Klio #8 (164) 2020


Gessen V.Yu. (St.Petersburg). Memories of economic work in the mining industries (1954-1989) and some subsequent events ................................................................13

Ph.D. in Economics
Home ad dress: Russian Federaion,
196233 Saint Petersburg, Zvezdnaya 11/ 2, 140
Tel.: 382-6370; e-mail: geen27@mail.ru

This article presents memories of major events that happened in the 35 years of my life. They were mainly related to the economic work that takes place in the organization, relative, to a lesser extent, to geology, and planned pricing. In the meantime, in the industrial design and research institutes of Leningrad: «Giproruda», «Gipronikel» and Research Center «Galurgy» (mineral salt production). The article describes, predominantly from an economic standpoint, participation in their activities to create a raw material base for the country’s main enterprises for the production of ferrous and non-ferrous metals, as well as mineral fertilizers, by building new enterprises and expanding existing ones. In addition to the ongoing design work, participation in the development of long-term plans for the development of industries with the determination of the necessary capital investments required for this is characterized. Inevitably, the issues of ensuring environmental safety in connection with the harmful emissions that arise during the development of subsoil, during the processing of mined ore and mineral salts are touched upon. There have been constant delays in the construction of the facilities required for this. Attention is paid to the characteristics of methods of industry management at the state and local levels. It shows the detrimental effect on the economy of completely unjustified changes in these methods, which undermined the effectiveness of the leadership itself.
Keywords: memories, geology, ministry, councils of national economy, ecology, quarry, dump, sludge storage, iron ore, potash salt, design, pricing.

Vasileva A.Yu. (St.Petersburg). The role of Thomas Cook & Son in the communications system of the British Empire in the second half of the 19th century in foreign historiography ..................................................................................................................32

postgraduate student, Department of Modern and Contemporary History
Institute of History, St. Petersburg State University
199034, Russia, Saint Petersburg, Mendeleevskaya line, 5
Tel.: +7 (921) 635-67-95; e-mail: annivasilieva@gmail.com

The article examines the foreign historiography of Thomas Cook & Son in the context of the links between mass tourism and imperialism in the second half of the 19th century. The history of the company is of particular interest not only in connection with the fact that it occupied a leading position in the tourism market but also took a direct part in the implementation of the logistic, ideological and political tasks of imperial building. It allows us to complement our knowledge about the transport and cultural communications existed within the British Empire, and consider the tourism business as one of the instruments of imperial policy. It is concluded that in most studies the theses on the participation of the company in imperial projects, as well as the creation of a logistics system that was used not only by tourists, but also by imperial employees and the military, were not disclosed. The most studied direction at the moment is Egypt and Palestine. John Mason Cook remains in the shadow of the founder of the company and his father Thomas Cook in the research texts. However, most of the projects significant for the British Empire was carried out by him, and the success of the company in Egypt reached its peak during his leadership.
Keywords: Thomas Cook, John Mason Cook, British Empire, imperialism, tourism, history of tourism, transport communications, intercultural communication, historiography.

Aleksandrova O. (St.Petersburg). “Against Simon” (LYS. III): another unspoken speech by Lysias?....................................................................................................................37

PhD (Candidate of History),
Senior Lecturer, department of world history
Faculty of history and social sciences
Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia
(St. Petersburg, Russia 48 Moyka Embankment)
Тел.: +7-(921-)386-04-08
Email: olgaalex@lenta.ru

The article examines a number of characteristic features of the speech “Against Simon” (Lys. III) by the famous Athenian orator Lysias and raises the question: can this work be considered not a real judicial speech, but a training preparation or an exercise in rhetoric? The author analyzes in detail such points as the similarity of the plot with the patterns of ancient Comedy, the characters described – with their heroes, “significant names”, etc., as well as the opinions of a number of researchers on this issue. As a result of consideration of possible arguments in favor of this assumption, the author comes to the conclusion that the speech “Against Simon” is very likely the text of a real speech in an Athenian court, and its features can be explained by the author’s style of Lysias.
Keywords: Lysias, Athens, court speeches, orators, Comedy.

Zhdanova E.S. (Moscow). The Social Doctrine of Pius XII: working-class problems........42

Graduate Student, Department of Church History, Moscow
State University M. V. Lomonosov,
119243, Russia, Moscow, Lenin Hills, 1.
E-mail: Nacht1993@mail.ru

The middle of the twentieth century became a difficult period for the Catholic Church. Growing globalization, the result of which is the change in political and economic structures, the process of secularization and the flock reduction, the consequences of World War II, the collapse, the problem of refugees and unemployed, the spread of Marxism – all this becomes the complex challenges of the time that Pope Pius XII faced. His task was the problem of finalizing social doctrine, clarifying the most difficult moments, adapting to new conditions. The purpose of the article is to study the social doctrine of Pius XII, namely the aspect related to work issues. The article suggested that, without changing the foundations and remaining faithful to the ideas of his predecessors, Pius XII was able to find a compromise between the church and the problems of his time.
Keywords: Pius XII, Vatican, Holy See, Catholicism, World War II, catholic social teaching, communism, secularization, globalization.

Boode M.A. (St.Petersburg). The Struggle for America: French-Spanish Rivalry in Florida during the Second Half of the 16th Century .........................................................47

3rd year student of Baccalaureate, Chair of Medieval History,
Institute of History of Saint-Petersburg State University.
192029, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg, Olgi Berggoltz, 17.
E-mail: mark.boode00@gmail.com

The article deals with one of the key episodes in history of Florida – the French attempt to establish there a colony in 1562-1565 and the Spanish opposition to it. Chronologically, it covers also a previous period, depicting failed tries of the Frenchmen to take root in the lands of modern Canada and Brazil. The article aims to provide a description of the main events that happened during J. Ribault’s and R. de Laudonniere’s expeditions and to underline causes which led to disruption of the French colonial project. These causes such as negligence in the development of agriculture, leading to shortage of supplies, chaotical interactions with the Natives and slow growth of the population allow us to conclude about the imminent failure of France and strategic superiority of Spain in the Caribbean Sea and modern Southern United States. Pedro Menendez de Aviles’s expedition to the harbor of San-Agustin (Saint-Augustine) and Dominique de Gourgues’s retaliatory campaign in 1568 are also briefly described. The article is based on a wide variety of sources, mainly evidences of witnesses (Ribault, Laudonniere, Le Moynes) and personal correspondence of P. Menendez. The author uses the most prominent works on Florida’s colonization history: “France and England in North America” by F. Parkman and “The Spanish Settlements within the Present Limits of the United States Florida” by W. Lowery.
Keywords: Colonization of America, Jean Ribault, Pedro Menendez de Aviles, Florida, St. Augustine, French colonies in the North America

Prokopchuk N.S. (Vladivostok). The emergence of the first Australian cities: late 18th - mid-19th centuries ....................................................................................................55

Applicant, history teacher,
MBOU «Secondary school № 35».
690063, Russian Federation, Vladivostok, 2Poselkovaya St., 51.
E-mail: nata_prokopchuk@bk.ru

The problem of the emergence and settlement of a territory is always relevant, especially for our country. Australia is one of the youngest countries, but very developed. Today it is difficult to find a person who has not heard of the cities of Sydney or Melbourne, as well as the famous Opera Theater. It is incredible that once it was just a not very rich colony inhabited by convicts. This makes the Australian experience of urbanization interesting and informative, especially for the Russian Far East. We see attempts by the government to attract and retain the population, but unfortunately, they have not been particularly successful as Australia is becoming an increasingly attractive place to live. Speaking about the history of settlement at the initial stage, it is worth noting that this continent was never particularly interested in settlers, people were reluctant to go here. Everyone was aiming for the USA or Canada. Therefore, the British government considered the only way out to send convicts. Sydney is the first city that was founded by prisoners in 1788, but Melbourne, founded in 1835, is its opposite, it arose through the activities of free people. Even today, the confrontation between the two largest cities did not subside, and when the contradictions reached their apogee at the end of the 19th century, it was decided to build a new city, which in 1901 will become the capital of Australia.
Keywords: Australia, prisoners, first cities, settlers, colony, penal settlement.

Kostyleva A.S. (Moscow). The evolution of a Chinese Immigrant’s Image in the American Society (in the Second Half of the XIXth Century)..............................................59

the 3-d year Ph.D. student of the Department of Modern and Contemporary History of the Faculty of History of Lomonosov Moscow State University
Russian Federation, 109388, Moscow, Polbina at, 36-154
Contacts: 8(905)531-05-87
e-mail: uksarre@yandex.ru

This article focuses on the formation of the image of Chinese immigration and the emergence of anti-Chinese sentiments in American society in the second half of the 19th century. Chinese settlers became a significant part of the “new” immigration from Southeast Europe and Asia, which stood out against the background of previous immigration waves in terms of both quantitative and qualitative indicators. The specificity of the social and economic situation of Chinese immigrants and the difficulties of their relationship with the local population, caused by cultural differences and fierce competition in the labor market, led to the formation of a wide range of persistent negative social stereotypes about the Chinese. The negative image of a Chinese immigrant became entrenched in the public consciousness and received a diversified presentation in the popular culture of the United States. The construction of the image of immigrants took place in several stages: if in the 1850s it was dominated by positive traits – hard work, diligence, simplicity and friendliness, than by the 1870s the Chinese immigrants were spoken of as dangerous competitors and strikebreakers. By the end of the century, the idea of the Chinese as greedy and cruel barbarians who threatened the well-being of the American nation had finally taken root in the society.
Keywords. USA, new immigration, immigration from China, image of the immigrants, social stereotypes, discrimination, xenophobia, social isolation.

Adeshkin I.N. (Moscow). Training personnel for the American Expeditionary Forces for combat operations during the World War I (1917-1918).......................................65

Postgraduate Student,
The Chair of the Modern and Contemporary History,
The Faculty of History,
Moscow State University,
Russia, Moscow, Lomonosovskiy ave. 27, bld. 4.
E-mail: Adeshkinin@mail.ru

The article examines the problems encountered by the American army in the field of training large masses of military personnel in a short time with a low basic level of military skills and physical conditions. The author shows how this training was appropriate to the realities of combat operations on the Western front of the World War I in 1917-1918. Special attention is paid to complexity of junior officers and non-commissioned officers’ training. In Russian historiography the training the World War I soldiers were not the subject of special research. The article is based on the primary sources, among which are the reports of the General Headquarters of the American expeditionary forces, that are being introduced into scientific circulation for the first time.
Keywords: the USA, the World War I, American Expeditionary Forces, US Army, military history, training of military personnel, military education.

Galitsyna A.E. (Moscow). Latin American countries’ participation in the formation of territorial claims and legal framework for actions in Antarctica..................................71

Student (sophomore) of the Department of Iberoamerican Studies, Faculty of Economics, People’s Friendship University of Russia.
prize-winner of the youth competition of the IV International Forum “Russia and Iberoamerica in the Globalizing World”
117198, Russian Federation,
Moscow, Miklukho-Maklaya St., 6.
e-mail: arina.galitsina@mail.ru

Due to a finite level of natural resources, the Earth polar regions are becoming more and more valuable, as world leaders are forced to think about searching for new deposits or alternative energy sources. Thus, Antarctica starts to play a significant role not only in the global ecosystem but also in the system of international law, acting as an important object of state interests. In the article, the foreign policy of Latin American countries on the issue of their rights to claim for the Antarctic lands is analyzed and the key territory claims of states are identified; it is established that Argentina and Chile, despite the fact their claim borders are crossed, argue their positions from a historical point of view, but develop joint projects to conduct activities in the region; the reasons for Brazil’s desire to revise the Antarctic Treaty are explained. It is revealed that the Agreement contains some contradictions that lead to discrepancies in the content of the document and make it difficult for specialists and the general public to understand the principles of the Agreement. The reason for this is seen in the fact that the signing of the document, in fact, “fixed” the territorial claims of the Parties to the Agreement, one of the articles of which categorically excludes the possibility of such an action. This makes us think about a complete rethinking of the principles of the Treaty during its revision in 2048.
Keywords: the Antarctic, The Antarctic Treaty, territorial claims, basic principles, legal vacuum, Latin America, Argentina, Chile.

Poddelskaya V.V. (St.Petersburg). Argentina’s Public Opinion on Brazil’s Leadership in the Region ...................................................................................................................75

4th year student of the School of International Relations of St. Petersburg State University. Department of American Studies.
prize-winner of the youth competition of the IV International Forum “Russia and Iberoamerica in the Globalizing World”
199034, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya nab., 7–9.
E-mail: vlada-poddelskay@mail.ru
Tel. +79214013740

In the Russian press and among many researchers, Brazil is considered to be the “default” leader country in Latin America or, at least, the most obvious candidate for this role. The arguments include its territory (8.5 million sq. Km), the size of its economy (according to the World Bank for 2018, Brazil ranks 9th in the world in terms of GDP, second only to the United States in the western hemisphere), population, ambitions for the UN Security Council (Brazil claims to be a member of the Council), versatile politics in the international arena, and these arguments are actually convincing. However, not for everyone, both in Latin America and outside it, Brazil’s leadership is an axiom – at least at the present stage. Thus, in the media of Argentina, which, along with Mexico, is called by researchers Brazil’s main rival in the desire and opportunity to take on this role, the discussion of Brazilian-related topics and events quite often concerns Brazil’s leadership – whether politically or economically.
Keywords: public opinion, regional leadership, media, Clarin, La Nacion, Argentina, Brazil, Latin America.

Ma Yifeng (Moscow). Human cooperation between China and Kazakhstan at the present stage......................................................................................................................82

Aspirant of the Department of History of Moscow State University
121609, Russian Federation, Moscow, Rublevskoe highway 50
E–mail: mayifeng13239930776@gmail.com

China and Kazakhstan are united not only by a single border, the largest in Central Asia but also by the cultural and historical similarities of the ethnic groups inhabiting these two countries. For a long time, the borders of the region were very arbitrary, and the population of neighboring states interacted animatedly. Since Kazakhstan declared independence, relations between states have acquired a different status. Kazakhstan-China contacts are of great importance directly for the countries themselves in terms of trade and economic exchange, communication, joint projects, but also on the scale of world politics. Due to the peculiar location of Kazakhstan in the center of the continent, between East and West, it represents a connecting link in numerous international processes. Relations between the two largest states – China and Kazakhstan, have a significant impact on the situation in Central Asia, this region has great potential, as well as the impact on the overall balance of international forces, such as the USA, China, and the Russian Federation. In this regard, the study of relations between Kazakhstan and China at the present stage is of extreme interest. The governments of both countries understand the importance of humanitarian ties. Moreover, in the early stages of establishing relations between countries in 1992, the legal framework of bilateral relations was laid. Already since the 2000s. Kazakh-Chinese humanitarian ties are becoming permanent and solid. This article highlights the humanitarian ties between Kazakhstan and China in education and culture. The basic socio-cultural conditions for the development of interstate ties and the specifics of cooperation in the humanitarian field are analyzed. Statistical materials and information on trends and some results of humanitarian cooperation between China and Kazakhstan are presented.
Keywords: Kazakhstan-China cooperation; humanitarian ties; education; culture; student exchange program.

Khrishkevich T.G. (Pskov). “Poor Germans”: Social and Economic Inequality in Modern Germany................................................................................................................87

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor,
Head Department of General History and Regional Studies,
Pskov State University
180006, Pskov, st. L. Pozemsky, 6, office 207.
E-mail: faschoda@mail.ru
ORCID: 0000-0001-5402-1972

The article considers the level of poverty of the population of Germany at the beginning of the XXI century as an indicator of social inequality. The Federal government’s reports on poverty and wealth and the reports of the Federal labor Agency provide a comprehensive description of the poverty criteria. They served as sources for this article. For 20 years, they have been recording the dynamics of material misery. The poor category includes not only the unemployed, but also young people, pensioners, and migrants. A noticeable gap in income levels is associated with the problem of regional disparities in Germany, which took shape after the unification. Businesses and companies in West Germany provide more opportunities for income generation and, as a result, higher retirement security. In part, the gap between the poor and rich population in terms of the “unemployment” indicator was smoothed by the large-scale social reform Agenda 2010. The reform was initiated by the government of G. Schroeder. But it did not make significant adjustments to such risk factors as gender, demographic situation, health status, low professional qualifications, lack of education. The growth in the number of people with incomes less than 60% of the national median still leads to the threat of social isolation of a significant part of the population, and in the current socio-political conditions, to support for right-wing populist parties.
Keywords. Germany, social policy, social indicators, poverty level, income level, regional disparity in Germany.

Lukyanov S.A., Potiomkin I.A. (Moscow). Moscow Police and the Moscow Secret Expedition at the Senate Office during the Plague of 1770-1772 ..............................94

professor of the department of state and civil- lawful disciplines of the Moscow provincial branch of Moscow University MVD of Russia named after V.YA. Kikotya,
doctor of juridical sciences
E-mail: lukjanova.ira@mail.ru

Chief, Section for Research of Problems of History,
Research Centre,
Management Academy of the Ministry for Internal Affairs of Russia.
129085, Russian Federation, Moscow, st. B. Mar’inskaya, 5, office 18.
E-mail: igor.potiomkin@yandex.ru

The article is devoted to the events associated with the plague epidemic in Moscow in 1770-1772 and the role of the Moscow police, the Moscow Secret Expedition at the Senate office in the implementation of anti-epidemiological measures, suppression of the riot. Sanitary and epidemiological surveillance have been an integral part of police activities since the time of Peter the Great. Subsequently, the police were ordered to fight infectious diseases. The largest epidemic for the Russian Empire of the 18th century, the “pestilence” epidemic, as the plague was called, became a test not only for the police but for the entire system of government. The plague epidemic of 1700 – 1772 pushed Empress Catherine II to the conclusion that it was necessary to radically reform the police. In Moscow, restrictive quarantine measures were introduced somewhat belatedly, by a Senate decree of January 9, 1771, when the epidemic had already gained momentum. The article analyzes the actions of the Moscow police in these emergency conditions. Turning to the consequences of the riot during the “plague”, the authors mention the investigative actions of the General Commission headed by the Chief Prosecutor of the Governing Senate and cover the issue of the investigation of the Moscow Secret Expedition at the Senate Office, which was a body of political investigation. At the same time, for the first time, rare documents from the repositories of the Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts are introduced into scientific circulation, the citation of which allows one to penetrate deeper into the realities of interrogations during investigative actions. It is concluded that the plague epidemic influenced the reform decisions regarding the general police. Obligations in the field of ensuring “public health” were also confirmed by the provisions of the Charter of the Deanery or Police Officer of April 8, 1782.
Keywords: police, Moscow police, Secret Expedition, plague, plague riot, quarantine measures, anti-epidemiological measures, medical police.

Zakharko K.I. (St.Petersburg). Internal corporate struggle of St. Petersburg University in the 1820s. Casus of T.O. Rogov.............................................................................103

Postgraduate student of Saint-Petersburg University, Russian Federation.
199034, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya nab., 7–9.
E-mail: zakharko.ks@gmail.com,

The most interesting object of research is the intracorporate interaction of the academic class of St. Petersburg University. The cooperation of the members of the teaching corps was based on complex status relations. They were determined by their position, rank and support from the authorities. For the sake of increasing material wealth and intra-corporate influence, teachers entered into a struggle for departments and positions. The article reconstructs for the first time the history of the collision of the rector A.A. Degurov and professor T.O. Rogov for the teaching position. The focus of our study is also the confrontation between the two professorial coalitions of St. Petersburg University, which demonstrated the nature of the intervention of the trustee of the St. Petersburg educational district and the minister of public education in the university life. The author for the first time disclosed the features of the interaction of the members of the faculty of the capital’s university in the 1820s. In order to achieve their goals, teachers and representatives of the Ministry of Public Education were ready to ignore the rules established by the main regulatory acts. The author showed that having a member of an academic corporation “ministerial support” provided an opportunity to retain his position and resist internal corporate intrigues. The available evidence allowed us to conclude that teachers, for their own purposes, entered into an open struggle with the head of the school district and used various methods to defend the legitimacy of their actions.
Keywords: St. Petersburg University, teaching staff, university professor, history of St. Petersburg University, inter-university interaction, conflict, professorial coalition.

Yakhimovich S.Yu., Vafin M.O. (Khabarovsk). Formation of the structural model of the party organization of the Bolsheviks of the CER exclusion strip in the new political conditions of 1917 - 1922: institutional aspect ..........................................................110

Ph. D in History, Associate Professor,
Associate Professor of the Department of social and humanitarian
and economic disciplines
Far Eastern law Institute of the Ministry of interior Affairs of Russia.
680042, Russia, Khabarovsk, Shelest St., 83 – 20.
E-mail: sergyahim-69@yandex.ru

Second Lieutenant of police, student of the faculty of Law enforcement
Far Eastern law Institute of the Ministry of interior Affairs of Russia.
680020, Russia, Khabarovsk, 15 Kazarmenny lane.
E-mail: vafin_1992@mail.ru

The article deals with the initial period of structural development of the Bolshevik organization on the territory of the exclusion strip of the Chinese-Eastern railway during the Russian revolution and civil war. We have tracked the steps to re-organize the Harbin Bolshevik party Committee and change its status, as well as personnel changes in the leadership related to key political events in the region. The authors identified the main stages of transformation within the North Manchurian organization of the Bolsheviks and concluded that the creation of a strong party structure was hindered by the objective conditions prevailing in the area of the CER during the Russian civil war. However, the local Bolsheviks managed to stimulate the revolutionary activity of workers and employees of the railway. The structural model of the organization itself became more complex as the Soviet leadership became more interested in the exclusion strip of the CER.
Keywords: Bolsheviks, party Committee, organization, exclusion strip Chinese-Eastern railway (CER), Manchuria.

Soldatov A.V., Shevchenko M.M. (St.Petersburg). Scientific and technical bases of the victory of the USSR in the Great Patriotic war of 1941-1945.....................................119

Doctor of philosophy, Professor, head of the Department of philosophy and sociology of Saint Petersburg state Maritime technical University.
3 Lotsmanskaya St., 190008, St.Petersburg, Russia.
Tel.: (812) 757-20-22, 8(911) 9275259,
e-mail: soldatov2012@yandex.ru

Doctor of historical Sciences, Professor of the Department of philosophy and sociology of the Saint Petersburg state Maritime technical University.
3 Lotsmanskaya St., 190008, St.Petersburg, Russia.
Phone: (812) 757-17-00,
e-mail: mixail.shevchenko.44@mail.ru

In the year of the 75th anniversary of the great Victory of the Soviet people and its Armed Forces over the fascist invaders, various falsifiers became especially active, aiming to distort and disguise the sources of our Victory in every possible way. The great Patriotic war was the heaviest and most brutal of all the wars that our Country has ever experienced. By the beginning of the war against the USSR, Nazi Germany had created a huge military and economic potential, including by appropriating large production capacities and material resources of the occupied and dependent countries: France, Holland, Belgium, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Austria, and Norway. The heaviest military defeats of 1941 required emergency methods to restore combat capability, manageability, and General mobilization. For the first time in world history, millions of citizens and hundreds of factories and industries were evacuated to the East of the country under enemy fire. In the shortest possible time, the production of weapons, equipment and ammunition was established in new places. In a year and a half, the Soviets accomplished what seemed impossible. Both at the front and in the rear. This was facilitated by a deep theoretical development of scientific and technical problems of preparation for repelling armed aggression. These include: improving the combat capabilities of submarines, surface ships, aircraft, and ground forces. Instead of the well-known relationship between “ Science and high technologies “in war conditions, a new formula for their interaction – “Applied science and effectively implemented technologies” – has been created. The superiority of the national economy, scientific and technical potential, and the efficiency of scientists and designers over the military-technical machine, the economy of Hitler’s Germany is proved by the entire course and outcome of the great Patriotic war.
Keywords: scientific and technical problems of defense; unity of the Soviet society; industrial and technical superiorit

Bakanov A.V., Magomedkhanov M.M. (Makhachkala). Russian-Dagestan legal relations during the period of existence of Kievan Russ and the Golden Horde (Part one, section 1)............................................................................................................126

Junior Researcher The Institute of History,
Archaeology and Ethnography of the
Daghestan Federal Research Centre of RAS
Russia, Makhachkala, M. Yaragskogo 75 st.

D.Sc. (in History), Prof., Head of Dept. of Ethnography
The Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the
Daghestan Federal Research Centre of RAS
Russia, Makhachkala, M. Yaragskogo 75 st.

If we proceed from the principles of causal analysis, then the period of the early Middle Ages, according to its internal logic of the dynamics of the general historical process, is a continuation of the era of late antiquity, and, in this sense, is very rich in events significant for Russian historiography. It was the time when at first Kievan Russ was designated as a cultural and civilizational space, and then was formed and reached its heyday. At the same time, the states of the Mountain cluster of the western Caspian region become clearly visible. Taken together, these states form a very sophisticated, mosaic-arranged cultural and civilizational world. In the era of the early Middle Ages, within the boundaries of both the Old Russian state and in the Dagestan territorial-political formations, stable legal systems were formed and modified. The latter are formed on an autochthonous cultural and civilizational foundation, but the process of their formation also depends on the influence of external forces. Even a shallow comparative analysis of the processes of formation of the legal foundations of Kievan Rus and the autochthonous Dagestan states in the early Middle Ages shows that the legal coordinate systems of the first and the latter were de facto in the process of their formation during this time period. It can also be concluded that the Old Russian state, according to a number of signs, was predisposed to unification, while the Country of Mountains was obviously not.
Keywords: Kievan Russ, Dagestan, Caspian region, statehood, legal coordinate systems, civilization, cultural specifics.

Samartseva E.I. (Tula). Tula stories in the «History of Russia since ancient times» S. M. Solovyov (To the 500th anniversary of the construction of the Tula Kremlin, to the 200th anniversary of the birth of S. M. Solovyov)......................................................138

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor,
Scientific secretary of the Tula State Arms Museum,
Professor of the Tula State University.
300002, Russian Federation, Tula, Oktyabrskaya st., 2.
E-mail: samartse@yandex.ru

In 2020, the 200th anniversary of the birth of the outstanding Russian historian, rector of Moscow University, author of the multi-volume «History of Russia since ancient times» Sergei Mikhailovich Solovyov will be celebrated. The same year marks the 500th anniversary of the construction of the Tula Kremlin. The anniversary dates were the reason for writing an article that focuses on the Tula stories in the «History of Russia since ancient times». These stories are related to the repulse of attacks by the Crimean Tatars (Mengli Giray, Devlet Giray, Kazi-Girey, and others), construction of the Kremlin and strengthening of the Zasechnaya line, Time of Troubles (numerous impostors; I. Bolotnikov’s revolt, Tsar V. Shuisky, ataman I. Zarutsky; people’s militia); epidemics of plague 1654-1655 and 1771-1772 years; Tula voivodeships and the problem of localism; construction of factories and development of industry, etc. Modern historians do not have a single point of view about the first centuries of Tula’s existence, and there is no clarity in studying the features of the Kremlin’s defense against numerous invasions; scientists have not found out the political preferences of the inhabitants of Tula in the XVII century (“Rebellious century” or the age of riots, uprisings); historians have not completely separated the truth from local legends in the time of Peter I and Catherine II. In these discussions, it is important to listen to the opinion of S. M. Solovyov. The scientific significance of his research has survived for centuries.
Keywords: S. M. Solovyov, Tula, Tula Kremlin, Mengli-Giray, Kazy-Giray, Time of Troubles, V. I. Shuisky, I. I. Bolotnikov, plague epidemic, Demidovs.

Malakhov R.A. (Vologda). Reflection of public perceptions of Soviet citizens in the early 1940s in “letters to the authorities” (based on the materials of the Vologda region) ........................................................................................................................152

Ph. D. in History, Associate Professor.
Vologda State University,
160000, Russia, Vologda, Lenina, 15.
E-mail: malakhov74@mail.ru

The relevance of this work is since the study of letters from ordinary Soviet citizens allows us to understand the subjective perception of socially significant events, compare the socio-economic processes of the pre-war and war periods. The article is devoted to the study of social problems that worried Soviet citizens in the early 1940s and its reflection “in letters to the authorities”. It shows who the authors of the letters were, how they perceived the reality around them, what stereotypes concerning the authorities existed in the minds of the authors, what the specifics of their vocabulary are. The source of this work was the letters of citizens found in the records of the Vologda Regional Committee of the CPSU (b) for 1940-1943. Party officials, after checking the facts indicated in the letters, concluded that most of them were unreliable. Despite this, according to the author of this article, these letters should be considered mostly true. The article concludes that caring authors of letters wrote brightly and frankly about the low qualification of local leaders, disorganization of agricultural labor, insufficient draft power and feed, the death of livestock, the difficult financial situation of people, the lack of the necessary amount of food both in the pre-war period and during the war. The study showed that people were critical of the events described. At the same time, the authors sincerely hoped for a change in the situation after the intervention of higher administrative bodies. It is obvious that in society there continued to exist stereotypes of the perception of power by ordinary people. The authors used figurative and colloquial expressions in their texts. This showed the individual characteristics of the person and his environment using such words.
Keywords: the Great Patriotic war, kolkhoz, “letters to power”, public consciousness, everyday life, subjectivity, bureaucracy.

Tkacheva V. S. (St.Petersburg, Pushkin). The everyday life of the inhabitants of the Karelian-Finnish SSR and the border regions of the Leningrad Region in 1941-1942............................................................................................................................158

Postgraduate student of the Department of Russian History of the Leningrad State University named after A.S. Pushkin
Russian Federation, 196605, St. Petersburg, Pushkin, Petersburg highway, 10.
Tel.: 8-921-187-54-28, e-mail: tkacheva.valerie@mail.ru

The article analyzes the situation of the population in the initial period of the Great Patriotic War on the territory of the KFSSR and the Leningrad region. It outlines the living conditions of people in the occupied and unoccupied territory. There’s shown how their daily life was organized and what constituted the basis of their existence. It is concluded that the vast majority of the population had no doubt about the need to wage war against the Nazi and Finnish invaders. The war took on a nationwide character, which was expressed in the voluntary mass entry into the Red Army, the formation of the people’s militia, fighter battalions, etc. Mutual assistance, collective life, hard work have become a characteristic feature of the daily routine of the region’s inhabitants. In wartime, the everyday way of life was changed for the worse. People understood that it would be difficult, but in order to achieve a common goal, they were ready to endure all the trials and make any sacrifices. The attitude of residents to the events was not unambiguous. There was also an anti-Soviet mood among the population, which took a long time to form and depended on many factors.
Keywords: Great Patriotic War, everyday life, the situation of the population, Republic of Karelia, Leningrad region.

Ivanov S.V. (St.Petersburg). Collective consciousness of the soviet people in the territory of the Karelian ishmuth in the 50-60s of the ХХ century.....................................162

Graduate Student,
Department of History,
Pushkin Leningrad State University.
196605, Russian Federation, St.Petersburg, Pushkin, St.Petersburg sh., 10.
E-mail: johnson.tick@gmail.com

The aim of this article is to examine the collective consciousness of the inhabitants of the Karelian Isthmus and how to influence it during the “thaw”. The population of the Karelian Isthmus in the 50-60s was quite “motley”: part of the inhabitants returned here after the war to their historical homeland, part of the inhabitants came here from other regions of the USSR to revive the lands. In view of the special conditions of life, the collective consciousness of the inhabitants of the isthmus had its own characteristics. The relevance of this article is determined by the fact that comparing the public consciousness of the last century with the consciousness of the current society, by and large, the inhabitants of another state, allows us to consider the changes in the set of values and knowledge that are inherent in residents of different eras, as well as look at changes in the ways of influencing the masses from the outside.
Keywords: Karelian Isthmus, history of the USSR, collective consciousness, public consciousness, soviet society.

Tinikova Е.Е. (Abakan). Dynamics of the urban population of Khakassia in the post-Soviet period...................................................................................................................165

Candidate of Historical Sciences,
Senior Researcher of Khakass Research Institute
of Language, Literature and History.
Russian Federation, Abakan, Shetinkin Str., 23.
8-929-319-1184, e-mail: lena.tinikova@mail.ru

This article is a part of the research on the features of the urban development of Khakassia in the post-Soviet period. Urbanization is traditionally measured in percentage and is calculated as the percentage of the urban population in the entire population of the planet, state, or region. In this regard, it is also advisable to start studying the urbanization of Khakassia by describing the dynamics of the urban population. The author analyzes the sources of growth/decrease in-town residents of the Republic. Based on official statistics, the main trajectories of the natural movement of the urban population are shown. Materials of the sociological study, conducted in 2018 in Khakassia, made it possible to study in detail the motives of migrants moving to live in a town. The total sample population of the study was 1000 people. We used deterministic sampling methods in the work. The detailed analysis of these empirical data allowed the author to prove that Khakassia was practically not affected by the all-Russian process of the ruralization of the post-Soviet period. In general, the study of the ratio of three sources of the urban population growth (natural and migration growth, administrative and territorial changes) led to the identification of the main stages of the dynamics of the urban population in Khakassia. In the early 1990s, the decrease in the urban population was mainly due to administrative and territorial changes. In the second half of the 1990s, the reduction of citizens took place both due to the natural decrease of the population and due to ongoing administrative changes. At the beginning of the 21st century, all three components of the urban population change had negative values. Since the mid-2000s, the balance of the migration growth in towns started growing again and the process of natural decrease in-town residents stopped. After 2010, a trend of growth in the number of town residents of Khakassia due to natural and migration increase has been established.
Keywords: Khakassia, urban population, urbanization, natural increase, migration, administrative and territorial changes.

Podalko P.E. (Tokyo, Japan). “Russian Nagasaki” – Reality and Fiction...........................175

Ph.D., Professor,
Aoyama Gakuin University,
Shibuya 4-4-25, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150-8366, Japan.
e-mail: podalko@sipeb.aoyama.ac.jp

Russian diplomatic representatives had appeared in Japan after 1855 (Shimoda Treaty) in the seaports Shimoda or Hakodate. Nagasaki (the third port since 1859) was known for trade gateway, where East could still meet West (even during “the National isolation” from mid-17th to mid-19th century). Therefore, it was popular as a destination point for early Russian missions.
According to the Edo Treaty (1858) Russia had leased a place for ships repair. It was the «Russian Village» or settlement in Inasa (near Nagasaki). There were hotels and first Russian cuisine “Restaurant Kronstadt” and “Restaurant Plevna”. Later the cemetery for Russian sailors emerged (Inasa Foreign Cemetery). Such traits in relations, started from a “blank page”, had aroused illusions like “it was easy for the Russians to be on good terms with Asians.” Prior to Russo-Japanese War, the Pacific Squadron ship-staff and families of other sailors had spent wintertime here to escape the Siberia severity. The Russians found pleasure and the Japanese found profit and prosperity for Nagasaki. While the ships coaled and purchased foodstuffs, also repaired from storms, some sailors settled in Inasa with “temporarily married” new spouses.
The paper examines facets of cultural exchange, the problem of inter-gender contacts with foreigners, migration processes and the image of “Russian Nagasaki” in the memoirs and the literature. Among the authors are Grand Dukes Aleksandr Mikhailovich and Kirill (Cyril) Vladimirovich of Russia (had visited Nagasaki as junior officers in 1880s and 1890s); Vice-Admiral G.F.Tsyvinskii (his life story depicted in a novel “Three lives of Okini-san” by Valentin Pikul’; writer and traveller D.I.Shreider, a member of Russian Geographical Society; Prince E.E.Oukhtomsky, and others.
Keywords: Cross-Cultural Relations, Russians in Nagasaki, Memoirs, History of Diplomatic Relations, Japan, ‘Russian Village’ in Nagasaki, Pacific Squadron of Russian Navy, Vladivostok.

Vlasov N.A. (St.Petersburg). Bismarck’s friend: Count Alexander Keyserling ..................182

Candidate of historical sciences, Associate professor, St. Petersburg State University, Chair of Theory and History of International Relations
Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Luzhskaja str., 4-1-266
+7(812)532-41-81, n.vlasov@spbu.ru

The presented article is devoted to the problem of the influence of the graph A.A. Keyserling (1815-1891) on the formation of O. von Bismarck’s ideas about Russia. Keyserling for many decades was one of the closest friends of Bismarck and was for the latter one of the main sources of information about Russia. The article examines the biography and views of Keyserling and also traces the history of his communication with Bismarck. Further, the statements of the two friends are compared, first of all, on the issue of the role and place of the Baltic Germans in the Russian state and society. As a result, there is a lot of overlap in the views of Bismarck and Keyserling on the contemporary Russian Empire. It can be concluded that Bismarck largely looked at Russia through the eyes of the Baltic Germans who were part of his entourage, primarily Keyserling. Communication with representatives of this group has become one of the most important sources of shaping the image of Russia in the worldview of the future “iron chancellor”. It is important to emphasize that the process of forming this image began long before Bismarck’s diplomatic mission to St. Petersburg in 1859-62, during which he became personally acquainted with Russia. Subsequently, the representations of the head of the Prussian and German governments had a significant impact on his policy towards Russia.
Keywords: A. Keyserling, O. von Bismarck, Baltic Germans, image of Russia, Russian-German relations in the XIXth century.

Demirova N.I. (Moscow). Academician autograph...........................................................189

State Historical Museum,
Department of Written Sources, the main keeper.
Russia, 125009, Moscow, Krasnaya square, 1.
Tel.: +7 (495) 692-47-35.
E-mail: nidemirova@shm.ru

The article is devoted to the historiographical heritage of L.P. Minarik, the features of her scientific style, the methodology of the research. Lyudmila Petrovna Minarik worked at the State Historical Museum for more than forty years and remained in the memory of her colleagues, primarily as a talented exhibitor. They remember less of her contribution to the study of the problems of agricultural history, namely, the studies of the role of large land tenure in the Russian economy of the late XIX – early XX centuries. Although the list of publications of the researcher is not too long, all of her works are distinguished by a combination of depth and subtlety of analysis. Her articles attracted attention and were highly appreciated even by prominent historian-agrarians, for example, I.D. Kovalchenko. This is evidenced by the reprint of the article by L.P. Minarik, preserved in the archive of the academician with his autograph.
Keywords: historiography; I.D. Kovalchenko; L.P. Minarik; archive or the historian; agricultural history.