Klio #8 (92) 2014

Philosophy of history

Demin I.V. (Samara). The Problem of Correlation between Historical Experience and Historical Narrative in Post-Metaphysical Philosophy of History………. 3

The article deals with the problem of correlation between historical experience and historical narrative in terms of post-metaphysical philosophy of history. The main philosophy strategies of analysis of historical experience are revealed. The principal emphasis is laid on Frank Rudolf Ankersmit’s concept of historical experience. The Ankersmit’s concept of historical experience is opposed by the principal thesis of primary correlation between a human being and his past and of initial (pre-theoretical but not pre-language) comprehensibility of history stated by Martin Heidegger and developed by Hans-Georg Gadamer.

Key words: History, the past, historical experience, historical narrative, philosophy of history, language.


Source studies

Ehrlich S.E. (Saint Petersburg). The Formula “The Decembrists’ Wives” in Publications of “Large-Volume Magazines” at the Turn of the 20th – 21st Centuries………. 7

Herzen’s myth about the Decembrists who martyred themselves for the sake of common people is leaving the contemporary intelligentsia’s mind. Now, it exists just as “the unconscious slips”. Inter alia, currently, the myth manifests itself through speech formulas, one of which is “the Decembrists’ wives”. Alongside with a “serious” connotation exemplifying a model of devotedness used for comparison of women of past and present, a good many ironic applications can be encountered. Comparison of the heroic “Russian women” with not sacrificial “followers” undoubtedly corrodes the mythological fundament of Christian self-sacrifice laid in the intelligentsia’s ethical code.

Key words: Herzen’s myth about the Decembrists, formula “The Decembrists’ wives”, Magazine hall, intelligentsia.



Talia A.Yu. (Saint Petersburg). Forming a Critical Approach to the American Lifestyle in Periodicals and Political Essays in the Russian Empire………. 11

The article considers the forming of a critical approach to coverage and perception of the American lifestyle and general features of the American democracy and constitutionalism in the periodicals and political essays in the Russian Empire. The most important problems in the life of the USA and of the Americans discussed and estimated by the Russian men of letters, travelers and diplomatic officials are specified; justness and value of this criticism are appreciated.

Key words: History of the USA, American style of life, American democracy, constitutionalism, political parties.

Nikitashina S.O. (Saint Petersburg). A Graduate from the MiningAcademy – Dmitry Ivanovich Mushketov (Historiography of the Issue)………. 15

D.I. Mushketov is an expert in the area of regional geology and tectonics, the founder of systematic mapping. Having graduated from the Mining Academy he was working there until committed to jail in various capacities. The son continued his father’s, I.V. Mushketov, research into the Central Asia. Geology united the two scientists’ interests. Despite great merits, the name of Dmitry Ivanovich has not been mentioned in the scientific literature until recently. Information about him arose 18 years later his rehabilitation.

Key words: D.I. Mushketov, the MiningAcademy, repressed geologist, literature about him, I.V. Mushketov, geology, historiography.


Universal history

Kamari D.M. (Volgograd). The Affect Taken on Phocean Colonization of Iberian Peninsula by the Lydian Pressure………. 19

The paper discusses the subject of pressure exerted by neighboring states on Ionian poleis, which led to colonization of the Western Mediterranean, in particular, of the Iberian Peninsula. Based on ancient sources, the author states that deficiency in iron in the Eastern Mediterranean affected the increase of pressure exerted by Lydia on the Ionians trying to explore the unknown lands.

Key words: Pressure, Ionian poleis, the Phoceans, iron, Iberian Peninsula.

Kuznetsov P.F., Mochalov O.D., Khokhlov A.A. (Samara). Ethnic and Cultural Interrelations of the Steppe Population of the Eastern Europe under Early Bronze ………. 22

Early Bronze in the steppe zone of Eastern Europe was rested upon mobile cattle farming and metallurgy production. Such forms of adaptation suggest active relationship between the population, exchange, and intensive migration processes. The Western areal of Yamna cultural and historical community covers the period 3000 through 2300 B.C. The Eastern areal corresponds to the period 3500 through 2900 B.C. Paleoenvironment and anthropological data show the diversity amongst the Yamna culture bearers. In the Eastern areal, hypermorphic complexes dominate – mezocran and brachicran ones.

Key words: Early Bronze, Yamna archeologic culture.


National history

Mikhailov V.V. (Saint Petersburg). The Issue on the BlackSeas Channels and the Russian Empire before Joining the World War I with the Sultan Monarchy ………. 27

The article analyzes different opinions of the Russian military leaders and politicians on the occupation of the Black Sea channels on the eve of joining the Osman Empire the world war 1914–1918. The key standpoints in terms of cooperation between the diplomatic and navy ministries in the matter of control over the channels on the part of Russia are shown.

Key words: BlackSeas channels, Russian Empire, World War I, Osman Empire.

Burkov V.G. (Saint Petersburg). The History of the First Soviet Distinction – Order of the Red Banner………. 29

The article is devoted to the research into the history of the first Soviet distinction – Order of the Red Banner. Great attention is paid to the history of establishment of this order as well as to the persons awarded with this order.

Key words: Distinction, Order of the Red Banner, “decorated with the Order of the Red Banner”, honorary revolutionary armor.

Barkova O.N. (Moscow). Women-Publishers from the Russian Émigré Community in 1917–1939………. 34

The article focuses on the problem of the establishment of the communicative space and development of the printed word in emigration of 1917–1939. The key emphasis is laid upon publishing activities carried out by women from the Russian émigré community – G.F. Bokhanovskaya, O.L. Diakova, and M.N. Burlyuk.

Key words: Russian émigré community of 1917–1939, printed word in emigration, publishing activities carried out by women from the Russian émigré community, 1917–1939, G.F. Bokhanovskaya, O.L. Diakova, M.N. Burlyuk.

Nikolashin V.P. (Michurinsk, Tambov region), Kulachkov V.V. (Bryansk). “Sphinx” of the Russian History in the Quick Sands of Bolshevistic Agricultural Transformations: Peasant Class in 1918–1933 ………. 37

In the early 20th century, the Russian farmers began asserting themselves not only in terms of economy, but also in terms of social politics. The new economic policy hard won by peasants during the Civil war formed conditions for the efficient and progressive growth of the countryside. However, after the situation in the country was stabilized, the government started to wind down NEP. The government launched repression mechanisms again, and thus foredoomed the village to the role of the “donor” and outsider of civilization development.

Key words: Peasant class, government, reformation, village, modernization, land, agricultural transformations.

Khmyrov D. (Saint Petersburg). The Russian Orthodox Émigré in the North Africa: Social and Religious Aspects (1920–1930)………. 41

The article considers three North African states, which in 1920–1930 became a place of residence of the Russian refugees, i.e. Egypt, Tunis, and Morocco. Given that they had to interact with a variety of cultures and religions, understanding of those years events is extremely timely in our days, when the problems of dialogue between cultures and nations have come to a boil.

Key words: Russian Orthodox émigré, Orthodox Church, Arabs, Catholics, Protestants, North Africa, Egypt, Tunis, Morocco, Foreign Legion, Russian squadron, early 20th century, social contest.

Rakova A.V. (Samara). Corrective Labor Facilities for the Minor Imprisoned in the Early Period of Establishment of the Soviet Penitentiary System ………. 47

The article deals with the history of establishment and development of the Soviet corrective labor facilities for the juvenile criminals. The main areas of activity of the said facilities and the peculiarities of their status. Key attention is paid to examination of the process of moral correctional education and school education of the minor criminals. Specific features of imprisonment household conditions and regime in the corrective labor facilities.

Key words: Corrective labor facilities, penitentiary system, minor prison community, Soviet prison, juvenile criminals, history of prisons, juvenile offenders, cultural and educational activity, penitentiary facilities, corrective labor facility, prison workshops, prison schools.

Pilishvili G.D. (Kursk). Principles and Methods of the Arrangement of People’s Voluntary Corps within the Territory of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic during the Initial Period of the Great Patriotic War ………. 50

Employing archives, legislative acts, and memoirs, the paper analyzes the main trends and principles of the arrangement of people’s voluntary corps within the territory of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic during the initial period of the Great Patriotic War.

Key words: People’s voluntary corps, Great Patriotic War, hero-cities, Red Army, party bodies.



Bodrova A.A. (Novosibirsk). The Problems of Reconstruction of Spiritual World of Ancient Societies in Examination of Unique Archeological Artifacts (as Exemplified by the Zbruch Idol) ………. 54

The author aims at identification of reconstruction methods for spiritual world of the ancient societies based on unique artifacts exemplified by the Zbruch Idol. Absence of direct or indirect analogs of the unique findings complicates interpretation of the same leading to increased error when attributing the object. The techniques used for consideration of the Zbruch Idol have no specific features as compared to the techniques employed for mass material.

Key words: Archeology, archeological artifact, methodology, technique, reconstruction, Zbruch Idol.


History of Russian regions

Oreshin S.A. (Moscow). Uzun-Khadji Emirate is an Islamic Model of Nation-Building Model in the North Caucasus in 1919–1920………. 57

The paper is devoted to the history of establishment and development of one of state formations existing in the North Caucasus during the Civil war in 1918–1920 – the North-Caucasian Emirate – the theocratic Sharia-based monarchy formed by Dagestan and Chechen Islamists under the guidance of sheikh Uzun-Khadji Saltinsky in the middle of 1919. By analyzing the Emirate genesis, the internal structure, and identifying driving forces for the Sharia-based monarchy, the author arrives at the conclusion that the Emirate state formation was imitating the Russian Empire to a great extent. It is bureaucratization of all social and political aspects alongside with incompetence of the governing bodies resulted in fall of popularity of the Emirate in the town, and in split thereof.

Key words: Civil war, the North Caucasus, nation-building, North Caucasian Emirate, Shari-based monarchy, theocracy, Islamism.

Vavulinskaya L.I. (Petrozavodsk). Monetary Reform of 1947 and Cancelation of the Card System: Arrangement and Implementation (Based on the Materials of Karelo-FinnishSovietSocialistRepublic)………. 61

The article considers some little known aspect of arrangement and implementation of the monetary reform of 1947 and cancelation of the card system, based on the documents of the National archive of the Republic of Karelia introduced into scientific use for the first time. Under consideration are the actions for increase in ration process for food, reduction in the number of categories of population under rated supply, and response of the citizens of the Republic to the acts of the government. Special attention is paid to the expansion of the trade network, increase in the number of trade businesses. The situation on the product market of the republic after the cancelation of the food cards is covered.

Key words: Monetary reform of 1947, cancelation of the card system, bread saving, trade.

Shorokhova I.V. (Petrozavodsk). Relations Between the Political party and Government Authorities of the Karelian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic and the Karelian Division of the Union of Soviet Writers in the Second Part of the 1950s (Revisiting the Dating of the Thaw in the Republican Literature) ………. 66

The article discusses relationship between the government and creative intelligentsia under the conditions formed under Stalin’s death. The author describes in detail the first attempts taken by the Karelian writers to extend the boundaries of their art and change the subject matter of their works. The paper also considers the methods the party and government authorities of the Karelian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic used to return control over the creative activity of the Republic. The article concludes that the Thaw in the Karelian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic finished in 1957.

Key words: Creative intelligentsia, the Karelian division of the Union of Soviet writers, Thaw, cultural policy, 1957.

Abrakova T.A. (Nizhny Novgorod). Social and Political Demands of the Soviet Citizens in 1989–1991 (Based on Nizhny Novgorod Region Sources)………. 69

The paper investigates some of the aspects of development of the Soviet society based on the letters the citizens of Gorky region wrote to the regional party committee for 1989-1991. These are the issues of social provision, environmental, religious, political-party life in the period of perestroika and other. It is shown that the materials under consideration are the most important source characterizing public moods of the latter years of the USSR.

Key words: Government and society, letters to the government of the USSR, private life, social provision, market relations, agriculture, ecology.


History of culture

Berezina V.A. (Saint Petersburg). “From Books to Memorials”: Excursions in the Theory and Practice of the Russian Education at the Turn of the 19th–20th Century………. 75

The paper discusses the early stage of development of excursion approach in education. An attempt is taken to track evolution of the concept “excursion” in methodological texts of the founders of excursion business and to disclose their visions of opportunities of application of the excursion approach in educational practice of this period.

Key words: History of education, turn of the 19th–20th centuries, excursions, excursion business.


History of foreign relations

Kudryavtseva T.M. (Moscow). “China-Tsar”: the Chinese as Perceived by the Russian People during the Period of the Boxer Rebellion (Based on the Russian Press)………. 82

The article considers the problem of perception of China and the Chinese by the Russian common people during the period of the Boxer Rebellion (by the Russian publications at the time being). The author shows that lack of information and personal communication with the neighboring people served as a basis for the creation of a grotesque image of the Chinese and led to rising fear and violation.

Key words: “China-tsar”, Boxer Rebellion, Russian press, perception of the Chinese.

Lavrova E.M. (Saint Petersburg). Petrograd Socialists and the Problem of Investigation of Accusation of the “Provocation” in 1917………. 85

After the February revolution, the problem of full disclosure of the former secret collaborator with the police was of great social and political significance. Alongside with the disclosures based on documentary materials of the political inquiry agencies, unproved suspicions and accusations of “provocation” could also have serious consequences. On the one hand, the official governmental committees dealt with unmasking secret agents and study of the issues associated with provocation; on the other hand, in 1917, the revolutionists’ own justice was still functioning.

Key words: revolution of 1917, socialists, “provocation”, revolutionists’ justice.

Stolyarov A.O. (Saint Petersburg). Integration of Poland into the European Union and Historic Memory of the Polish Political Figures about Russian and the USSR………. 93

Based on the records of debates of the Polish members of Parliament on integration of Poland into the European Union, the article considers historic memory of political figures about Russia and the Soviet Union. The author presents the key historic episodes associated with Russia and the USSR recollected by the Polish political figures within the debates, as well as use of memory of the USSR as of an external “friend” for Poland. Special attention is paid to the difference in approaches of various political forces in addressing historic memory.

Key words: Historic memory, association between Poland and European Union, debates in Sejm and Senate, Russian Empire, post-war history of the USSR, Poland-Russia relations, parliamentary system of Poland.

Meshcheryakov K.E. (Saint Petersburg). Struggle between Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan for Regional Leadership in the Central Asia and Position of Russia ………. 100

The article considers the main stages of the struggle between the Republics of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan for regional leadership in the Central Asia, and reveals the position of Russia on this subject matter. The author concludes that in 1900s–2000s Moscow was striving for the maintenance of balance of powers in the Central Asia being apprehensive about both extreme consolidation and excessive depreciation of influence of one of its key Central-Asian partners. Support by Russia to some extent favored to consolidation of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan in the Central Asia, yet, this factor was not decisive.

Key words:Russia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Central Asia, balance of powers, region, allied interaction, strategic partnership, integration processes.

Mekhdieva U.M. (Moscow). Azerbaijani Diaspora in Russia: Historical Experience and Prospects ………. 103

The article is devoted to rise and establishment of the Azerbaijan diaspora in Russia. The author analyzes historical processes that led to emergence of the Azerbaijani in the territory of the Russian Federation. Chronologically, the article covers the period starting from the Middle Ages till present, which allows for investigation of the history of the Azerbaijan diaspora in full.

Key words: Azerbaijani in Russia, Azerbaijani diaspora, history of the Azerbaijani.


Military history

Poznakhirev V.V. (Saint Petersburg). The Prisoners of War and Civil Prisoners of the World War I: Revisiting the Content and Distinction between Notions (Exemplified by the Ottoman Empire subjects)………. 107

The paper for the first time in the native historiography classifies the basic terms used for designation of the prisoners of war and civil prisoners of the enemy in the Russian legal settings and service correspondence during the period of 1914–1918. The Author states that the conceptual framework existing at the time being featured dichotomy; he substantiates the adverse effect thereof on contemporary historical research; reveals the reasons for the said phenomenon, and presents the list of standard attributes, which enable to state status characteristics of different categories of prisoners.

Key words: Detainees of war, liable to military service, prisoners of war, civil prisoners, dichotomy, Ottoman Empire, World War I, the Turks.

Golubichnaya Yu.V. (Kiev, Ukraine). Military Schools of the Ukrainian People’s Republic in Poland in 1921–1924: Specific Features of Functioning and Recruiting………. 109

The article analyzes activity of educational facilities and courses in the interned troops of the UPR in Poland in 1921–1924 for raising the level of special military education of the Ukrainian military men of the UPR army. The specificity of functioning and recruiting of the military schools are revealed.

Key words: The interned, UPR army, camp, education, officers, nationalist-patriotic education.


Historical characters

Sulakova A.S. (Moscow). Role of Konni Zilliacus in Organization of the First Cross-Party Conference in Paris in 1904 ………. 115

The article is devoted to the role of the Finnish revolutionist Konni Zilliacus in arrangement of the first cross-party conference in Paris in 1904. Great attention is paid to the issues associated with the arrangement and financing of the event. The article uses new sources previously not introduced into scientific use. Detail reflection of the results and outcomes of the conference allow for the conclusions about the value of this conference for the opposition movement in the Russian Empire.

Key words: Konni Zilliacus, Akashi Motojirō, G.V. Plekhanov, P.B. Struve, Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905, the Russian opposition movement, cross-party conference in Paris.

Petrova E.E. (Saint Petersburg). Beginning of the World War I through the Eyes of Great Prince Nikolay Mikhailovich………. 118

The article is devoted to the attitude of Great Prince Nikolay Mikhailovich to the events of the early stage of the World War I based on the comparative analysis of epistolary heritage of the Great Prince and his daily notes.

Key words: World War I, Great Prince, military actions.

Pivovarov E.G. (Saint Petersburg). Citizens of Ukraine Descent Are the Employers of the Library of Congress in 1940–1950………. 122

1940s – 1950s is the time of boom of Soviet studies in the USA. Ideological conflict between the socialist and capitalist systems determined rise of new scientific centers involved in study of the USSR and its allies. Mass migration of intellectuals from Europe favored Slavic studies in the USA. The paper considers the creative way of the employees of the Library of Congress who was born, educated and professionally trained in the Ukraine: G. Lakhman, E. Kulisher, S. Kucherov, L. Okinshevich, T. Fesenko and others.

Key words: The Library of Congress, Slavic collection, Ukraine, USSR, G. Lakhman, E. Kulisher, S. Kucherov, L. Okinshevich, T. Fesenko.


It will be history tomorrow

Yunus Nadi Shen (Bursa, Turkey). Platform “Dialogue Eurasia” as One of the Trends in Turkish Eurasian Nature………. 130

This paper reviews development of the Eurasian doctrine in Turkey, and the Russian and Turkish Eurasian nature are compared. The author pays special attention to a so-called “alternative Eurasian character” followed by the organization Platform “Dialogue Eurasia”. The organization ideology represented through its declaration is thoroughly analyzed. Today, he Platform is being successively developed in Turkey and neighboring countries. The main distinction from the Russian neo-Eurasian nature consists in pursuing exclusively humanitarian and enlightening purposes without political background.

Key words: Eurasia, Eurasian nature, Russia, integration, ideology, foreign policies.



Kirillov V.L. (Moscow). Under Letter “R.”. From History of the Russian Revolutionary Underground of 1860-s………. 133

The author reviews hypotheses of a person associated with Petersburg revolutionary underground of 1860s concealed by letter “R.”. B.P. Kozmin’s suggestion about T.R. Plaksin is criticized. V.Ya. Grosul’s suggestion about P.A. Rovinsky is clarified based on other sources. The author also makes his own hypothesis stating that “R” is a political essay writer I.A. Rozhdestvensky. This review helps to understand typical features of the revolutionary underground such as turnover of staff and interweaving of names and characters.

Key words: Russian revolutionary movement, revolutionary community of 1860s, secret societies, P.A. Rovinsky, I.A. Rozhdestvensky.

Verbovoy A.O. (Saint Petersburg). RussianNationalBuilding from Sources to the Modern Times………. 137

The article reviews the process of development of the Russian state and society, reflecting the most significant landmarks in the history of the country associated with changing cultural and spiritual values, which, in turn, changed economic and political systems. The paper covers a vast thousand a half-year period, from establishment of the first centers of Slavic alliances of tribes to the present day. The article discusses in detail the role of cultural values and state of life of the Russian society in rise of the Russian national identity and choice of historical journey. The issues of development of the national legal system and results of historical choice at each stage of development of the country and society are discussed.

Key words: Society, civilization, justice, law, Slavs, state, Christianity, Orthodoxy, Catholicism.


Scientific publication reviews

Polyansky M.S. (Moscow). About Military Strategy and Political Guidance in Alexander Andreyevich Svechin’s Works………. 140

The review highly appreciates A.A. Kokoshin’s monograph devoted to military theoretical, pedagogical, and practical activity of the gifted Russian Soviet military leader A.A. Svechin. The author emphasizes that the book is a new look at the multifaceted activity of the outstanding person – Alexander Andreyevich Svechin.

Key words: Military strategy, A.A. Svechin, A.A. Kokoshin, military history, military scientific knowledge.


Scientific cOnferences were held

Nikolayev D.A. (Nizhny Novgorod). Pages of History of Nizhny Novgorod Region in the Materials Represented at the Conference “The Minin Readings”………. 143

The article describes on a selective basis the materials of the international conference “The Minin Readings” specially devoted to the history of Nizhny Novgorod region.

Key words: “The Minin Readings”, Time of Troubles, volunteer corps of Nizhny Novgorod, Kozma Minin.

Goldin V.I. (Archangelsk). Great War and European North………. 144

The published material reviews the conclusions of the International scientific conference devoted to the 100th anniversary of the beginning of the World War I.

Key words: World War I, European North, Northern (Arctic) FederalUniversity, International scientific conference.


In memory of the colleague

In Memory of Nikolay Alexeyevich Troitsky (19.12.1931 – 28.05.2014)………. 146

The necrology devoted to the Doctor of History, Professor N.A. Troitsky, notes Nikolay Alexeyevich’s outstanding gift, the widest area of scientific thought, immense capacity for labor, and perfect humanities.

Key words: Nikolay Alexeyevich Troitsky, SaratovStateUniversity, Russian scientists.