Klio # 7 (151) 2019





Artemenkova K.P., Petrova A.A., Pleshkov V.N., Pozdeeva M.A., Ushakov V.A. (Saint Petersburg). The periodical press of Russia as a source of the early history of America: experience and prospects of use in the works of the national researchers (The United States of America) ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 13

KSENIA PAVLOVNA ARTEMENKOVA — 3rd year student of Baccalaureate, Department of Modern and Contemporary History, Institute of History, St. Petersburg State University; 199034, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Mendeleevskay line, 5. E-mail: artemen-ksen@mail.ru

ARIADNA ALEXANDROVNA PETROVA – Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Department of Modern and Contemporary History, Institute of History, St. Petersburg State University; 199034, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Mendeleevskay line, 5. E-mail: a.petrovs@spbu.ru

VIKTOR NIKOLAEVICH PLESHKOV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, St. Petersburg Institute of History, Russian Academy of Science, 197110, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Petrozavodskaya St., 7. E-mail: vn-pleshkov@mail.ru

MARIA AVKSENTYEVNA POZDEEVA — Postgraduate student, Department of Modern and Contemporary History, Institute of History, St. Petersburg State University; 199034, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Mendeleevskay line, 5. E-mail: pozdeeva.m.a. @ Yandex.ru

VLADIMIR ALEXANDROVICH USHAKOV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Department of Modern and Contemporary History, Institute of History, St. Petersburg State University; 199034, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Mendeleevskay line, 5. E-mail: v.ushakov@spbu.ru

The authors of this article have examined in detail the options for the use of the Russian-language newspapers and magazines published in the Russian Empire in the 18th century and in the first decades of the 19th century as an important and informative source on the early history of North America (the USA). For this purpose, the article has examined the work of generations of soviet and modern Russian researches who covered, for several decades and with different extent of scrutiny, the most significant processes and events in the political, economic, social, military, religious and cultural life of the British North America, later the USA. Considerable attention has been paid to the papers of Soviet (Russian) authors who wrote about the development of liberation trends and movements in this region and tracked the course of the revolutionary war for freedom and independence of the British colonies in North America. The article also characterizes the activities of the two major centers of American studies that were established during the years of soviet power in Moscow and Leningrad (St. Petersburg); highlights the contribution of several generations of historians and most active scientists in expanding the source base of historical research, including their efforts to use the Russian periodical press as sources of information. In conclusion the authors have outlined the prospects and directions of historical research that would beneficially use the materials of the Russian periodical press for more comprehensive and in-depth studies and variable interpretations of the early history of America.

Keywords: Russian Empire, British colonies, Great Britain, North America, the USA, the War for Independence of the USA, George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, American studies, press.


Filimonov A.Y. (Saint Petersburg). Image of a Sutler in Diaries and Letters of the American Civil War Northern Participants ……………………………………………………………………… 23

ARTEM YEGOROVICH FILIMONOV — Postgraduate student, Department of Modern and Contemporary History, Institute of History, Saint Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Mendeleevskaya line, 5/1. E-mail: arte-filimonov@yandex.ru

This article concerns the problem of the perception of the sutlers’ activities by Federal servicemen. Diaries and letters of the Union army’s officers and men are the main historical source. Four basic types of Union troops’ attitude towards were found as a result of a research. The first one is critical but not hateful, viewing sutler as an economic agent. He is just selling goods for profit under specific circumstances of war. Second type is purely negative. Union troops belonging to this type characterize sutler as an immoral profit-seeker. Attitude of this kind led to justification of robbing, use of violence, and offensive behavior towards sutlers. Third type of imagining sutler is viewing him as a part of the everyday life of the war, similar to the other aspects of military routine. Forth type includes different kinds of positive view of sutlers. It was formed by such factors as positive traits of specific sutler’s personality, fair ways of business, opportunity to become business partners, and even get voluntary help from him.

Keywords: American Civil War, Sutler, Union Army, Diaries, Letters, Perception, Social History, Imagology.





Tsyb A.V., Sidelnikov D.S. (Saint Petersburg). Philosophy and Symbolics of the Catalan Sovereignism ……… 29

ALEXEY VASILIEVICH TSYB — Ph.D. in Philosophical Sciences, Associate Professor, Peter the Great St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University. Associate member of Sociological Institute of the Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 195251, Russia, St. Petersburg, ul. Polytechnicheskaya, 29. E-mail: alex.tsyb@gmail.com

DMITRIY SERGEEVICH SIDELNIKOV — Master Program Student, Peter the Great St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University. 195251, Russia, St. Petersburg, ul. Polytechnicheskaya, d. 29. E-mail: sidelnikovds@gmail.com

In the article historical and ideological aspects of independence movement in Catalonia are covered. In particular, it is about concepts of national identity, linguistic and political rhetoric of the independence movement. In long history of this movement the myths and facts, geopolitics and philosophy are closely bound. In article the ideology and terminology of the Catalan nationalism, the political ideas and the economic party of the independence movement are analyzed. Stages of political process as it is defined by Catalan, Spanish, English, American and Russian historians and political scientists are discussed. The relevance of the discussed problems is caused by Catalan events of the last years. Therefore, special attention is paid to symbolical support of the movement, a festive ritual and symbolics of manifestation during the annual celebration of National Day of Catalonia on September 11. It is also about estimates of the movement in the centralist and catalan mass media, about qualification of the movement as latest “color revolutions”. Authors analyze the Spanish information resources and reports of the blogs informing on events of the National Independence Day of Catalonia.

Keywords: Spain, Catalonia, Spanish Constitution, movement for independence of Catalonia, national identity, Catalan Renaissance, Catalan nationalism, sovereignism, secessionism.


Liu Lei (Urumqi, PRC). The Great Silk Road – the way of relationship and development of civilizations …………. 37

LIU LEI — Second-year Master, Department of Historical Regional Studies, Institute of History, Saint Petersburg State University. 199178, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, 5th line Vasilyevsky Island, 66. PRC, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Urumqi, st. JianQuan, 35. E-mail: liulej@yandex.ru

The article deals with the problem about mutual enrichment of cultures along the Great Silk Road. Author analyzes the characteristics of trade between East and West, reveals the importance of caravan routes for the dissemination of ideas, technologies and goods, which led to historical progress until 16th century. The article analyzes the development of Silk Road that allowed to reconstruct the main directions of its influence during the trade operations, such as enrichment of economic activities, urbanization of cities, development of payment system, property protection and so on. The results show that due to the geography, the intensity of cultural and economic interdependencies on the Great Silk Road, there took place cultural adaptation between different nations.

Keywords: the Great Silk Road, trade, culture, religion, civilization.


Yang Yiting (Jinan, PRC). Soviet factor in «Manchurian incident» of 18 September 1931 ………………………….. 42

YANG YITING — Postgraduate student, Department of Russian History of the 20th–21st centuries, Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 119991, Russian Federation, Moscow, Lomonosovsky Prospekt, 27/4. People’s Republic of China, province Shandong, Jinan, St Jenstejn, D. 180. E-mail: jan.itmsu311@yandex.ru

The article systematically explores the issue of Manchuria in the Russian-Japanese (since 1922 – Soviet-Japanese) relations of the late 19th – early 20th centuries. The author, based on the source base of Russia, Japan and China, draws attention to the little-studied problems in Russian and foreign historiography. When and how did the Manchurian issue between Russia and Japan appear? From what historical period has Manchuria been considered by Japanese strategists as a springboard against Russia? How did the Japanese military leadership understand the factor of the Soviet Union when implementing the plan to seize Manchuria in 1931? The purpose of this article is to analyze the connection of the “Manchurian Incident” of 1931 with the USSR, find out the fundamental purpose of the occupation of Manchuria by militaristic Japan.

Keywords: Manchuria, Russian Empire, USSR, Japanese Empire, Far East, Russian-Japanese relations, Soviet-Japanese relations, “Manchurian incident”, foreign policy of militaristic Japan, Far Eastern policy of the USSR.


Yahimovich S.Y. (Khabarovsk). Activities of the Soviet Trade Union of Employees in Northern Manchuria: 1917–1931 …………………………………………………………………………………….. 49

SERGEY YURYEVICH YAHIMOVICH — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor the Department of Social and Humanitarian and Economic Disciplines, Far Eastern Law Institute of Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia. 680020, Russian Federation, Khabarovsk, per. Kazarmenniy, 15. E-mail: sergyahim-69@yandex.ru

The article on the basis of previously unpublished archival materials examines the historical review of the functioning of the Trade Union of Soviet Employees in Northeast China. The evolution of this production association in foreign territory from the beginning of the Russian revolution of 1917 to the occupation of Manchuria by Japanese troops in 1931 is shown. The peculiarities of the existence of the Trade Union were due to the political situation in the region, expressed in the anti-Soviet orientation of the leadership of the local Chinese militaristic group and the presence of large white emigrant groups. A serious event that influenced the activities of the trade Union during this period was the Soviet-Chinese armed conflict of 1929. The paper analyzes several aspects of the activities of the Soviet Union of employees in Manchuria – the stages of administrative reorganization, relations with the official authorities, the dynamics of the number and level of welfare of members of the Union. In the end, the conclusion about the gradual politicization of the Union and its inclusion into the mechanism of Soviet influence abroad is made.

Keywords: trade union, organization, employees, Chinese Eastern Railway (CER), Special region of Eastern provinces.


Sharafutdinov D.R., Urvilov M.A. (Kazan). Egypt foreign policy transformations under the transition period 2011–2015 ………………………………………………………………………………………… 56

DENIS RADIEVICH SHARAFUTDINOV — Ph.D. in History, Senior Lecturer, Institute of International Relations, Kazan (Volga region) Federal University. 420008, Russian Federation, Kazan, ul. Pushkina, 1/55. E-mail: sfincs_88@mail.ru

MIKHAIL ALEXANDROVICH URVILOV — 4th year student, Institute of International Relations,Kazan (Volga region) Federal University. 420008, Russian Federation, Kazan, ul. Pushkina, 1/55. E-mail: mikhail.urvilov@gmail.com

In the realities of the 21st century, Egypt’s foreign policy, being closely related to domestic, experienced a certain stagnation during the rule of the Muslim Brotherhood, for which the primary task was to solve internal problems in the country. After the next revolution in 2014, the new power structures in the person of Abdel Fattah Al-Sisi were in a similar position, however, they could drastically influence the situation in Egypt, as a result of which the state began to gain momentum in the foreign policy arena. This article addresses the causal relationship between changes in Egypt’s foreign policy and internal political processes during the transition period, among which special attention is paid to two revolutions. These events mark a new era in the existence of Egypt in international relations, which makes this topic relevant for research.

Keywords: Egypt, Arab spring, Middle East, Al-Sisi, Egypt’s foreign policy, revolution in Egypt, Arab-Israeli conflict.





Dianova E.V. (Petrozavodsk). «Workwoman, go build cooperation!»: literary models of cooperation city women in the 1920s ……………………………………………………………. 62

ELENA VASILYEVNA DIANOVA — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor at the Department of National History, Institute of History, Political and Social Sciences, Petrozavodsk State University. 185910, Russian Federation, Republic of Karelia, Petrozavodsk, Lenin Ave., 33. E-mail: elena-dianowa@yandex.ru

In this article one of ways of change of a social role of the woman in society with cooperation is considered. Cooperative journalism and fiction, which showed the transformation of the social status of women under Soviet power, are used as a source. The hermeneutical analysis of works of art of the 1920s allows to reveal features of social designing of a gender in relation to various social groups of urban population. Writers carried out the order of RCP(b) of the Central Committee on writing of propaganda brochures on cooperation which served as a guide to action in different life situations. The cooperative fiction offered various templates of behavioral patterns in the course of cooperation of women depending on their social status and educational qualification. On the concrete examples followed from stories on cooperative themes literary models of involvement of workers and housewives in cooperative construction are described.

Keywords: designing of a gender, city cooperation, cooperation, cooperative fiction, literary models, city women, workers, housewives.





Chibisov B.I. (Tver). Ethnic composition of the population of the Коrelian district at the end of the 15th century ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 69

BORIS IGOREVICH CHIBISOV — Ph.D. in History, Senior Lecturer, Department of Theology, Institute of Pedagogical Education and Social Technologies, Tver State University. 170021, Russian Federation, Tver, 2nd Griboyedov St., 24/225. E-mail: Chibisov.BI@tversu.ru

The article describes the ethnic composition of the population of the Kоrelian district at the end of the 15th century according to the cadastres of the Vodskaya Pyatina in 1499–1500. Special attention is paid to the names of geographical objects (toponyms), as well as personal names, patronymics and nicknames of people (anthroponyms) contained in the text of the cadastres. Onomastic data, as well as material sources, indicate that the territory of the Korelian district was populated mainly by the Karelians. At the turn of the 15th and 16th centuries, a considerable proportion of the Slavs lived in the county. Under the influence of Christianity, the Karelians used the practice of naming calendar names. The Baltic-Finnish oikonyms reached 60% among the names of the villages. The presence of Karelian archaeological complexes in numerous settlements of the district confirms the data of onomastics.

Keywords: Novgorod Land, Korelian district, Karelians, interethnic relations, Baltic-Finnish peoples, anthroponymy, toponymy.


Khotko S.H. (Maykop, Republic of Adygea). Confrontation of military-political coalitions in Circassia: on the basis of a report by Elizar Rzhevskiy (1578) ………………………………………………………………….. 77

SAMIR HAMIDOVICH KHOTKO — Doctor of History Sciences, Leading Researcher, Ethnology Department, Adygean Republican Institute of Humanitarian Researches named after T.M. Kerashev. 385000, Republic of Adygea, Maykop, Krasnooktyabrskaya St., 13. E-mail: inalast@mail.ru

Diplomatic sources appear to be one of the most important groups of sources on Circassia’s history in the 16th–18th centuries. Among the vast corps of Russian ambassadorial documents introduced into scientific circulation, there is a group of charters, reports and letters that came out of Crimea containing objective information about condition of the Crimean-Circassian relations, as well as the state of affairs in the Circassian possessions of the North-Western and the Central Caucasus. This article is devoted to one of such sources – the charter of the Russian envoy to the Crimean Khanate Elizar Rzhevskiy (1578), consisting of four reports, on the basis of which the aspects of the Crimean-Nogai-Circassian relations in the 1571–1576 that had been previously unknown and not sufficiently covered in the existing publications, are reconstructed. This source indicates a high degree of Circassians’ integration in the ruling layer of the Khanate.

Keywords: the Crimean Khanate, Circassia, Idarova Kabarda, Gazi Ben Urak, Devlet I Gerai, Mehmed II Gerai, Psheapshoko Kaitukin, Aslanbek Kaitukin, Mamstryuk Temryukov, Algazuf.


Syzranov A.V. (Astrakhan). The structures of everyday life the population of the eastern colonies of Astrakhan in the second half of the 16th–18th centuries ……………………………………………………….. 84

ANDREY VYACHESLAVOVICH SYZRANOV — Ph.D. in History, Head of the Department of Philosophy, Sociology and Linguistics, Astrakhan State University of Architecture and Construction Engineering. 414056, Russian Federation, Astrakhan, Tatisheva St., 18. E-mail: A_Sizranov@mail.ru

In the second half of the 17th–18th centuries Astrakhan was a major center of european-asian transit trade, the leading position in which was occupied by foreign merchants. In the multiethnic and multi-religious city there were special settlements of iranian, armenian, indian, middle-asian merchants who carried out intermediary trade between Russia and the countries of the East. Religion played an important role in the life of the population of the eastern colonies. This article analyzes the religious structures of everyday life of the population of the eastern colonies of Astrakhan in the second half of the 16th–18th centuries – armenians, persians, indians. Among the colonists were spread christianity, islam and hinduism. At the same time, each religious group had a specific confession of a particular religion: armenians were christians-monophysites, persians – muslims-shiites, indians – hindus-vaishnavas.

Keywords: Astrakhan, colonies, hinduism, islam, everyday life, religion, trade, christianity.


Magomedhanov M.M., Bakanov A.V., Garunova S.M. (Makhachkala). Changes in social relations in the period of the military-people’s governess of the Dagestan region of the Russian Empire ………….. 91

MAGOMEDHAN MAGOMEDOVICH MAGOMEDHANOV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Head of Department of Ethnography, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Dagestan Scientific Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 367030, Russian Federation, Makhachkala, M. Yaragskogo St., 75. E-mail: mkhan@yandex.ru

ALEXANDER VLADIMIROVICH BAKANOV — Postgraduate student, Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography, Dagestan Scientific Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 367030, Russian Federation, Makhachkala, M. Yaragskogo St., 75. E-mail: mr.bakanov85@mail.ru

SAIDA MAGOMEDHANOVNA GARUNOVA — Junior Researcher, The G. Tsadasy Institute of Language, Literature and Art of the Dagestan Scientific Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 367030, Russian Federation, Makhachkala, M. Yaragskogo St., 75. E-mail: saida-mag@yandex.ru

The article deals with issues related to changes in social relations among the peoples of Dagestan, which occurred as a result of the accession of the region to the Russian Empire and the creation of military-national government on its territory. The article deals with issues related to changes in social relations among the peoples of Dagestan, which occurred as a result of the accession of the region to the Russian Empire and the creation of military-national government on its territory. It is noted that since 1862 with the establishment of the new model of administration the Dagestanis received a more or less comprehensible form of government. The feudal formations at that time were only a semblance of “independent” political entities, the rulers of more than half a century were under the jurisdiction of the Empire and by the time of adoption on April 26, 1868, the “Provisions on rural administration in Dagestan” were abolished. The article contains a critical analysis of the historiography of social relations in pre-Soviet Dagestan. It was emphasized that the development of social relations among the peoples of Dagestan was special, even in comparison with other parts of the North Caucasus, in that attempts to examine social relations in Dagestan through the prism of classical or “highland” feudalism seem deadlocked.

Keywords: Dagestan, military-people’s governance, social relations, Russian administration, governance of Dagestan.


Leonov V.P. (Saint Petersburg). Charity in the history of Nevsky Prospect ……………………………………………. 98

VALERII PAVLOVICH LEONOV — Doctor of Pedagogical Studies, professor, Scientific supervisor of the Russian Academy of Sciences Library. 199034, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Birzhevaya line, 1. E-mail: valleo@mail.ru

This article is based on the text of the author’s paper at the International Charitable Forum held in St. Petersburg on April 23–25, 2019. The features of the charitable sphere in St. Petersburg were determined by the historical development of the city, its place in the political and economic space of Russia and its geographical location. It is important to emphasize that all All-Russian charitable organizations began their activities in St. Petersburg. One of the main places in the creation and functioning of these organizations was Nevsky Prospect. At one or another time (until 1917) orphanages, industrious homes, workshops, schools, poorhouses, cheap apartments, free canteens, clubs, and societies were organized at its various addresses (in 49 buildings according to historians’ estimates).

Keywords: charity, patronage, charitable societies, charitable organizations, Nevsky Prospect in St. Petersburg, care.


Bochinin D.A., Losic A.V. (Saint Petersburg). Scientific and production cooperation of aviation industry of Leningrad of the eve of Great Patriotic War of 1941–1945 ……………………………………………………. 103

DMITRY ANATOLYEVICH BOCHININ — Doctor of Military Sciences, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Department of Social and Economic Disciplines, Military Space Academy named after A.F. Mozhaisky. 197198, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Zhdanovskaya St., 13. E-mail: bochinin49@mail.ru

ALEXANDR VITALIEVICH LOSIC — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Deputy Chief Editor of the Journal «Klio». 195220, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Grazhdanskij pr., 11. E-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru

The article analyzes experience of creation and production of training and combat airplanes in the north-western region of the USSR with a center in Leningrad at the turn of the 1930–1940s. Thus the special attention is spared to consideration of problem of forming large regional association (in modern language – cluster) for the mass producing of aviation equipment for an army and fleet. Originally scientific and production cooperation on producing of aviation products included such enterprises as for example aviation planes no. 23 and no. 47, plant “Bolshevik” and “Red October”, Okhta Chemical Combine, Svir Hydroelectric Station, Staraya Russa Veneered Plant, non-ferrous metal processing plant “Krasnyi Vyborzhets” and other enterprises. On the eve of Great Patriotic War, a center in Leningrad scientific and production cooperation was formed more then 80 establishments and enterprise-subcontractors, having eventual for an object the object producing of education and battle airplanes.

Keywords: aviation products, aviation industry, scientific and production cooperation, north-west region, serial production, training and combat aircraft.





Kurkov K.N., Solovyov K.А. (Moscow). History of the Dmitrov Borisoglebsky Monastery in the archival documents of the 15th–17th centuries …………………………………………………………….. 107

KONSTANTIN NIKOLAEVICH KURKOV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Russian State Social University. 129226, Russian Federation, Moscow, Wilhelm Peak St., 4, p. 1. E-mail: kurkowkonstantin@mail.ru

KIRILL АLEXEEVICH SOLOVYOV — Ph.D. in Culturology, Associate Professor of the Department of History and Theory of Decorative Art and Design, Moscow State Academy of Art and Industry named after S.G. Stroganova. 125080, Russian Federation, Moscow, Volokolamsk Highway, 9, office 408. Associate Professor of the Department of Design of Buildings and Structures, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering. 129337, Russian Federation, Moscow, Yaroslavl Highway, 26, office 508. E-mail: solovyev.cyrill@yandex.ru

There is very little Information about monasteries and monasticism in Russia before the first known to us by the name of ascetics. The first written mention of the monasteries in Russia dates back to the era of St. Vladimir Svyatoslavich (978–1015) and Yaroslav Vladimirovich (1019–1054). In the “Word of the Law and Grace”, Metropolitan Hilarion of Kiev (1037–1043) in “Glory to Prince Vladimir” says: “The monastery in the mountains of Stash, the Chernorizets was revealed”. First mentioned in the sources, the monasteries founded by princes or other wealthy people that created them at his own expense provide all necessary, possessed the right of appointing the abbots. One of these monasteries, founded by the princely power was Borisoglebsky Monastery. In the Russian state archives and in the archives of the city of Dmitrov a large amount of documentary materials on the history of this monastery is stored, meanwhile there are no scientific monographs on the history of this monastery, and we still cannot accurately determine the date of its Foundation. Meanwhile, the Borisoglebsky Monastery is an interesting architectural monument and its study through archival documents can be an important contribution to the revival of national consciousness and the study of the history of Russian statehood.

Keywords: archival documents, Prince Yuri Dolgorukiy, the Grand Prince Vasily the Dark, Prince Yury Ivanovich of Dmitrov Borisoglebsky Monastery, the Cross of Borisoglebsky Monastery, Prince Peter Dmitrievich, Dmitrovsky Deesis rank.


Petrov I.F., Petrova S.I. (Krasnodar). Multiculturalism and mass culture …………………………………………… 114

IGOR FEDOROVICH PETROV — Doctor of philosophy, Professor, Academy of marketing and socially-information technologies. 350000, Russian Federation, Krasnodar, ul. Chapaeva, 81–30. E-mail: IgorPetroff@yandex.ru

SOPHIA IGOREVNA PETROVA — Ph.D. in Cultural Studies, Teacher, Academy of marketing and socially-information technologies. 350000, Russian Federation, Krasnodar, ul. Chapaeva, 81–30. E-mail: Sofya8888@yandex.ru

The article is devoted to the analysis of cultural processes taking place in the world, manifested in the diffusion of culture, contributing to the dynamic processes of formation of a single world community. The possibility of mass movements of ethnic groups creates conditions for new combinations of cultures. This is a global process. It is shown that the process of expanding the geographical boundaries of post-national multiculturalism coincides with the modernization and strengthening of the promotion of mass culture in the cultural and historical space. And although today there is a formation of “world civilization” with an obvious predominance of mass culture, nevertheless, it is premature to talk about “world culture” as a whole unified concept. The intensive national dialogue of cultures and interaction continues.

Keywords: culture, cultural processes, dynamics, dynamics of culture, multiculturalism, mass culture, society, civilization.





Mishutkin I.V., Parshin A.V. (Moscow). Financial-legal regulation in the Russian army during the military reforms 1905–1912 years……………………………………………………………………….. 119

IGOR VIKTOROVICH MISHUTKIN — Ph.D. in Juridical Sciences, Associate Professor, Head of the Military University of the Ministry of Defense. Russia, 123001, Moscow, ul. Bolshaya Sadovaya, 14. E-mail: vu-nu@mil.ru

ALEXANDER VIKTOROVICH PARSHIN — Senior investigator of the 2nd military investigation department of the AFU of the RF IC in the Western military district. Russia, 123001, Moscow, ul. Bolshaya Sadovaya, 14. E-mail: osaksonov@mail.ru

The article considers problems of legal support of military reforms 1905-1912 years in Russia, in particular one of the difficult areas – financial-legal regulation in the Russian army and Navy. On the basis of a large number of archival documents and materials disclosed legal mechanisms of financial provision of Russian armed forces in the period under review, characterized by a change in the state system (transition to a constitutional monarchy, the formation of a new legislative body – the State Duma). Traced solutions to very difficult problems is to reconcile possible for two mutually inconsistent objectives. On the one hand, the government should reduce military spending, and on the other hand it would bring the heavy reproach, if cared for of course only on the reduction of the estimates at the expense of combat capability of the army.

Keywords: Constitutional monarchy, the State Duma, Committee on defense spending and the military budget of the state Duma, the Council of Ministers, Council of national Defense, war Department, the State Comptroller, the Ultimate military budget.


Pilishvili G.D. (Kursk). Shaping, training and arming of the people’s emergency volunteer corps of Voronezh region in 1941–1943 ……………………………………………………………………………………… 127

GEORGE DZHUNGLOVICH PILISHVILI — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Department of State and Municipal Administration, Kursk State University. 305000, Russian Federation, Kursk, Kirova St., 5, ap. 59-b. E-mail: pilishvili.georg @ yandex.ru

The article analyzes the history and the main reasons of shaping the people’s emergency volunteer corps on the territory of Voronezh region and proves the emergency position of Red Army in 1941. The author emphasizes the fact that people’s emergency volunteer corps was not stable but temporary shaping, being created only for solving precisely specified problems, mainly for the defense of towns and localities from the enemy. In the article the process of people’s emergency volunteer corps shaping was studied in details with the attachment both to its regional territory and to the regional center – Voronezh City itself. The advancements and the main issues were revealed that the administrative and party bodies had to come across at their daily efforts for the militia guidance. The objective conclusions are made about people’s emergency volunteer corps role and significance in rear guarding during the military years. Militia has rendered great service to the country for the ability to train and to integrate into military forces a great number of recruits which had already being qualified for military science and served to be fail-safe reserves for reinforcement of regular units.

Keywords: Red Army, people’s emergency volunteer corps, the Great Patriotic War, Voronezh region, combat operations, infantry division, party bodies.





Benda V.N., Pokhilyuk A.V. (Saint Petersburg). General-Feldzeugmeister Alexander Nikitich Velboa ………. 135

VLADIMIR NIKOLAEVICH BENDA — Doctor of Historical sciences, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of Department of History, Leningrad State University named after A.S. Pushkin. 196605, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Pushkin, Peterburgskoe sh., 10. E-mail: bvn.1962@mail.ru

ANATOLY VIKTOROVICH POKHILYUK — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Professor of Department of History, Leningrad State University named after A.S. Pushkin. 196605, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Pushkin, Peterburgskoe sh., 10. E-mail: viktorovich_1948@mail.ru

The article focuses on the activities of the eighth General-Feldzeugmeister A.N. Velboa, and provides a generalized description of the results of this activity. The characteristic features of the military-political situation at the final stage of the Seven Years’ War are distinguished and described. The authors draw attention to the organizational changes in the composition of artillery that occurred during the leadership of the artillery and engineering corps by P.I. Shuvalov. The article analyzes the measures to reform the organizational structure of artillery and engineering troops, held in 1763. Special attention is paid to the lighting of the work on improvement of samples of domestic artillery, held by A.N. Velboa. The authors come to the conclusion that since the 1760s in the field of development of artillery as a type of weapons and military equipment began to experience stagnation, and the activities of General-Feldzeugmeister A.N. Velboa in some respects deserves a critical assessment. Previously unpublished sources and literature are introduced into scholarly circulation.

Keywords: Seven Years’ War, P.I. Shuvalov, Peter II, A.N. Velboa, artillery, artillery guns, corps of engineers, personnel and organizational structure.


Gessen V.Y. (Saint Petersburg). Orientalist Mikhail Tubyansky and his relatives (to the 125th anniversary of the birth) ………………………………………………………………………………… 142

VALERII YUL’EVICH GESSEN — Ph.D. in Economics. 196233 Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Zvezdnaya 11/ 2, 140. E-mail: geen27@mail.ru

This article can be considered a continuation of our recent publication in “Klio”: “Rabbi I. sh. Olshvanger in St. Petersburg”, as the father of M. I. Tubyansky was married to his daughter. The paper characterizes the individual steps of the scientific formation of the M. I. Tubyanskaya, which became one of the most prominent Orientalists. For the first time, his activity as a Hebraist, which was cut off due to the living conditions, is considered. The circumstances of his arrest as part of the persecution by the authorities of Orientalists and the destruction of many of them are shown. To the extent possible, the physical and moral methods used by investigators to influence detainees to confess to crimes they did not commit, mainly spying for Germany and Japan, are described.

Keywords: oriental studies, Hebraic, Mongolia, Scientific Committee, arrest, Pre-Trial Detention Center, investigation, espionage, execution, rehabilitation.





Chiganok A.V. (Moscow). Activities of the forest services of the Kursk region on the cultivation and preservation of forests from 2000 to 2014: problems and prospects ……………………………………. 160

ANTON VIKTOROVICH CHIGANOK — Applicant of the Department of Russian History, Kursk State University. 111033, Russian Federation, Moscow, Volochaevskaya St., 1, apt. 29. E-mail: pilishvili.georg@yandex.ru

The article analyzes the state of woody sector of the Kursk region during the period from 2000 to 2014. The author draws attention to the problems that hindered the development of the forest industry. First of all, the issues of financing the forest industry of the Kursk region were considered. Conclusions about weak financing from 2000 to 2005 were made. Questions on the material and technical state of the forests of the Kursk region are considered. It is noted that they are obsolete both physically and technologically. The update began in 2007. The problems of legal support of the activities of the forest industry in the Kursk region are considered. Indicated on a large number of legal acts on the work of forestry. But they did not work in full force due to poor funding. The researcher concludes that the forest branch of the Kursk region has retained its activities primarily due to the help of the administration of the Kursk region and the potential of forestry workers in the region from 2000 to 2004.

Keywords: Russian Federation, Kursk region, Woody Code RF, wood (forest), woody fund, woody sector, reafforestation, forest-growing.





Gogun A.S. (Berlin, Germany). «Congress of the militant». Prologue of World War II ……………………………… 166

ALEXANDER GOGUN — Ph.D. in History, a doctoral student at Freie Universitaet Berlin. Berlin, Germany. Е-mail: a.gogun@fu-berlin.de

The article considers the XVIII Congress of the CPSU (b), which occurred on the eve of the Second World War. An analysis of the speeches at this event allows us to conclude that a number of aggressive actions by the Red Army in 1939–1940, as well as in 1945, were planned and prepared before the start of the Second World War. Reports similar in spirit and meaning focused on the offensive power of the Soviet armed forces, praised communism and hinted at the fast destruction of the “capitalist encirclement” of the Soviet Union. Stalin reproached Britain and France for the policy of non-intervention, which contributed to the exacerbation of the international situation, and at the same time proclaimed non-intervention by the USSR.

Keywords: Communist Party, Stalinism, aggressiveness, USSR, World War II, Red Army, globalism, Red Fleet, aviation, tank forces, world revolution.


Lagvilava U.G. (Moscow). Evacuation of the military industry at the beginning of World War II and the NKVD …………………………………………………………………….. 172

UTA GURAMOVICH LAGVILAVA — Independent researcher, Project Manager of JSC «Strabag». 107392, Russian Federation, Moscow, Prostornaya St., 10–2–117. E-mail: uta.lagvilava@strabag.com, lagvilava1000@gmail.com

In the article-reflection attention is paid to the role of the NKVD and its leader L.P. Beria in the organization of the redeployment of Soviet enterprises from the Western regions into the far regions of the Soviet Union at the beginning of the Great Patriotic war. Attention is drawn not only to the unprecedented scale of relocation, but also to the filigree accuracy of the relocation of co-workers of plants and factories, delivery and installation of equipment in new regions in the Urals, the Volga region, Siberia and Central Asia. The author makes a conclusion about the high organizational abilities of L.P. Beria and other NKVD leaders.

Keywords: Great Patriotic War, NKVD, military industry, evacuation, L.P. Beria.