Klio #7 (163) 2020


Shemyakin G.P. (St. Petersburg). Modern Russian historiography of the life and work of the infantry general E.F. Komarovsky ......................................................................13

candidate of historical sciences, associate professor
Saint-Petersburg military Institute of National Guard Troops
St. Petersburg, 198206, st. Pilutova, 1
E-mail: gennadiy.shemyakin@gmail.com

The article analyzes the modern historiography of the life and work of the Creator and first commander of the internal guard of the Russian Empire, which became the prototype of the national guard of the Russian Federation, General of the infantry Evgraf Fedotovich Komarovsky. His life and work are the most vivid and convincing examples of selfless service to the Fatherland. In 2019, the 250th anniversary of his birth was celebrated. This anniversary served to revive the interest of Russian historians in the figure of the undeservedly forgotten one of the companions of Emperor Alexander I, prominent military and public figure of the Russian Empire. The purpose of the article is the author’s desire to present an overview of the works of Russian historians prepared in connection with the anniversary of E. F. Komarovsky and to draw the attention of the General scientific community to the need for a deeper study of his life and work. This would allow a more complete creation of a prosopographic portrait of those statesmen who attempted to reform the Russian Empire at the beginning of the 19th century.
Keywords: infantry general E. Komarovsky, internal guard of the Russian Empire, separate internal guard building (OKVS).

Gergilev D.N. (Krasnoyarsk). The problems of administrative and territorial division of Siberia in pre-revolutionary historiography..................................................................18

PhD in History, Associate professor, Department of Russian History the Institute for the Humanities of Siberian Federal University.
660041, Russia, Krasnoyarsk region, Krasnoyarsk,
Svobodnyi st. 82a, Room 460. Tel.: 8 (391) 206-27-25
e-mail.: turilak@yandex.ru

The article examines the problems of the administrative-territorial structure of Siberia, which has been reflected in the works of the pre-revolutionary period. The author determines the main directions of social and political thought on the issue: descriptive works that are closer in their genre to historical descriptions and diaries; works on the public administration system of Siberia, the subject of analysis of which was the activity of M.M. Speransky as Siberian Governor-General; analytical works in which the authors raised questions about ways to modernize the management system in Siberia, and proposed programs for reforming the political system, territorial division, administrative management and public self-government.
Keywords: administrative-territorial division, Siberia, historiography, public administration, reforms, historical and legal analysis.

Yastrebov A.O. (Moscow). Venice and the Holy See: Relationship Problems....................24

Doctor of Church History,
Doctor of Philosophy in philosophical sciences (PhD),
Doctor of Philosophy in historical sciences (PhD)
Senior researcher
of Institute for Russian History of Russian Academy of Sciences
Russian Federation, 117036, Moscow, Dmitrya Ulyanova st. 19
e-mail: mirofore@gmail.com

The article lists the main pain points in the relationship between the Republic of Venice and the Holy See. The historical path traveled by the island nation from the confederation of small communes to the vast trading empire of the Mediterranean is inextricably linked with the Eastern and Western Churches. If the republic had dealings with the first in its Mediterranean possessions, then with the second – in almost all provinces of Italy and the Levant. It is precise because of its biculturalism that Venice has built relations with the Vatican in a special style unlike the model of state-confessional relations of other European states. The article deals with the main conflict topics around which the interaction of the two powers was built, the claims of Rome, and the response measures taken by the republic are described. The conclusion is drawn about the special place in the confessional policy of Venice of the idea of an autonomous Church, resting on its Byzantine roots.
Keywords: jurisdictionalism, juspatronat, investiture, Republic of Venice, Holy See, interdict.

Poznakhirev V.V. (St. Petersburg). Prisoners of war "on parole" in Russia and countries in the West in the 18th century.....................................................................................32

PhD in Historical Sciences. Private Institution Educational Organization of higher education “Reaviz” University. Associate Professor of the Department of history, humanities, social and economic disciplines.
Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Kalinin Street 8, Bldg. 2, Ent. A.
E-mail: vvkr@list.ru

For the first time in Russian historiography, the article reconstructs the procedure and rules for both the release of enemy prisoners of war and the easing of the regime of their detention on “parole”, i.e., under the word of honor. Structurally, the work consists of two roughly equal parts. In the first part, the author, relying mainly on the experience of the military history of Western countries, including the USA, formulates his own definition of the concept of “parole”, which is most adequate to the chronological framework under study; reveals its social and moral significance; substantiates the uniqueness of the phenomenon under consideration and the specifics of the circle of its subjects; classifies password obligations, as well as systematizes the most common facts of abuse by prisoners of war. The second part, which occupies a central place in the article, is devoted to a comparative analysis of the functioning of the domestic and Western “parole system”. The author emphasizes that the Russian version of the “parole system” was formed in the era of the Moscow state. However, it initially differed from its Western counterpart, mainly in that the prisoner’s word of honor was never in itself the only and sufficient way to ensure his obligation, but required – “for the best precaution” – additional measures, mainly in the form of a surety and (or) an oath. Moreover, even during the years of Peter’s transformation, the traditional foundations of the Russian password have not changed much. However, by the middle of the XVIII century, having passed four stages in its development, the domestic “parole system” formally lost its fundamental differences from the Western one.
Based on the results of this work, the author formulates a number of conclusions, arguing, in particular, that the “parole” has not lost its meaning to the present day and may well find its use (even if limited) in modern armed conflicts.
Keywords: war, release from captivity, officers, parole system, parole city, surety, reverse, regime of prisoners of war.

Prokopchuk N.S. (Vladivostok). Chinese immigration to Australia 1830-1901...................40

Applicant, history teacher,
MBOU “Secondary school № 35”.
690063, Russian Federation,
Vladivostok, 2Poselkovaya St., 51.
E-mail: nata_prokopchuk@bk.ru

Today Australia is a multinational country. One of the reasons is the policy of multiculturalism. But it was not always so. At the initial stage of the settlement of the continent, only 2% of free residents wishing to relocate. As a result, the British government was forced to send prisoners in order to at least somehow gain a foothold in these lands. The picture began to change only in the middle of the century. One of the reasons was gold. In the 50s of the XIX century it was found on the continent. The precious metal attracted not only Europeans, but also Asians, especially the Chinese, who began to export it from the country. Soon the mass immigration process began. Most of the population is Europeans, who were not satisfied with such an active process of migration of Asians to the continent. In response to this, the states began to introduce laws that restricted coolie entry into Australia, which markedly reduced the Chinese population on the continent. This policy continued until the end of World War II. In the 1970s, all laws were revised and the “migration laws” were replaced by a policy of multiculturalism.
Keywords: Australia, Chinese immigration, gold rush, immigrants, colony.

Golovanov D.I., Maksimov A.D. (St. Petersburg). The Impact of Chinese Expansion on Integration Processes in Latin America ..................................................................45

Post-Graduate student,
Saint-Petersburg State University;
191060 St. Petersburg, 1/3 Smolny street, entrance number 8
Senior lecturer at St. Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
190000 St. Petersburg, Bolshaya Morskaya St., 67
e-mail: Dheadman@bk.ru
8 921 982 91 69

Post-graduate student,
Saint-Petersburg State University;
191060 St. Petersburg, 1/3 Smolny street, entrance number 8
e-mail: Wawnop@yandex.ru
8 921 883 93 43

The article analyzes the complex integration processes in Latin America through the prism of Chinese influence. The authors take into account both the historical potential of Sino-Latin American interaction and the potential of interstate contacts. The emphasis is on the transition of this interaction from the format of bilateral relations to the format of relations between China + a group of countries. The advantages and necessity of this type of contacts that promote political and structural integration in Latin America are highlighted. The current state of relations between China and the largest integration groups is analyzed and the potential for cooperation between them is assessed.
Keywords: China, Latin America, integration, cooperation, bilateral relations, multilateral relations, APR, OAS, CELAC, Pacific Alliance, “One Belt One Road”.

Bedrik A.S. (St. Petersburg). The Bucharest Peace of 1812 and the Birth of the "Bessarabian Question" in the History of Russia .......................................................................53

Doctor of History, teacher of the Department of pedagogy, psychology
and translation studies
Saint Petersburg University of Management and Economics technologies
190103, St. Petersburg, Lermontovsky PR, 44, Lit.A
e-mail: arnytrapp@gmail.com

The historical act of 1812 not only marked the new borders in the south-west of Russia but also decided the fate of a whole people living in Bessarabia. The lacunae of historical realities covering the process of ending the Russian-Turkish war (1806-1812) and signing the Bucharest Treaty of 1812 explain the relevance of this study. The author has a task to carry out a factor analysis of this historical event, to identify and compare the interests of each of the parties involved in the negotiation process (Russia, Turkey, France) at various stages. The final goal is to recreate a real historical picture of the end of the next war with Turkey and the conclusion of peace, which would take into account a complex of numerous factors that influenced the accession of Bessarabian lands to the Russian Empire, including national interests and the role of the individual in the negotiation process. The study identified and described the local and strategic advantages of the “Bucharest Peace” for Russia. The article also makes a hypothesis of the consequences that might have arisen if Bessarabia had not been incorporated into Russia before the war with Napoleon.
Keywords: Russian-Turkish War (1806-1812), Bucharest Peace, Bessarabian Question, Russian Empire, Ottoman Empire, Alexander I.

Zhukovskaya T.N., Pustovoit I.S. (St. Petersburg). The crisis of "administrative Saint-Simonism" in education and the resignation of S.S. Uvarov in 1821 ................57

PhD in History, Associate Professor,
Department of Russian History till the 20-th century,
Institute of History, Saint-Petersburg State University/
199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Mendeleev l., 5
e-mail: tzhukovskaya@yandex.ru

Graduate, Institute of History,
Saint-Petersburg State University,
199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Mendeleev l., 5
e-mail: botanpustovoit@gmail.com

The article is devoted to the transition period in the history of St. Petersburg University, associated with the choice of a model for its development, and the first years of existence in its own status after the transformation of 1819, to which it owes a consistent reformist policy of the curator of the metropolitan educational district S.S. Uvarov. Uvarov’s merits in the field of Russian education and science were belittled for a long time; outside the research field, his activities as a curator of the Petersburg school district (1811–1821) remained. Uvarov’s position during the years of the Ministry of Education (1833–1849) was not identical to the ideology and administrative practice of European-oriented reformism that distinguished Uvarov in the 1810s. and which he later ironically called “administrative Saint-Simonism.” On the basis of archival materials of departmental and university office work, the authors present the causes and stages of a conservative turn in the policies of the Ministry of Spiritual Affairs and Public Education in 1819–1821, consider the actions of representatives of the “anti-Uvarov party” to discredit Uvarov’s reforms and his attempt to repulse a group of their ideological opponents represented by M.L. Magnitsky, D.P. Runich, Minister A.N. Golitsyn.
Keywords: S.S. Uvarov, St. Petersburg University, educational district, trustee, counter-reforms in education 1819 – 1821.

Viktorov М., archpriest (Sevastopol). The idea of the unity of command in the Church management and "Regulations on management churches and clergy of the military Department" ..........................................................................................................70

Senior lecturer of the Department
of Theology and religious studies”
Sevastopol state University
ORCID 0000-0003-1274-8748
299053, Sevastopol, st. Universitetskaya, 33

This article is devoted to the study of the features of administration in the Orthodox spiritual military Department in Russia at the end of the XIX century. The material for the analysis of this issue and the relevant conclusions was the “Regulations on the management of churches and clergy of the military Department”. This document was adopted in 1890 and introduced the position of Protopresbyter of the military and naval clergy in the administration of the churches and Orthodox clergy of the military Department. The document approved unity of command in the administration in the form of the post of “Protopresbyter of the military and naval clergy”. This approach to solving the issue of governance in the military clergy was due to historical objective reasons and proved to be constructive. The first attempts to introduce unity of command in the management of the military clergy were made by Paul I, but after his death was suspended. Only at the end of the XIX century were the tendencies to assert one-man rule in the management of the churches and Orthodox clergy of the military Department institutionalized and able to enter into the daily life of the Russian army and Navy.
Keywords: Church, military clergy, army, navy.

Plotkin K.M. (St. Petersburg). Higher women’s natural science courses of M.A. Lokhvitskaya – Skalon and the Russian revolution of 1917 ................................................75

Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor,
The Herzen state pedagogical university of Russia
App. 7, bd. 6, 2-nd Murinsky pr., St.Petersburg, 194156, Russian Federation
e-mail: kplotkin@yandex.ru

Before 1917 Higher women’s natural science courses of M.A. Lohvitskaya – Skalon were one of the best private higher education institutions. Documents (Jan. 1917 – Dec. 1918) from the Central state archives of St. Petersburg characterize the realities of the existence of educational institutions in revolutionary Petrograd. There is a consistent decrease in requirements for the quality of training of young professionals. Changing authorities give benefits to all who demand. Since the summer of 1917, it has become impossible to maintain courses at the expense of business activities and tuition fees. In order to receive funding from the government, the courses became the property of the Society for the establishment and maintenance of educational institutions in Petrograd. Budget allocations began to arrive after the Bolsheviks seized power, who considered education a priority area. The People’s Commissariat of Education took care of the material support of the educational process, but the policy of “war communism” created chronic difficulties. In the autumn of 1918, the Narcompros began to reform education in practice. In the course of “streamlining” small institutions were closed in order to save money and promote “their” stuff. In November 1918, the house of M.A. Lohvitskaya – Skalon was transferred to the Narcompros. The courses are closed by January 1, 1919.
Keywords: higher education, revolution, Ministry of public education, the Narcompros, financing, budget allocations, estimates, nationalization, cronic difficulties, education reform.

Dianova E.V. (Petrozavodsk). "Peasant, cooperation is your friend": literary models of cooperation of rural women in the 1920s ....................................................................86

doctor of historical sciences,
associate professor at the Department of National history,
Institute of history, political and social sciences,
Petrozavodsk state university,
185910, Russian, Republic of Karelia, Petrozavodsk,
Lenin Ave., 33. е-mail: elena-dianowa@yandex.ru

This article discusses literary models for the co-operation of rural women. Based on the analysis of the text of cooperative stories and short stories, it is shown how the authors, using the images of fictional heroines, represented the process of creating an artisanal artel or a rural consumer society. The creation of literary models for the co-operation of peasant women in fiction of the 1920s is considered from the point of view of the theory of communications. Cooperative fiction, the basis of verbal communication, was an important means of transmitting information through which advocates broadcast information about cooperative policies to a specific target audience, in this case, rural residents. When identifying storylines in works on cooperative topics, types of verbal communication, and ways of influencing the female audience were clarified. Examples of interpersonal, group and mass communication of peasant women are shown, during which cooperative ideas were transmitted, new motives of behavior, and incentives for making socially significant decisions were born. The authors of cooperative stories not only broke the system of traditional behavioral stereotypes but also created new concepts of the life path in the process of co-operating peasant women, which in practice made it possible to copy positive examples of participation in cooperation.
Keywords: verbal communication, co-operation, women, cooperative fiction, literary models.

Ivanov D.V. (St. Petersburg). Legal regulation of state control over the behavior of soviet youth by the internal affairs and state security agencies in the 1960s.................94

Applicant of the department of state history
and law of Moscow University Ministry of internal
Affairs of Russia named after V.Ya. Kikotya
197227, Russia, Saint Petersburg, Ispytatelei ave., 28/3/79
e-mail: SaW357@mail.ru

The article examines some aspects of the most general trends in the development of soviet youth as a social institution, which had a noticeable impact on the evolution of their ideas about the values of the bourgeois lifestyle and the demands of their Western peers in the 1960s. The official correspondence of law enforcement agencies of this period, reflecting these issues, allows us to understand the initial process of gradual rebirth of the soviet state-legal model into the current liberal-market system of a peripheral type through “human material” and to understand how these barely noticeable deep transformations and criminal practices were recorded by the internal affairs and state security agencies and reported to the authorities in the center and on the ground. The 1960s were not only a period of high youth activity, but also a time of increasing state-legal and ideological control over their behavior, and the fight against crime in general.
Keywords: youth, misconduct, state control, internal affairs agencies, foreign citizens, crime prevention, crime control, vagrancy, drug addiction.

Platova E.E., Pisanova A. (St. Petersburg). The history of St. Petersburg State University of the ways of communication of Emperor Alexander I in the editions of 2009-2020............................................................................................................................104

Doctor of Philosophy, Professor,
Department of History, Philosophy, Political Science and Sociology, St. Petersburg State University, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Moskovski St., 9.,
Тel.: +7911-925-10-13; E-mail: eplatova@mail.ru

Graduate student Department of History, Philosophy, Political Science and Sociology, St. Petersburg State University St. Petersburg, Moskovski St., 9.
Теl.: +7905-213-59-92; E-mail: anpisanova@gmail.ru

The article describes a significant body of printed works – books, thematic collections, articles in scientific publications on the history of the country’s oldest transport and engineering university, which has been published over the past decade. At St. Petersburg State University, the ways of communication of Emperor Alexander I throughout his rich history, the leaders of the university attached great importance to the study of the history of the “commonly useful institution for Russia”. The establishment of the Institute of The Corps of Engineers of the ways of communication in 1809 is connected with the formation of favorable conditions for solving the ambitious task of transporting the successful progressive socio-economic and cultural development of Russia.
The organization of training of engineers of communication routes, specialists in engineering and construction has become a benchmark for technical universities, which arose during the 19th and first half of the 20th century. Graduates, pets of the university fully used the knowledge, skills and skills gained in this innovative educational institution, and the scientific and educational team for two hundred years continuously, intensively, comprehended the rich experience, constantly improved all elements of training future engineers, generously shared the work as with other universities, and with the entire engineering community.
Over the past ten years, a wide range of authors in dozens of published works have summarized valuable material, which became the property of students, teaching corps, a wide range of leaders, scientists, engineers, manufacturers. The history of the university has become an important factor in the formation of future engineers of ways of communication as highly qualified specialists, patriots-statesmen in the service of Russia, people of high culture. Thanks to the constant, in-depth attention to its history and the constant self-improvement of st. Petersburg State University of the ways of communication of Emperor Alexander I began to be perceived as a notable brand, a symbol of the quality of the national higher education.
Keywords: the oldest transport and engineering university, the Institute of the Corps of Engineers of the ways of communication, the engineering school, the engineers of the ways of communication, the rector of IKIPS A.A. Betancourt, transport education, innovative university.

Andreev D.A. (Moscow). "The Struggle over Documents": D.S. Sipyagin’s Diaries, V.K. Plehve’s Briefcase, and the Fight at the Top of the Government in the Early Twentieth Century ......................................................................................................113

PhD Candidate in History, Associate Professor,
Department of Russian History of the
Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries,
Faculty of History, Moscow Lomonosov State University.
Russian Federation, 119192, Moscow,
Lomonosovsky Prospekt, 27-4.
E-mail: carpenter2005@yandex.ru

The article examines the versions transmitted by contemporaries and preserved in the personal sources regarding the documents of the two Ministers of Internal Affairs of the Russian Empire, D.S. Sipyagin and V.K. Plehve. In the first case, it is the missing diaries and in the second – the documents from the briefcase, with which his owner went to the audience with Nicholas II on the day of his murder. The author sorts out rumors and assumptions concerning what these materials were, what happened to them and who was interested in their disappearance or falsifying their content. He analyzes the balance of powers around the Emperor, assesses the level of influence that D.S. Sipyagin and V.K. Plehve had, and establishes the circle of officials who might be interested in concealing or correcting the information in the Sipyagin diaries and Plehve papers. The academic novelty of the article lies in the fact that the analysis of information on the Sipyagin diaries and Plehve briefcase reveals the new data regarding the mutual confrontation of various figures from the governing spheres and, especially in the Sipyagin case, the nature of such conflicts. The research results clarify rather oversimplified and inaccurate opinions of how the relations among the highest bureaucracy developed at critical moments for political stability. In this study, the terrorist acts against the Ministers of the Interior Affairs and the information related to them fade into the background, and the attention is focused on how these tragic events were used by their rivals. On the basis of the research, the author concludes that resorting to the comparative analysis of political rumors for historical reconstructions is a promising approach, and demonstrates the analytical methods of dealing with rumors.
Keywords: Emperor Nicholas II, Empress Aleksandra Fyodorovna, Dowager Empress Maria Fyodorovna, D.S. Sipyagin, V.K. Plehve, P.P. Hesse, Count S.D. Sheremetev, Minister of the Interior Affairs.

Vinogradov P.V., Shabelnikova N.A. (Vladivostok). China -Eastern Railway − The main transport artery in the Far East during the First World War.......................................121

Candidate of Historical Sciences,
Associate Professor of the Department
of Natural Sciences and Special Subjects,
Far Eastern Fire and Rescue Academy –
a branch of the St. Petersburg State University of the State Fire Service
of the Ministry of Emergency Situations of Russia.
Working address: 690922 Vladivostok. Russian Island, Ajax village, 27.,
E-mail: supwin26@mail.ru

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Full Professor,
Department of Humanitarian Disciplines
Vladivostok branch of Far Eastern
Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal
Affairs of the Russian Federation
690087, Russian Federation, Vladivostok, Kotelnikova st., 21,
E-mail: nhistorik@mail.ru

The article, based on archival sources of Central and regional archives, examines the issue of the functioning and activities of the Chinese ‒ Eastern railway during the First World War. The war demonstrated the extremely important role of Railways, both in ensuring military operations and in the stable functioning of the war-oriented economy. In the Far East, Vladivostok has become a key port for accepting military cargo delivered by the allies to Russia as part of military-technical cooperation. In this regard, the issue of timely export of goods to the European part of the country has become particularly important. The Sino-Eastern railway became the main communication route for transporting strategic raw materials, weapons and production equipment for the Russian army and industry from abroad. For the rapid transportation of goods by rail during the war, various measures were taken to increase the capacity of the railway.
Keywords: China-Eastern railway, Vladivostok, TRANS-Siberian railway, military-technical cooperation, rolling stock, cargo transportation.

Giniatullina L.M. (Ufa). Post-war demobilization of BASSR front-line soldiers.................126

Post-graduate student of the Institute of history, language and literature of the UFIC RAS, head. Scientific archive of the Ufa Federal research center of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
71 Oktyabrya Ave., Ufa, Russia, 450054.
E-mail: giniatullina71@bk.ru

The article is devoted to the post-war demobilization of military personnel in the Bashkir ASSR. The author examines the stages of demobilization in the country. Referring to archival materials and scientific publications, it shows the number of citizens mobilized for military service from the Republic, soldiers who died on the battlefields, returned alive, and how many participants of the great Patriotic war are currently left in the Republic of Bashkortostan. Provides detailed examples of practical events held in the region to organize meetings of demobilized soldiers, months of assistance to them, targeted mass political work, meetings, seminars of state and local authorities. The author focuses on the normative legal documents in the first post-war years that contributed to the provision of assistance to military personnel, war invalids and family members of the victims. Gives a brief description of the work of employees of the district military Commissars on maintaining the accounting data of military personnel. Notes positive and negative aspects in the reports submitted by the Bashkir regional Committee of the CPSU(b) and the results of activities undertaken, measures of social support of the population of the Republic, which was discussed at the meetings of the Bureau of city, district and Bushobama party.
The uniqueness of the article lies in the fact that archival materials about the truthful attitude to demobilized soldiers in the Republic are published and introduced into scientific circulation for the first time.
Keywords: Great Patriotic war, demobilization, military personnel, front-line soldiers-winners, Bashkiria, Red Army, helping the families of defenders of the Motherland.

Avizova A.K. (Shymkent, Kazakhstan). Necropolis of Besinshitobe: systematization and analysis of burial complexes of the late Kanguy and Middle Ages....................131

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor,
South Kazakhstan
Associate Professor of State University named after M. Auezov,
160012, The Republic of Kazakhstan, Shymkent, Tauke-Khan Ave., 5.
E-mail: aimanavizova@mail.ru

The proposed publication is devoted to the introduction into scientific circulation, systematization and analysis of the burials of Besinshitobe. To date, about 82 graves have been studied. The analysis of burial materials allows us to distinguish three main types of burial complexes. The chronological identity of the graves was made on the basis of an analogy to the inventory. Their dating is still preliminary. The earliest burial complex is characterized by single burials with accompanying equipment. Five buried on the skull have traces of artificial deformation of the ring type. In two burials, an incomplete cremation ritual was performed. The earliest burials of this complex belong to the 4th-5th centuries A.D.
The second complex combines burials in large earthen vessels placed in pits. They are all children, one of which is collective. On the basis of analogies, this group can be attributed to the 7 th – 8th centuries A.D.
The third, medieval burial complex is characterized by single Muslim burial grounds. A common sign for him is the lack of accompanying inventory, orientation of the deceased’s head to the north-west and north-north-west. A known case of use in the ritual of incomplete scorching. The ceramic complex obtained from the level I of the tier of the excavations at Besinshitoba allows us to attribute Muslim burials to the 9 th -11 th and 13 th -15 th centuries A.D.
Keywords: archaeology, inlet burials, hillfort, ceramics, coin, muslim burial rite, arrowheads, burial rite, burials in vessels, burnt-burning.

Makeeva S.O. (Moscow). Allan Kaprow’s Environments as the Early Stage of Installation Art ........................................................................................................................142

Ph. D. student, Department of International Art History, Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University
Lomonosovskiy pr., 27/4, Moscow, Russia, 119192
+7-916-327-43-68, s.o.makeeva@yandex.ru

The article deals with the oeuvre of Allan Kaprow (1927–2006), the pioneer of the environment genre, which historically was the first stage of installation art. The article presents an in-depth analysis of how environment emerged within Kaprow’s practice as a result of an evolution from painting to collage to installational work. Furthermore, the influences of Jackson Pollock, Robert Rauschenberg and John Cage on this process are traced. Highlighted are the issues of Kaprow’s usage of waste materials and his strive to actively engage the viewer, along with his stance towards museums and gallery institutions. Besides, some of the first environment exhibitions at New York and other American venues are covered, as well as the critical and viewer reaction they sparked.
Keywords: installation, environment, Allan Kaprow, Jackson Pollock, pop art, happening, abstract expressionism, American art after WW2.

Petrova S.I. (Krasnodar). Culture as an object of consumption........................................149

candidate of cultural studies, docent
Academy of marketing and socially-information technologies, Krasnodar
350010, Krasnodar, st. Zipovskaya, 5
8-964-890 -08-88

New needs that are formed in society are the cause of social and cultural transformations. Responding to these new needs, society can move to a more advanced development. The article shows that the postmodern world does not trade in goods, but in signs and styles. Postmodern culture is extremely diverse, blurring the boundaries between the mass and the elite. Symbolic qualities of the product are beginning to prevail, including in production and design. The consumption of culture is, first of all, the consumption of signs and symbols, since things and values have not only use, market, exchange, but also symbolic value. Things can transmit information, be its bearers, and denote social qualities. They become not only an object of satisfaction of needs, but also a symbol that demonstrates the social significance of its owner.
Keywords: culture, needs, society, consumption, values, postmodern, symbols.

Gogun A. (Berlin). Conscious Movement Toward Armageddon: Preparation of the Third World War in Orders of the USSR War Ministry, 1946–1953............................154

PhD in History, doctoral student at the Free University of Berlin, Institute Friedrich Menecke,
Berlin, Germany, Coserstrasse 20b cab. A 313,
Теl.: +49 (30) 838 54565; E-mail: a.gogun@fu-berlin.de

This article considers the collection of orders of the War Ministry of the USSR in 1946-1953 as a source for studying the Stalinist preparation of the Third World War, that is, the final stage of the world communist revolution. The collection of documents published by the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, this fact increases its value, and is a good contribution to the study of this issue, although the drafters did not seek to reveal exactly this side of the life of the Soviet Union, army and navy in the last years of Dzhugashvili’s life. Unfortunately, many documents, which are seventy years old, remain classified, the USSR nuclear program is not presented in the collection, and only half-hints are given about Soviet developments of chemical and bacteriological weapons.
The article concludes that the preparation of both the economy and the armed forces was timely, thorough and comprehensive. Especially many things were done to repel the American nuclear counter-attack, during which huge losses were expected both in the ranks of the armed forces and among the civilian population. The article concluded that the program for the development of the Arctic and the construction of canals in the USSR in the 1930-1950s was part of the preparation of the “final struggle”, which did not take place due to the death of the leader.
Keywords: Stalinism, globalism, world revolution, apocalypse, thermonuclear war, communism, doomsday.

Elantseva O.P., Yue Wang (Primorsky Krai, Russky Island). R.V. Vyatkin, a student of Sinology, Far Eastern University (1935-1939)............................................................162

PhD student, Far Eastern Federal University:
Department of history and archaeology, School of Arts and Humanities,
690922, Russia, Primorsky Krai,
Russky Island, Ajax 10, FEFU campus, building F, Room 427;
E-mail: wangyuedvfu@mail.ru

Doctor of History, Professor,
Far Eastern Federal University:
Department of history and archaeology, School of Arts and Humanities,
690922, Russia, Primorsky Krai, Russky Island,
Ajax 10, FEFU campus, building F, Room
E-mail elantseva.op@dvfu.ru

The article reviews the student years of Rudolf Vsevolodovich Vyatkin, the rising world-famous sinologist, the years that he spent in the Far Eastern University in Vladivostok. The authors amend and augment to the timeline of the scholar’s professional becoming by relying on R.V. Vyatkin’s memoirs, on the one hand, and on the other hand, by analyzing the 1930-s archive documents – the student’s applications and questionnaires, minutes of Oriental Faculty staff sessions and department meetings of Sinology Department, reports of the State Examination Board and the correspondence; the article also describes relevant details of Vyatkin’s social life and organization of the university academic process touching on the elements of opposition between the experienced professors and the younger generation.
Keywords: history of university Sinology studies, Far Eastern University, R.V. Vyatkin, student years.

Roshchevskaya L.P. (Syktyvkar). Gulag prisoner virologist L.A. Zilber at the forefront of the fight against epidemics during the Great Patriotic War.......................................171

Doctor of History, Professor, Chief Scientific Associate
of the Department of Humanities Interdisciplinary Research
of Komi Scientific Center of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
167982, Russian Federation, Syktyvkar, Kommunisticheskaya St., 24
E-mail: lp38rosh@gmail.com

The article sets the task of characterizing the living conditions of a repressed virologist, doctor of medical sciences L.A. Zilber in the infirmary in Misha-Yag of the North Pechora Gulag labor camp in the Komi Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (July 1941– March 1943) and find out his contribution to the development of medical science and the treatment of patients. Silber’s forced labor was distinguished by an initiative scientific approach. In the camp, he continued to ponder the viral genetic theory of the origin of tumors. In scientific research, the main thing was to clarify the conditions and methods of combating pellagra, typhoid, and scurvy. The scientist investigated the local plant resources and created medicine from reindeer moss to save people with pellagra. Thanks to the outstanding scientific and organizational talents and interpersonal skills of several large repressed doctors and scientists, Misha-Yaga managed to create a kind of health center for the fight against various diseases and epidemics.
Keywords: Gulag, North Pechora Correctional Labor Camp, Komi Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, epidemics, pellagra, Doctor of Medical Sciences L.A. Zilber, doctor of medical sciences G.M. Danishevsky, corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences P.I. Lukirsky.

Chanyshev R.N. (Kazan). "The short embassy" of George Frost Kennan .......................180

Candidate of Historical Sciences
Senior Lecturer,
Department of international relations, world politics and diplomacy,
Institute of International Relations
of Kazan State University.
420111, Russian Federation, Kazan, Pushkin St., 1/55.
Email: spacecowboy85@bk.ru

George Frost Kennan is important figure of American foreign policy stage in the middle of the XX century. The author of the “long telegram”, “Х article”, “containment policy” made his long way consistently to the final phase of his diplomatic carrier. In the end of 1951 he became the ambassador of USA in USSR and in spring of the next year he took his job. But this assignment wasn’t long and productively. Against the background of unfavourable relationships between two countries the Kennan’s appointment, who was by that time main specialist in Russia and Sovietology, just made the situation worse and fixed the antagonism of two global world systems.
George Frost Kennan also stood at the roots of political realism – very influential school of thoughts in theory of international relations. In the scientific environment of international relations theorists, he is classified as practical realist, who intensively worked on a manifestation of the theory through concrete steps of American foreign policy. Political realism encourages to take into account national interests of major players in international reality, to carefully arrange the balance of power through the system of collective security, to objectively formulate principles of national interest, which must be calculated and manifested due to objective needs of government. Realism criticizes the classical hegemonistic aims of US political elite, its moralistic driving force and unnecessary engagement in international processes to the detriment of national interests of the country. In this context there is another powerful paradigm and tradition in American foreign policy agenda, which stands opposite to realism, – liberal theory of international relations.
Keywords: Kennan, confrontation, soviet-american relationships, diplomat, persona non-grata, “cold war”, “containment”.

Dobronravin N.A. (St. Petersburg). Biography of the comintern and the comintern in biographies. Monograph review: Jeifets V.L., Jeifets L.S. Latin America in the orbit of the world revolution (Moscow, Political Encyclopedia Publishing House, 2020) .185

Dr. Sc., Professor at Department of world policy,
Saint-Petersburg State University
199034, Saint-Petersburg, Universitetskaya nab., 7/9

The review analyzes the monograph by L. S. and V. L. Jeifets “Latin America in the orbit of the world revolution” created in the genre of a biographical dictionary. The previous edition of this work in Russian was published in 2000. For 20 years, the work has withstood several reprints in Spanish, and its content has expanded. The reviewer puts the monograph on a par with other biographical dictionaries published in Latin America and dedicated to researches of the activities of prominent militants of the left-wing movement; indicates its importance for studies of the Comintern labor in the Latin American region, for the analysis of the party and political history of the continent. The review analyzes the source base of the monograph — documents of Russian and foreign archives, as well as examines the modern historiography of biographical studies of figures of the Latin American left movement.
Keywords: Comintern, Latin America, communism, leftist movement in Latin America.

Zolotarev V.A., Kolesnikov A.A., Chelyshev E.P. (Moscow), Poltorak S.N. (St. Petersburg). From soldier to general of the army: on the 85th anniversary of the birth of the candidate of historical sciences, doctor of military sciences, academician of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, General of the Army Vladimir Nikolaevich Lobov ..................................................................................................................189

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Doctor of Laws, Professor, Acting State Advisor of the Russian Federation of the First Class,
195220, Russia, St. Petersburg, Grazhdansky Prospect, 11, office 913

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, First Class Counselor of the Russian Diplomatic Service
195220, Russia, St. Petersburg, Grazhdansky Prospect, 11, office 913

Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences, holder of the Order of Merit to the Fatherland, II, III, IV degrees
195220, Russia, St. Petersburg, Grazhdansky Prospect, 11, office 913

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Honorary Worker of Higher Professional Education of the Russian Federation, Editor-in-Chief of the journal “Klio”, Vice President of the International Academy of Historical and Social Sciences
195220, Russia, St. Petersburg, Grazhdansky Prospect, 11, office 913.
E-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru

The article is dedicated to the 85th anniversary of the birth of the prominent Russian military leader and scientist Vladimir Nikolaevich Lobov. The authors of the article described the military path traveled by the hero of the day. It is especially emphasized that, while serving in the ranks of the Armed Forces of the USSR and the Russian Federation, he raised from an ordinary soldier of an artillery regiment to an army general – chief of the General Staff and first deputy minister of defense of the country. V.N. Lobov is known not only as a statesman and military leader, a practitioner of military construction. He is also known as a talented military theorist, deeply exploring major scientific areas related to important segments of the development of the country’s defense capability. A special place in his scientific work is occupied by the study of the problem of military cunning as a phenomenon of military art. At the same time, Vladimir Nikolaevich considers the art of war not only as a constantly evolving phenomenon, but also as a phenomenon that has deep historical roots.
Keywords. Vladimir Nikolaevich Lobov, General of the Army, military cunning, military reforms.

Izmozik V.S., Puchenkov A.S., Poltorak S.N., Zotova A.V. (St. Petersburg). In memory of A.Z. Waxer (1921 - 2020) .......................................................................................192

Doctor of Historical Sciences, professor at the Department of History and Regional Studies at the Bonch-Bruevich St. Petersburg State University of Telecommunications. Russia, 193232, St. Petersburg, Bolshevikov av., 22.
+7 (911) 941-0117. izmozik@mail.ru

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor at the Institute of History,
St. Petersburg State University,
199034, Russia, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya nab., 7-9.

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Honorary Worker of Higher Professional Education of the Russian Federation, Editor-in-Chief of the journal “Klio”.
195220, Russia, St. Petersburg, Grazhdansky Prospect, 11, office 913.
E-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Docent, Associate Professor of the Department of International Relations in the Post-Soviet Area, Saint-Petersburg State University. 199034, Russia, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya nab., 7-9.
E-mail: anastasiyazotova@mail.ru

The article is dedicated to the memory of the outstanding Russian historian, a prominent representative of the St. Petersburg historical school, a participant in the Great Patriotic War, Alexander Zavelevich Vakser. The authors note that A.Z. Waxer devoted many years to military service. While serving in the army, he received a university degree in history. In Leningrad, a retired military man graduated from postgraduate studies, defended his candidate’s and later doctoral dissertations. He spent a significant part of his scientific and pedagogical activity at the Leningrad Pedagogical Institute named after A.I. Herzen (later – Russian State Pedagogical University named after A.I. Herzen). For many years he worked at the St. Petersburg Institute of History of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The authors of the article emphasize that A.Z. Waxer was one of the greatest experts in the history of economics. His outstanding research talent, work capacity and rare human qualities are noted.
Keywords. A.Z. Waxer, history of Leningrad, history of economics, history of economics of Leningrad, St. Petersburg Institute of History of the Russian Academy of Sciences.