Klio # 8 (140) 2018





Shpirko S.V. (Moscow), Barankova G.S. (Korolev, Moscow Region). On the application of one mathematical method for the problem of the formalized textological classification of the Old Russian monument “Predslovie Pokayaniyu”……………………………………………………………………………………………13

SERGEY VALER’EVICH SHPIRKO — Ph. D. in Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Associate Professor, the Faculty of Control and Applied Mathematics, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Ph. D. Applicant of the Department of Historical Informatics, the Faculty of History of Lomonosov Moscow State University. 119313, Russian Federation, Moscow, Leninsky Prospect, 88–3–122. E-mail: shpirkos@mail.ru

GALINA SERAFIMOVNA BARANKOVA — Ph. D. in Philology, Leading Researcher of the Department of Linguistic Source Studies and the History of the Russian Literary Language of the Vinogradov Russian Language Institute of the RAS. 141076, Russian Federation, Moscow Region, Korolev, Kaliningradskaya St., 17–2–278. E-mail: barankova@inbox.ru

This paper describes the experience of applying the fuzzy genealogical classification method of the surviving copies of the original Old Russian text “Predslovie Pokayaniyu”. The most number of formalized models of textological classification use so called similarity matrix. This matrix is formed as a result of pair wise comparison between copies of some medieval text and reflects their mutual similarity. The problem is that each copy can be ambiguously included in the closest textological group. To solve it the author of this paper develops a model of classification which is based on the application of fuzzy set theory.  This model uses so called fuzzy relation matrix and enables to carry out genealogical textological classification with the given degree of reliability. The advantage of the fuzzy approach is the possibility of mass processing with the identification of implicit links between copies. The obtained results as a whole do not contradict the results of traditional textological analysis and allow us to specify the grouping of copies and their interrelations. The developed approach is universal and can be applied to the classification of other manuscript texts.

Keywords: textology, readings, fuzzy classification, fuzzy preference relation matrix, stemma, typology, fuzzy set theory, weight coefficients.


Shevtsov A.L. (Ulan-Ude). Russian ethnographers on social demographic processes among the Buryats in the second half of the 19th — beginning of the 20th century: Orientalist discourse……………………………………….22

ALEKSEY LEONIDOVICH SHEVTSOV — Postgraduate student, Department of History, SS Cyril and Methodius Theological Institute of Post-Graduate and Doctoral Studies. 670031, Russian Federation, Ulan-Ude, K. Marx blvd, 27/51. E-mail: al.chieph@gmail.com

Buryats are the biggest indigenous ethnos of Siberia. Russian researchers — explorers, chroniclers, missioners demonstrated professional interest in researching Buryats in the second half of 19th — beginning of the 20th century. But the ethnographers’ concepts on the matter were flawed because of the “naturalization” ideas in anthropology and corruption of the humanitarian knowledge by the racial, eugenic and social darwinist theories. Buryats were described as representatives of a “inferior”, “dying” race. Such prejudices didn’t allow the researchers to make a sensible evaluation of the unprecedented, demographic, assimilative, unifying processes, that took place in the Baikal region during the described period. The data about unusual growth of the Buryat population by ten times during their stay in the Russian state, the assimilation of the Evenki aboriginal population by the Buryats were hard to grasp within the general picture on the extinction of the indigenous peoples under the power of the Empire. And that is why the data was ignored and left without proper analysis.

Keywords: Baikal region, Buryats, Buryats demographic, Tungus, Siberian foreigners, extinction of the foreigners, ethnography, orientalism, Siberian provincials.





Abukov S. N. (Donetsk). Prince Rurik Rostislavich through the prism of marriage policy……………………………..29

SERGEY NAVIL’EVICH ABUKOV — Ph.D. in History, assistant professor of the Department of Historiography, Source Studies, Archeology and Methods of Teaching History, Donetsk National University. 83015, Donetsk, Universitetskaya St, 24, II building, room № 21. E-mail: legusha@list.ru

The article is devoted to the marriage policy of Rurik Rostislavich — one of the largest ancient princes of the turn of the XII–XIII centuries and the connection of these related alliances with the political relations of the prince with the other Rurik people during this period. The author analyzes the reasons, circumstances and significance of these marriages, as well as the consequences they had. Attention is given to the struggle of Rurik Rostislavich for Kiev and its conflict with the son-in-law Roman Mstislavich. The article shows the stages of marriage policy, each of which was aimed to strengthen its influence in the South of Russia. In General, you can see the trends in the marriage strategy of Rurik, which was accompanied by a violation of the Church canons, both in the degree of kinship and in the age of marriage. To some extent, this departure from the established rules was characteristic of the political activities of Rurik.

Keywords: Rurik Rostislavich, Roman Mstislavich, Vsevolod the Large Nest, Kiev, marriage, Rus’, prince, policy, Rurikides.


Sergeev A.V. (Saint Petersburg). Starodub Rurik dynasty in the «Tysyachnaya kniga» of 1550 and in the «Dvorovaya tetrad» of the beginning of 1550-s……………………………………………………………………36

ANTON VADIMOVICH SERGEEV — Ph.D. in History, Head of Department, Institute of Industrial Safety, Labor Protection and Social Partnership. 190098, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Konnogvardeysky Blvd, 19. E-mail: sergeev1967@inbox.ru

In this article, on the basis of the information of the «Tysyachnaya kniga» of 1550 year, pedigrees, the “Vkladnaya” books of monasteries, act’s material the reconstruction of the lost text of Starodub’s “Princely List” of the «Dvorovaya tetrad» of the 1550s is presented, also the list of princes of the branch of the Starodub Rurikovich, who lived in the middle of the 16th century. The results obtained are in agreement with the hypothesis of the historians about the loss of a list from the protograph of the «Dvorovaya tetrad» containing most of the Starodub’s “Princely List”. By studying the information of «pistsovye» books, the regions of location of the land holdings of the surnames of this prince’s branch were determined and it was established that in the 16th century, most princes maintained close land ties with Starodub Uyezd. This fact confirms that in the “Princely Lists” of the «Dvorovaya tetrad», mostly persons who owned lands in “patrimonial nests” were recorded.

Keywords: Tsar Court, Princely Lists, Starodub Princes, surname, pedigree.


Gribovskiy M.V. (Tomsk). Conflicts in the lecturer environment as markers of the university life of Russia at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries…………………………………………………………………………49

MIKHAIL VIKTOROVICH GRIBOVSKIY — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Department of Modern National History of the Faculty of History, National Research Tomsk State University. 634034, Russian Federation, Tomsk, Lenin Ave., 36. E-mail: mgrib@mail2000.ru

The article is devoted to the analysis of conflict situations in the university lecturer environment of Russia in the late 19th — early 20th centuries. Conflictology is regarded as one of the most promising areas for studying the university past, because the analysis of conflict situations in the lecturer environment is useful in that they reveal problems, highlight the “pain points” of the pre-revolutionary university system. This allows for a better and deeper understanding of it. In the article written primarily on archival material, two alternative typologies of conflicts characteristic of the faculty is proposed: 1 — from the point of view of professional activity, lecturer conflicts can be divided into university (which happened on educational, scientific, organizational grounds) and outside university (related or not related to politics); 2 — from the point of view of the reasons, conflicts can be divided into the following circumstances: wounded pride, violation of scientific or corporate ethics, violation of subordination, clash of interests. It is concluded that, although circumstances that could become grounds for conflicts between lecturers were a lot, for most professors it was typical to observe corporate ethics as a guarantee of maintaining a healthy atmosphere in the lecturer staff.

Keywords: university, professors, privat-docents, conflicts, corporation, Russian Empire, historical conflictology.


Agaeva D.M. (Moscow). Prisoners of war of the Triple Alliance on the territory of the Russian Empire…………………………………………………..…….58

DIANA MAGOMEDOVNA AGAEVA — Researcher of the Research Center (fundamental military-historical problems), Military University of the Ministry of Defence, Master of History at the European University (Hanover, Germany). 125047, Russian Federation, Moscow, Bolshaya Sadovaya St., 14. E-mail: diana.agaeva.2012@mail.ru

The article analyzes the conditions of detention of Triple Alliance prisoners of war in the territory of the Russian Empire during the First world war. The conditions of compliance with the principles of international law governing the maintenance of prisoners of war, reflected in the provisions of the Hague Convention; in particular, the issues of accounting for prisoners of war; the principles of their distribution in the camps; the attitude to prisoners of war by the military authorities; the internal structure of the camps; forms of prisoners of war; living conditions ( accommodation, food, life, leisure); use the labour of prisoners in the camp and outside (of the industry that used the labor of prisoners of war, was there any violent forcing them to hard work); difficulties faced by foreign prisoners; methods of punishment used by administration against the guilty prisoners of war.

Keywords: prisoners of war of the First world war; Hague Convention; Russian Empire, accommodation, distribution, conditions, camps for prisoners of war, food, labor of prisoners of war.





Khlanta M.V. (Tula). Parish life in the Russian province in the second half of the 19th century (using Krapivna district of Tula governorate as the example)………………………………………………………………64

MAXIM VLADIMIROVICH KHLANTA — Postgraduate student of the Department of History of the State and Law, Assistant Lecturer of the Department of State and Administrative Law, Tula State University. 300012, Russian Federation, Tula, pr. Lenina, 92. E-mail: maksimkhlanta@yandex.ru.

An attempt is made to analyse scientifically the parish life in the Russian province in the second half of the 19th century using Krapivna district of Tula Governorate as the example by means of accessing the repository data, the Holy Synod attorney-general reports, and periodical publications issued at the end of the 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century as well as the modern scientists’ researches. This article touches upon the work of regional church communities and parish trusteeships. It also shows that activities of the district orthodox parishes in the second half of the 19th century were multilateral. There were not only pastoral celebrations but also missionary activities, trusteeship for educational organizations and zemstvo establishments. Special attention is paid to the changes that took place when Alexander II carried out the church reforms. The changes include parish management, improvement of the provincial clergy welfare, concern of the clergy for the social life of the district. This paper also points out a number of unsettled issues of the then parish life. Within the scope of the current research a conclusion is drawn that positive tendencies in the sphere of parish life and the parish as a whole were beginning to show up.

Keywords: Russian Orthodox Church, Hole Synod, parish, parish life reforms, social service, trusteeship, parish schools, Alexander II’s church reforms, Krapivna district.


Nevskaya T.A., Zvereva L.A. (Stavropol). Power in Stavropol region in 1918: theory and practice of the organization of Soviet administrative structures……………………………………………………………………70

TATIANA ALEXANDROVNA NEVSKAYA — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Department of Russian History of the Humanitarian Institute, North Caucasus Federal University. 355017, Russian Federation, Stavropol, Pushkin St., 1. E-mail: tnevskaya@yandex.ru

LUDMILA ALEKSEEVNA ZVEREVA — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Department of Russian History of the Humanitarian Institute, North Caucasus Federal University. 355017, Russian Federation, Stavropol, Pushkin St., 1. E-mail: L2604@mail.ru

The article represents characteristics of Soviets which were popular power organs in the Bolshevik political program. It shows reasons of Stavropol peasants’ support of revolutionary agitation for the Soviet power. It is clear that peasants in the Stavropol region associated Soviets with people self-government organs like village meetings and such support of Soviet power was not associated with party affiliation. The author analyzes the beginning of Soviet state-building in the Stavropol region and organization of the first Soviet organs of legislative and executive power. The article shows peculiarities of this process in the Stavropol region, namely, preservation of old power organs and activity of new organs in provinces in the same time. The Stavropol City Council’s activity is regarded. This Council was proclaimed the only legitimate power in province after seizure of power by Bolshevik party in Petrograd in November 1917. The article analyzes party and inner-party struggle during the first several months after establishment of Soviet power. The article gives characterization of “revolutionary art” of the masses after the establishment of Soviet power in the Stavropol province. The author analyzes texts of the Constitution of 1918 and draw conclusions about new organs of power: not all new organs in the Stavropol region coincided organs of local governance provided by the Constitution. The article includes a review of the conflict between the provincial Council of People’s Commissars and executive committees which led to the crises of the Soviet authorities in the Stavropol region in 1918.

Keywords: Soviets, authorities, executive committees, Stavropol province, power, national assembly, the City Duma (city Council), the Russian Constitution of 1918, the Council of People’s Commissars, the Red Guards formations.


Usmanov N.V. (Birsk, Bashkiriya). The American Relief Administration and the sowing campaign of 1922 in the Urals……………………………………………………………………………77

NAIL VAKILOVITCH USMANOV — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Birsk branch of the Bashkir State University. 452450, Russian Federation, Birsk, Internatsionalnaya St., 10. E-mail: nailhammer57@mail.ru

The article is devoted to participation of the American Relief Administration in the sowing campaign of 1922 in the Ural region. The drought of 1921 caused the unprecedented famine in Soviet Russia including the Urals. Foreign charitable organizations came to rescue Russian people. The American Relief Administration (ARA) was the largest among them.  Not only did it provide the starving with food, but also brought seeding material. Wheat seeds and other croppers were bought by Soviet Government from the American farmers trough the ARA. The transportation of seeds and their distribution among the local villagers were followed with certain objective and subjective difficulties. Due to the collaboration of Soviet authorities and the American charitable organization the seedage passed relatively successfully. This allowed to have a satisfactory harvest and quickly get down  to the restoration of the rural economics.

Keywords:  Famine of 1921-1922, American Relief Administration, seed purchasing in the USA, the sowing campaign of 1922, the Urals, objective and subjective difficulties.


Pankratova E.A. (Saint Petersburg). The development of the Karelian Isthmus in the field of agriculture in 1940–1941…………………………………………………………………82

EKATERINA ALEXANDROVNA PANKRATOVAPostgraduate student, Department of Region History Studies, Institute of History of Saint Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Mendeleev line, 5. E-mail: st049280@student.spbu.ru

The criterion of effectiveness of the agricultural branch is the participation of municipalities in the implementation of the state program for the modern agricultural industry. In this context, the study of experience in the development of agriculture in new areas seems to be relevant. The article describes activities of 1940–1941 on agrarian policy on the Karelian Isthmus. The article shows success achieved in providing Leningrad with food products from the region. Also it reveals the main reasons for the low level of agricultural production. However, it should be noted that livestock production was a particularly backward industry. The author carefully follows the number and composition of cattle. Three districts of the Leningrad Region overfulfilled the plan and were to start for harvesting in early summer of 1941, but they were prevented from doing it by fighting in the region.

Keywords: rise of agriculture, Leningrad region, livestock, reconstruction of area, Leningrad Regional Committee of the VKP(b), Raivola, spring sowing, harvesting.





Sokolov O.V. (Saint Petersburg). Russian officers at Napoleon’s headquarters…………………………………………88

OLEG VALERIEVITCH SOKOLOV — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Institute of History, Saint Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya Emb., 7/9. E-mail: sokolov1796@yandex.ru

This article considers one of the aspects of Russian-French relations in the early 19th century, associated with the attitude of the Russian nobility to Napoleon’s France. In Russian historiography the opinion about the extreme hostility of Russian nobles and especially the Russian officer corps to the country, where revolutionary changes occurred and the Corsican usurper reigned has established. Synchronous sources show that such view is extremely one-sided and distorted. In fact, the Russian nobility wasn’t so categorical, and many of its representatives thought quite differently. The article gives an example of such ambiguity. On the basis of documents that weren’t previously introduced into scientific circulation, this article narrates about staying and serving of prominent representatives of the Russian nobility in the headquarters of the Napoleonic army during the Austro-French war of 1809. The opinions of these officers about Napoleon and his army are given.

Keywords: Alexander I, Napoleon I, Russian-French relations in the early 19th century, the Austro-French war of 1809, the Prince P. G. Gagarin, A. I. Chernyshev, I. S. Gorgol, V. I., Lowenstern, the battle of Wagram, Marshal Berthier.


Mirilashvili G.S. (Saint Petersburg). Russian-Iranian relations: history and contemporaneity………………………….97 

GABRIEL SHABATAEVICH MIRILASHVILIPostgraduate student, Saint Petersburg State University. 191040, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Ligovskii prospect, 44–429. E-mail: mirilash@yandex.ru

The article is devoted to the relationship between Russia and the Islamic Republic of Iran (IRI), with the fruitful cooperation of the two countries in the political, socio-economic, military, cultural and other spheres, beginning in the 1920s and 1940s. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia and Iran started from scratch to build relationships that include both foreign economic relations, military-technical cooperation, and cooperation on many global issues on the international agenda. The article shows the dynamics of bilateral relations, with a brief excursion into history, emphasizing the importance of friendly and partnership ties between Russia and Iran on a federal and regional basis. At the same time, the article touches upon the current problems and prospects for the development of Russian-Iranian relations, highlighted some controversial moments of cooperation between the two countries – Iran’s nuclear program, the status of the Caspian Sea and others.

Keywords: Russian Federation, Islamic Republic of Iran (IRI), cooperation, political dialogue.





Okroshidze L.G. (Moscow). From the image to the portrait. Tombstones of the 13th–14th centuries from the abbey of Saint-Denis…………………………………………………………………………..101

LIYA GURAMIEVNA OKROSHIDZE — Postgraduate student of the Department of General History of Art at the Faculty of History of Lomonosov Moscow State University. 119991, Russian Federation, Moscow, Lomonosovsky Prospekt, 27/4. E-mail: okroshidzelia@gmail.com

The formation of the portrait occurs gradually both in painting and in sculpture. Since the end of the thirteenth  century European tombstone plastics have shown the awakening of interest in a person, in the individual features of his face. Initially, these actions were quite rude, because the masters achieved results by using raw lines. But their work became more subtle and picturesque in the second half of the 14th century. Tombstone sculpture from the abbey of Saint-Denis is not chosen by chance: a large number of monuments with different datings are better examples of their time. Studying effigies from Saint-Denis we will try to trace the manifestation of individualized features, as well as to identify possible typological relationships between them.

Keywords: Medieval sculpture, portrait, effigy, Saint-Denis abbey.





Zagrebin S.S. (Chelyabinsk). Russian Orthodox Church Council (1917–1918) and restoration of the Patriarchate: cultural and historical importance………………………………………………………….110

SERGEY SERGEEVICH ZAGREBIN — Doctor of History, Professor, Professor of the Department of Philosophy and Cultural Science, South Ural State Humanitarian Pedagogical University. 454091, Russian Federation, Chelyabinsk, Lenin Pr., 69. E-mail: bk.ural@bk.ru

The paper concentrates on the analysis of key decisions made by the Russian Orthodox Church Council in 1917–1918. Relying on documented materials, the author reconstructs the history of the Church Council activities in the context of political processes over the historical period of interest, and compares basic decrees of the Soviet Government aimed to establish the Soviet State, with documents of the Church Council indicating attitude of the Church towards pivotal issues related to the place and the role of the Church in the life of society. The paper concludes that the cultural and historical importance of the Church Council lies in the restoration of the Patriarchate in Russia. The Patriarchate Institution was a personified subject of relationships between governmental authorities, society, and the Church. The Church Council defined the attitude of the Church towards global problems of the then modern age, and consolidated the efforts of religious persons and the clergy in asserting their rights under new conditions of massive persecution of the Church and the religion.

Keywords: Church, religion, Orthodoxy, Patriarchate, Church Council, spiritual culture.


Kornatskiy N.N. (Moscow). An alternative project of the Literary fund…………………………………………………118

NIKOLAY NIKOLAEVICH KORNATSKIY — Dissertator of the Department of the History of Russia of the 19th — early 20th centuries, Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 119192, Russian Federation, Moscow, Lomonosovskiy Pr., 27, building 4. E-mail: kornatskiy@gmail.com

This article tells about an unknown episode from the history of the Russian Literary fund (the Society for Financial Aid to Needy Writers and Scholars), one of the longest-lived non-governmental organizations in imperial Russia. The author focused on an alternative project of the fund, which was developed by the philanthropist and writer Count Grigory Kushelev-Bezborodko. According to this project, the main source of organization’s income was to be profit from the Kushelev’s “Russkoe slovo” (later – the leading democratic magazine of the 1860s). In the final draft of the Literary Fund, patronage assistance had become only one of many possible income items. The author emphasizes that it was this more complex financing model that provided the organization with a successful work for many years. The article introduces new archival sources from the collections of the Russian State Archive of Literature and Art (RGALI) and the Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts (RGADA).

Keywords: the Literary fund, the magazine “Russkoe slovo”, a charity, a literary bohemianism, G.A. Kushelev-Bezborodko, A.V. Druzhinin, G.E. Blagosvetlov, E.E. Driansky, P.M. Boklevsky.


Mikheeva G.V. (Saint Petersburg). Department of Philosophy in the Imperial Public Library……………………….122

GALINA VASILEVNA MIKHEEVA Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences, Professor, Leading Researcher, Library History Department, National Library of Russia. 191069, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Sadovaya St., 18. E-mail: mikheeva@nlr.ru

The emperor Catherine II founded  the state public library on 16 (27) May 1795 and laid the collection of the Załuski brothers as a war trophy in it’s foundation. The trophy library had to be dismantled, books and manuscripts taken into account, and organized from them a “well-organized library”. In the scheme proposed by M. I. Antonovskiy for seven departments, a section “Philosophy” was outlined. The activation of the compilation of catalogs is connected with the name of A. N. Olenin, who developed the scientific classification of the collections of the Imperial Public Library. Created on the basis of his classification the departments received administrative status in 1850 on the orders of M. A. Korf. R. I. Mintslov became the head of the Department of Philosophy. In this department, along with other valuable publications, the Voltaire Library and the unique collection of Vielgorskiy’s mystical literature were kept. Like in many other departments of the Library, the leaders of the Department of Philosophy and Pedagogy in the late XIX — early XX century were well-known scientists and public figures: E. L. Radlov, V. M. Karinskiy and others. In the article for the first time on archive material a detailed history of the activity of the Philosophical Department was reconstructed until its closure in 1930.

Keywords: history of libraries, Imperial Public Library, National Library of Russia, organization of collections, bibliographic classification, M.I. Antonovskiy, A.N. Olenin, M.A. Korf.





Grischuk A.S. (Moscow). The legislative framework of the system of personnel administration in the Russian army in the second half of the nineteenth century in matters of manning………………………………………………………..131

ANASTASIA SERGEEVNA GRISCHUK — Postgraduate student of the Department of history of Fatherland, Russian state social University (RSSU). 129226, Russian Federation, Moscow, Wilhelm Pieck Str., 4, p. 1. E-mail: Anastasia13571512@yandex.ru

The article discusses the legal framework of record keeping in a dry stab, units and institutions of military vest, providing full Swarm of troops, in connection with the founding of his own life in the army during the military reforms 1860-1870 years Russia. The author shows the main directions of Serena in the second database system dry office, which allowed to significantly improve the composition to keep a contingent in the reporting period. New approaches to staffing troops based on conscription introduced in 1874 in Russia and was advanced for the time. In a somewhat altered form-as the universal conscription it lasted for more than one hundred and forty years, and is used in modern Russia — Russian Federation.

Keywords: Military reform, the Complete Collection of Laws of the Russian Empire (CCLRE),Sword military staff background the Ministry is the Main stab, the military codification Committee, boy pin, “the nine China”, the volunteer.





Kalinin M.V. (Moscow). Why the roads in Russia were bad? Road construction techniсs in the 18th century……136

MIKHAIL VLADIMIROVICH KALININ — Postgraduate student, Department of Russian History to the beginning of the Nineteenth Century, Faculty of History of Lomonosov Moscow State University. 125414, Russian Federation, Moscow, Festivalnaya St, 75, ap. 231. E-mail: mixail.k179@gmail.com

The article is devoted to the practically unexplored issue of the development of technologies of construction and repair of land roads in Russia in the 18th century. The sources are office materials of the state road agencies. The object of the study — the land roads that were under the direct management of the state. The article deals with the technological principles of road construction in the 18th century, shows the development of those principles, analyzes factors that prevented the improvement of road construction techniques in the 18th century, shows the role of the organizers of road construction (Münnich, Wilboa, Fermor, Grigoriev, Muravyov) in the development of road construction techniques. The article concludes that the deplorable condition of land routes in Russia in the 18th century was largely due to the practice of using fascins for paving roads.

Keywords: roads, state roads, road policy, road construction techniques, perspektivnaya road, Moscow-Petersburg tract, B.K. Münnich, V.V. Fermor, N.E. Muravyov, St. Petersburg.





Gessen V.Y. (Saint Petersburg). Collector of church values Е.S. Rakhlin-Rumyantsev: life with a tragic end (Part Four)………………………………………………………………………..143

VALERII YUL’EVICH GESSEN — Ph.D. in Economics. 196233, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Zvezdnaya St., 11/ 2, 140. E-mail: gessen27@mail.ru

This article is closely related to our previous publications in the journal “Klio” on the topic “The Cultural Revolution in Bolshevik in Petrograd-Leningrad in 1917‒1927”. They dealt with the problems associated with the withdrawal of Bolsheviks from all sections of the population and from various institutions of property, which primarily concerned art values of a museum nature, including objects of religious worship. The article presents a variety of historical material, which concerns the seizure by them of the archaeologist E.S. Rakhlin-Rumyantsev whole museum, which was a unique collection of ancient church property. His diverse activities in tsarist times were shown in charitable organizations, during the years of Soviet power, his concern for the protection of seized valuable property in Petrograd and in the Northern Region, about supplying the museums with fuel and their personnel with food. The article examines his participation in the re-evacuation from Moscow to Petrograd museum treasures; shows his defense on the pages of the newspaper “Pravda” by journalist L.S. Sosnovsky from accusations of a fighter against religion Em. Yaroslavsky, which led, ultimately, to his arrest and execution.

Keywords: Е.S. Rakhlin-Rumyantsev, Petrograd, Novgorod, Ryutino, temple-museum, church property, protection of monuments of art and antiquity, nonresident section, landowner, Pravda newspaper, “wonderful bourgeois”.


Soldatenko V.F. (Kyiv, Ukraine). V.A. Bystrianskij – Marxist scientist………………………………………………….156

VALERIY FEDOROVICH SOLDATENKO Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, corresponding member of NAS of Ukraine, chief researcher, I.F. Kuras Institute of Political and Ethnic Studies of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv. Email: soldatenko.v.f@gmail.com

The article examines the creative legacy of the talented Bolshevik¢s scientist, journalist V. A. Bystrianskii. It is shown that all his conscious revolutionary activity, at a certain stage related to Ukraine, was subordinated to the comprehension and full promotion of Marxist doctrine. V. A. Bystrianskii essentially defended the scientific basis of Marxist doctrine, proposed the criteria of scientific approaches to the processes and phenomena of social life. Being all his conscious revolutionary and creative life consistent supporter of the teachings of Marx, Engels, Lenin, V.A. Bystrianskii, repeatedly published works devoted to the historical experience of realization of the Leninist ideas of building socialism. At the same time, it should be noted that they were touched by the seal of the totalitarianism, the cult of personality, alien to the spirit of Marxism of dogmatism.

Keywords: Marxism, Leninism, theory, materialism, dialectics, revolution, Civil war, Paris Commune, Communist party, socialism.





Zakharova E.O. (Moscow). A.P. Zablotskiy-Desyatovsky and the creation of the biography “Count P.D. Kiselev and his time”………………………………………………………………………………………………..162

ELINA OLEGOVNA ZAKHAROVA — Postgraduate student, Department of History of Russia 19th – early 20th century, Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 119192, Russian Federation, Moscow, Lomonosov Prospect, 27, building 4. E-mail: ehlinaz@yandex.ru

The article is devoted to research of the history of the creation of the work by A. P. Zablotskiy-Desyatovskiy “Count P. D. Kiselev and his time”. The problems of A. P. Zablotskiy-Desyatovsky’s authorship and a degree of his participation in this work are described for the first time; for this purpose the author contemplated the process of writing of the book, its structure, and revealed the main text and structure features. The author has made a conclusions that A. P. Zablotskiy-Desyatovsky’s authorship should be questioned, since part of the book was created by his assistants. The article touches upon the interrelations between different generations of the enlightened bureaucracy that had a strong influence on A. P. Zablotskiy-Desyatovskiy’s creation of the image of count Kiselev and his activities. The image of count Kiselev created by A. P. Zablotskiy-Desyatovsky became standard for a whole generation of Russian officials and had a definite influence on a number of studies. The article is written on the basis of a wide range of well-known and little-known unpublished sources.

Keywords: Andrey Parfenovich Zablotskiy-Desyatovskiy, Pavel Dmitrievich Kiselev, Dmitriy Alekseevich Milijutin, Aleksandr Vasil’evich Golovnin, Yakov Aleksandrovich Grebenshchikov, Konstantin Andreevich Bukh, enlightened bureaucracy, Ministry of state property.





Ippolitov G.M. (Samara). Review of the dissertation of Oseledets A.G. «The historical experience of the Soviet military development on the organization and combat use of the armed land forces of the fleet (1917–1922)» presented for the degree of Ph.D. in history, specialty 07.00.02 – domestic history……………………………………170

GEORGIY MIKHAYJLOVICH IPPOLITOV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Leading researcher of Institute of Russian History of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Povolzhsky branch, Samara). 443101, Russian Federation, Samara, Novomolodezhnyi pereulok, 21, 58. E-mail: pfiri@ ssc.smr.ru; gippolitov@rambler.ru

In the review of the official opponent on the dissertation of Oseledets Alexander Georgievich “The historical experience of the Soviet military development on the organization and combat use of armed land forces of the fleet (1917–1922)”, are revealed its positive sides, and also the separate shortcomings which are not carrying system character, not reducing scientific quality of this scientific and qualification work. It is concluded that the applicant deserves the award of the desired degree Ph.D. in History in the specialty 07.00.02 — national history.

Keywords: official opponent, A.G. Oseledets, source base, RKKF, Naval forces of the Republic, scientific thesis, dissertation, scientific novelty, the land detachments of sailors.


Salmin A.K. (Saint Petersburg). Review of the dissertation of T.V. Pashkova «Folk medicine of the Karelians in the 19th – early 21st centuries: attempt of an integrated study» presented for the degree of Doctor of Historical Sciences, specialty 07.00.07 – ethnography, ethnology and anthropology…………………………………………………………177

ANTON KIRILLOVICH SALMIN — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Leading Researcher, Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography (Kunstkamera), Russian Academy of Sciences. 199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Universitetskaia Emb., 3. E-mail: antsalmin@mail.ru

The publication is a report of an official opponent of the doctoral dissertation by T.I. Pashkova dedicated to folk medicine of the Karelians. The topic under discussion is, figuratively speaking, quite delicate. On the one hand, “grandmother’s” medical treatment techniques, though dramatically transformed,  are still retained among the people. On the other hand, official medicine does not adopt the whole or the main part of the books of home cures under investigation. Nevertheless, the folk samples of techniques used for abolition of people’s and animal diseases, which are analyzed by Tatiana Vladimirovna, happen to be.

Predecessors of T.V. Pashkova were not always consistent in their proposed classifications: they either took into account the folk names and beliefs about disease groups or ignored them. The dissertation under discussion largely eliminates such ambiguity. Having analyzed data on folk classifications and various disease groups adopted by the Karelians, Tatiana Vladimirovna distinguishes two main disease groups: 1) diseases of religious and mythological origin; 2) diseases of natural origin. A strong point of the dissertation is the wide use of ethnic terminology.

To the official opponent’s opinion, the dissertation research by Tatiana Vladimirovna Pashkova “Folk medicine of the Karelians in the 19th – early 21st centuries: attempt of an integrated study” meets the requirements of the Higher Attestation Commission applicable to theses for the degree of Doctor of Historical Sciences in specialty 07.00.07 Ethnography, Ethnology, and Anthropology.

Keywords: ethnography, folk medicine, the Karelians, diseases of religious and mythological and natural origin.





Daudov A.K., Ushakov V.A. (Saint Petersburg). A mirror for the hero — the mirror of the epoch (Review of collected articles and materials «Russia and the United States: perceiving each other: In Memory of the Academician Alexander A. Furcenko». SPb.: Nestor-Istoriya, 2015)……………………………………………………………………181

ABDULLA KHAMIDOVICH DAUDOV Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Director of the Institute of History, St. Petersburg State University. 199034, Russia, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya nab., 7/9. E-mail: primdek@yandex.ru

VLADIMIR ALEXANDROVICH USHAKOV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, St. Petersburg State University. 199034, Russia, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya nab., 7/9. E-mail: v.ushakov@spbu.ru

The review presents an overview of collected articles and materials dedicated to the memory of the outstanding Russian (Soviet) scientist and science organizer, Academician Alexander A. Fursenko. 14 Russian authors participated in the preparation of the edition, the academician’s mates, colleagues and disciples, as well as 12 foreign scientists from the USA, France, Hungary. The subject-matter of the collection is governed by the major scientific areas developed by A.A. Fursenko. The collection opens with a memorial section in which the academician’s colleagues reflected the important hallmarks of the postwar decades, the “Cold War” and the transformation of Russia at the end of 20th century; they conveyed, against that background, some milestones of the scientist’s busy life and his accomplishments in professional and social work. The bulk of the book is represented in three thematic sections with grouped articles: of Russian specialists working on the American history, of foreign Russianists exploring various problems in the history of Russia, of national and foreign authors — experts on development of  the Russian-American relations. Of great interest are the documents published for the first time: A.A. Fursenko’s letters to his wife and reports on his academic missions, giving a detailed accounts of the scientist’s work in foreign research centres in 1968 and 1988. The review gives a high appraisal of the corpus materials, highlights some valuable factual materials and important theoretical developments. It mentions A.A. Fursenko’s contribution to the contemporary science and emphasizes the profound respect of foreign scholars for the achievements of their Russian colleagues. The review also accentuates the importance of the given joint scientific project for the maintenance and development of rewarding relations between the representatives of the Russian and foreign science at the present stage.

Keywords: Russia, Soviet Union, USA, Russian (Soviet) People, American People, Russian perception of the USA, American perception of Russia (Soviet Union), American Studies in Russia (Soviet Union), Russian Studies in the United States, People-to- People Diplomacy, social memory, Rockefeller family archives.





To the memory of N.V. Ofiсerovoj………………………………………………………….192