borisova N.A. (Saint-Petersburg). Foreign and Soviet television in the 1930s………………………………176

NINA ALEKSANDROVNA BORISOVA — Ph.D. in Engineering Sciences, Deputy of Science Director, the A.S. Popov Central Museum of Communications. 190000, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Pochtamtskaya St., 7. E-mail: borisova@rustelecom-museum.ru

The television evolution in the advanced western countries (the USA, England, Germany, France) is featured. It is compared with the similar process in the USSR in the 1930s. The gap in a domestic historical documentation that was due to the insufficient information on foreign projects of those years, is eliminated by using the materials from the A.S. Popov Central Museum of Communications funds and by addressing periodicals of the 1930s. The dynamics of the evolution of the television as a new type of technology was sporadic. The beginning of the 1930s was characterized by a disappointment in the mechanical television opportunities — cardinal in the USA and partial in the European countries. Many countries chose to be sitting on the fence. Researches in the field of electronic television in the first half of the 1930s were only conducted in the USA, Germany, England and the Soviet Union. The Soviet experts had been working on both electronic and mechanical television in parallel. Some inventions of the Soviet engineers were first-ever, but those have found practical application only in the homeland. Unlike them, television devices of the American expert Zworykin (Rosing’s student), had become popular worldwide, with financial and technological support of the RCA company.

Keywords: history of television, foreign television, Soviet television, electronic television, mechanical television, Rosing, Zworykin.





Gessen V.Y. (Saint Petersburg). Collector of church values Е.S. Rakhlin-Rumyantsev: life with a tragic end (Part Three)………………………………………………………………………………………………………..186

VALERII YUL’EVICH GESSEN — Ph.D. in Economics. 196233, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Zvezdnaya St., 11/ 2, 140. E-mail: gessen27@mail.ru

This article is closely related to our previous publications in the journal “Klio” on the topic “The Cultural Revolution in Bolshevik in Petrograd-Leningrad in 1917‒1927”. They dealt with the problems associated with the withdrawal of Bolsheviks from all sections of the population and from various institutions of property, which primarily concerned art values of a museum nature, including objects of religious worship. The article presents a variety of historical material, which concerns the seizure by them of the archaeologist E.S. Rakhlin-Rumyantsev whole museum, which was a unique collection of ancient church property. His diverse activities in tsarist times were shown in charitable organizations, during the years of Soviet power, his concern for the protection of seized valuable property in Petrograd and in the Northern Region, about supplying the museums with fuel and their personnel with food. The article examines his participation in the re-evacuation from Moscow to Petrograd museum treasures; shows his defense on the pages of the newspaper “Pravda” by journalist L.S. Sosnovsky from accusations of a fighter against religion Em. Yaroslavsky, which led, ultimately, to his arrest and execution.

Keywords: Е.S. Rakhlin-Rumyantsev, Petrograd, Novgorod, Ryutino, temple-museum, church property, protection of monuments of art and antiquity, nonresident section, landowner, Pravda newspaper, “wonderful bourgeois”.





Guo Bin (Harbin, China). «One Belt and One Road» and the Sino-Russian interregional cooperation……………195

GUO BIN — Master, assistant researcher, MBA Center of Heilongjiang University. China, Harbin, District Nangang, Road Xuefu, 74. E-mail: guobin@hlju.edu.cn

«One Belt and One Road» is the concept and the initiative of cooperation and development, with the countries along the Belt and Road to build a community of shared interests, destiny and responsibility featuring mutual political trust, economic integration and cultural inclusiveness, for complementary advantages and open development of the countries along the Belt and Road opens up a new window of opportunity. China and Russia have great potential for cooperation in the framework of «One Belt and One Road» and the Eurasian Economic Union, the cooperation can not only realize mutual benefits and a win-win situation, but also benefit the countries and regions along the Belt and Road and the relevant countries and regions, so the desire for cooperation has become increasingly strong, and the cooperation has shown good development trend.

Keywords: One Belt and One Road; Sino-Russian cooperation; regional economy, Economic belt, the Silk Road, the Silk Road of the 21st century, political mutual trust, economic connection, cultural integration.





Poltorak S.N. (Saint Petersburg). Man at war: the experience of historical and psychological reconstruction…………………………………………………201

SERGEYI NIKOLAEVICH POLTORAK — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Editor-in-Chief of the journal «Klio». 195220, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Grazhdanskii Pr., 11. E-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru

In the review a high assessment is given to the collective monograph “Man and frontline everyday life in the wars of Russia of the twentieth century. Essays on military anthropology”, prepared by E.S. Senyavskaya, A.S. Senyavsky and L.V. Zhukova. The value of the book is in investigation of historical and psychological aspects of four wars: Russo-Japanese War, First World War, Great Patriotic War and the War in Afghanistan. The authors introduced into scientific circulation numerous archival documents, published sources, extensive historiography. As a source, the book presents fragments of literary works, including poems of many Soviet poets. The conclusions of the monograph are new, and they help to understand specifics of each of the war described in this historical essay more deeply.

Keywords: 20th century, Russia, war, military anthropology, frontline daily life.


Samartseva E.I. (Tula). About the monograph of S.F. Volodin and Yu.F. Smirnov «Social history of the Tula industries between the World Wars: from World War I to World War II (1918-1941)»,Tula, Publishing House of Tula State Pedagogical University named after L.N. Tolstoy, 2016…………………………………………………..209

ELENA IGOREVNA SAMARTSEVA — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Scientific secretary of the Tula State Arms Museum, Professor of the Tula State University. 300002, Russian Federation, Tula, Oktyabrskayastreet, 2. E-mail: samartse@yandex.ru

The review analyzed an interesting study S.F. Volodin and Y.F. Smirnov. On the basis of cultural-anthropological and modernizing approaches the authors study the peculiarities of development of Tula industry in 1918–1941.The book is distinguished by the breadth of sources and a bibliographic database.The authors draw attention to the problems of labor efficiency in the years of military communism, the civil war, the new economic policy, the first five years and the pre-war years.The monograph will attract the attention of experts in the field of economic and social history of the twentieth century.

Keywords: Tula industry, First World War, civil war, military communism, new economic policy, labor efficiency, Tula arms factory, prewar years.