Klio # 9 (129) 2017





Interview with Professor V.A. Zolotarev (Moscow) by Chief editor of a journal “Klio” Professor S.N. Poltorak. New information about the history of the Great Patriotic War………………………………………………………………………13

Chief editor of a monthly scholarly journal “Klio” Professor S.N. Poltorak interviewed the Chairman of the editorial council of the edition, the President of the International Academy of History and Social Sciences, Vice-President of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, Doctor of Historical Sciences, Doctor of Jurisprudence Professor V.A. Zolotarev, one of the outstanding Russian scholars in the sphere of military history. Vladimir Antonovich answered a number of questions concerning the history of the Great Patriotic War. In modern historiography there are numerous versions, hypotheses, reflections, myths about the beginning period of the Great Patriotic War, about the goals of the aggressor, and questions who were responsible for preparing the attack. Interview with Professor V.A. Zolotarev is the attempt to answer a number of topical questions mainly relating to the initial period of the war, as well as the activities of the Wehrmacht on the occupied territories.

Keywords: World War II, Great Patriotic war, Nazi Germany, Third Reich, plan OST, Wehrmacht.





Makhlina S.T. (Saint Petersburg). Semiotics of terrorism…………………………………………………………27

SVETLANA TEVELIEVNA MAKHLINA — Honored figure in higher school of Russian Federation, Doctor of Philosophy, Professor, Department of Theory and History of Culture, Saint Petersburg State University of Culture. 191186, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Dvortsovaya emb., 2. E-mail: makhlina@pochta.tvoe.tv

September 11, 2001 marked a new era in the life of mankind. Henceforth, no person on earth can be immune from getting into a situation connected with terrorist acts. Today there are many works devoted to terrorism. Many of the authors emphasize that terror existed from ancient times. However, modern terrorism is different from its old forms. Today, terrorism is characterized by an unprecedented scale. The main signs of modern terrorism are violence and intimidation. Fear gives rise to panic, an irrational horror beyond the time and place of the terrorist act. The sign of modern terrorism manifests itself in its victims. In addition, terrorism is a special kind of political crime. The media are also an important sign component of the terrorist attacks. The most common is Islamic terrorism. The motivations of terrorism are numerous.

Keywords: terror, terrorism, aggression, death, fascism, crime, fear, panic, horror, hysteria, victim, Islamism, jihad, shahid, media.





Bitelev I.A. (Moscow). The attitude of the leading Russian periodicals to the triple interaction between Russia, Germany, France on the Far Eastern question in 1895…………………………………………………………40

IVAN ALEXANDROVICH BITELEV — Postgraduate student of the Department of the Russian History of the 19th and early 20th Centuries, Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 119234, Russian Federation, Moscow, Leninsky gory, 1, building B, room B-913. E-mail: ivanbitel@yandex.r

The article is devoted to the reflection in the leading periodicals of Russia of the tripartite interaction between Russia, Germany, and France on the Far Eastern question in 1895 and their impact on Japan. The positions of both conservative and liberal publications, journals “Vestnik Evropy”, “Russkiy Vestnik”, “Moskovskiye Vedomosti”, “Russkiye vedomosti”, “Novoe vremya”, are being compared. This topic is of interest in the context of the strengthening of Russian-French relations against the background of Franco-German antagonism in Europe and in the context of the preceding cooling of Russian-German relations in connection with the customs war of 1893–1894. The joint actions of the three powers were, on the one hand, a symbol of the conciliatory role of Russia, on this particular issue bringing France and Germany closer together, and on the other, a manifestation of a certain warming in Russian-German relations.

Keywords: “Vestnik Evropy”, “Russkiy Vestnik”, “Moskovskiye Vedomosti”, “Russkiye vedomosti”, “Novoe vremya”, press history, Japan-China War 1894–1895, Treaty of Shimonoseki.


Samartseva M.S. (Tula). To the question of patriotic education of the younger generation on the pages of the Tula diocesan statements (1914–1917)…………………………………………………………………………………46

MARIA SERGEEVNA SAMARTSEVA — Postgraduate student of the Department of History of State and Law, Tula State University. 300026, Russian Federation, Tula, Kaluzhskoye shosse 1, apt. 159. E-mail: mas5592@yandex.ru

The history of the First World War (1914–1918) is dedicated to hundreds of books. However, there are some materials that are not involved in the scholarly circulation. We are talking about diocesan Newspapers during the First World War. At the same time, today there is much debate about the «Patriotic education». About how this topic should be discussed on the pages of the Tula diocesan statements, says in this article. The focus is on the publications for 1914–1916 years. Quotes from the official documents, speeches of clerics, student’s letters, etc. are given. The author draws attention to such materials as information about solemn prayers, sermons of the metropolitan and bishops, reports on charitable initiatives of rural priests and teachers of church-parochial schools, correspondence of soldiers at the front and Tula schoolchildren. The article notes that the Tula diocesan lists interpreted the question of patriotic education in an expanded context, including the education of respect for the family and traditions.

Keywords: First World War, Russia, Tula diocesan statements, patriotism, daily life, letters, charity.





Barkova O.N. (Moscow). Controversial questions in the study of Russian women’s emigration in France in 1917–1929…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………52

OL’GA NIKOLAEVNA BARKOVA — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor of the Legal Disciplines Department, Supreme State Audit School (Faculty) of Lomonosov Moscow State University. 119992, Russian Federation, Moscow, GSP-1, Leninskiye Gory, 1, str. 13–14. E-mail: olgabarkova@list.ru

The article is dedicated to the controversial issues of the modern historiography of the history of Russian female emigration in France in 1917–1939 and its institutes. Special focus is placed upon the issue of the total number of the Russian emigration colony in 1917–1939 and its gender aspect. The lack of the accurate information about the quantitative and gender composition of the Russian emigration in 1917–1939 is elaborated by official statistics ― French population census in 1921, 1926, 1931 and 1936, the fragmentary material of the record keeping documentation of various emigre organisations, stored in archival funds, periodicals, publicism and memoirs. The author analyses previously mentioned in the historiography various data on the size of the Russian emigre colony in France in the early 20th century, matching and comparing them; considers the peculiarities of formation of the emigrant society in 1917–1939, paying more attention to the so-called “personal history” of the Russian women emigre community. The author attempted to personify female emigration in France, 1917–1939, which allows to retrieve a number of forgotten names of the Russian women emigre community to our present days. Those who successfully fulfilled their potential in science, culture, fashion and other fields while being in exile.

Keywords: Russian women emigre community in 1917–1939, gender history, number, problem of adaptation and inculturation.


Samorodov D.P. (Sterlitamak). Metahistoricism of Daniil Andreevich Andreyev in the subject field of not mechanistic science (historiographic aspect of a problem)…………………………………………………………60

DMITRY PETROVICH SAMORODOV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Head of the Chair of Russian History and Methodology of Teaching History, Sterlitamak Branch of the Bashkir State University. 453103, Russian Federation, Sterlitamak, Lenina Ave., 49. E-mail: kafedra164@mail.ru

In this article, the main methodological essence of the metahistorical concept of the Russian mystic visionary Daniil Andreyev is considered, relevance of his metaphilosophical heritage for a modern civilization and not mechanistic science with her theocentric paradigm of thinking recognizing providential conditionality of planetary historical process is specified. It is shown that already from the middle of the 90s of the 20th century metahistorical views of D. Andreyev become a subject of a scientific discourse among the representatives of the academic science adhering to the concept of the multidimensional and reasonable Universe, and refusing postulates orthodox (materialistic in a basis) a newtonian-cartesian scientific picture of the world. Some modern historical concepts and approaches focused on an ideological substratum and methodology “The Rose of the World”, the main work of D. Andreyev are characterized. Supporters of “new” (quantum) physics and alternative historiography are imposed by the main idea of metaphilosophy of D. Andreyev according to which the course of three-dimensional historical process on Earth is to some extent determined by factors of inomaterial life (the thin or power worlds ― on modern terminology), by high-reasonable divine forces and by forces of a diabolism. The author of this article characterizes the principles and D. Andreyev’s views by the term “metahistoricism” (itself D. Andreyev didn’t use this term), understanding as him the principle of historicism in his still not widespread not mechanistic version; the categorial concept “metahistoricism” is proved in our previous books (“From history to metahistory”; “Introduction to history and to fundamentals of scientific and historical methodology”), with use of methodological practices of founders of metahistory, the Russian philosophers, including, of course, and D. Andreyev’s views.

Keywords: Daniil Andreyev, metahistory, paradigm, not mechanistic, process, God.





Darvin A.L. (Petrozavodsk). The Spartan king Cleomenes I: epoche and destiny………………………………………………68

ALEXEY LEONIDOVICH DARVIN — Postgraduate student, Saint Petersburg State University. 185034, Russian Federation, Petrozavodsk, ul. Onego Flotilla, 12, cab. 3. E-mail: darvin.aleksey@yandex.ru

The article analyses biography and the role of King Cleomenes I in the history of Sparta and the Ancient Greece in general. Negative assessment of his actions, mainly provided by the key source covering this issue, Histories by Herodotus, is based on propaganda of the official authorities of Sparta against the king. However, another classic, Plutarch, who enters the debate with Herodotus (essay On the Malice of Herodotus), give an alternative assessment of the acts of the Spartans, under the leadership of Cleomenes. The historiography of the classical antiquity provides no simple opinion on this vivid personality, thereby, making this study relevant. The article describes how Cleomenes participates actively in all main foreign-policy-related events of Lacedaemon of his day. The majority of actions under his command turn to be success, what helps Sparta to take a leading position in Greece days before the Persian invasion and to unite Hellenic states willing to stand against the Persians. Therefore, words of some researches on “invalidity” or “ill eccentricity” of the Cleomenes’ policy are questionable. On the contrary, many antiquity researchers acknowledge importance of his activities not only for Sparta, but for Greece in general. However, another important conclusion on some autocratic actions of Cleomenes has to be done. By representing the aristocracy of the ending Archaic period, Cleomenes feels a burden of limitations on his actions from the ephors, as well as from the second king (Demaratus). His politics and strive after absolute power can be compared to those of a tyrant. His behavior can be characterized by some cynicism towards religion (up to bribe the Delphic oracle). As many researchers of antiquity believe, Spartan authorities, alarmed by the king’s overpowering aspirations, eventually commit a political killing by announcing a suicide caused by madness as the cause of the Cleomenes’ death. It is likely this puts an end to a conflict between this man of character and the city-state authorities that dramatically consolidate their political influence and, therefore, strive after control of actions of the royal diarchy.

Keywords: Cleomenes I, history of Sparta, Herodotus, Plutarch, aristocracy, the Archaic, ephors, Demaratus, bribery, Delphian oracle, suicide.


Talianova-Eren M. I. (Ankara, Turkey). The problem of polytheism and the main mythological figures in the Turkic system of beliefs……………………………………………………………………………………………77

MARIIA IGOREVNA TALIANOVA-EREN — Postgraduate student, Department of Turkish Language and Literature, Gazi University. 06560, Turkey, Ankara, Teknik okullar, Beşevler. E-mail: mtalianova@hotmail.com

In this article the author will attempt an analysis of the “polytheism” in the mythological system of the Turks. Within the framework of this system, the main mythological figures (good and evil spirits-“iye”) will be presented, the concepts of “dualism” and “pantheon” regarding to the belief system of old Turks will be considered, as well as the point of view of modern Turkish scientists and academics. The purpose of this work is to highlight the scientific point of view in Russian turkology related to the refutation of polytheism of old Turks, whose main adherent is the famous Hungarian scientist of shaman culture M. Hoppal, the Turkish scholar and writer H. Tanyu, the historian andturkologist I. Kafesoglu, and also such modern Turkish researchers as Prof. Dr. F.A. Turan, Prof. Dr. D. Yildirim, Ph.D. M. Ozan.

Keywords: monotheism, polytheism, old Turks, mythology, Tengri, belief system, dualism.





Medvedev S.V. (Moscow). Anonymous reports in the Moscow security Department in 1902……………………………….84

SERGEY VLADIMIROVICH MEDVEDEV — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor of the Department of Political Science, History and Social Technologies, Humanitarian Institute of Moscow State University of Railway Engineering. 127005, Russian Federation, Moscow, Novosuschevsky st., 22. E-mail: speransky1809@yandex.ru

The article, based on archival materials from the State archive of the Russian Federation, analyzed the anonymous reports sent to Moscow security department and the Moscow Office of the chief of police during the year 1902. The author’s focus are the threatening letters to the heads of the Moscow police, the Epistles, revealing the revolutionaries, and the slander of the townsfolk at each other. As shown in the article, the greatest concern of the complainants was caused by foreigners ― the Jews, the Poles and the Chinese. Students and district guards often appeared as suspects. Separate letters were complaints to citizens that allow verbal attacks against the monarchy, the monarch, the Imperial family and officials. The author comes to the conclusion about the lack of police attention to anonymous reports.

Keywords: police, political police, anonymous denunciations, Moscow security department, socialists-revolutionaries, illegal literature.


Potemkin I.A. (Moscow). Ethno-confessional issue in the activities of the Ministry of Internal Affairs to ensure internal security on the eve and during the First World War……………………………………………92

IGOR ANATOL’EVICH POTEMKIN — Chief, Section for Research of Problems of History of Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, Research Centre, Management Academy of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia. 129085, Russian Federation, Moscow, Alexandra and Zoe Kosmodemyanskys, 8. Е-mail: igor.potiomkin@yandex.ru

The article on the basis of archival materials, including those introduced for the first time in scientific circulation, reveals the role of the Ministry of Internal Affairs’ participation in the ethno-confessional issue in the conditions of the First World War, it is said about the impact of this issue on ensuring the internal security of the country. The activity of the Department of Spiritual Affairs of Foreign Confessions of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Police in the solution of the tasks set by the military in this important direction is shown.

In the first segment of the solution of the ethno-confessional issue, attention was paid to the suppression of the destructive activity of individual clergymen of the Lutheran church, mainly in the western and north-western territories of the Empire, as well as the closure of German (Russian) societies, unions and schools. The second segment included the suppression of enemy anti-Russian activities by the Uniate hierarchs. The third segment covered the solution of interethnic and inter-confessional issues in Turkestan and the Caucasus. The fourth is the suppression of subversive anti-state activities and espionage in favor of Austria-Hungary and Germany by some Roman Catholic clergymen. The fifth segment included the settlement of the sectarian issue, control over the activities of sectarian organizations and the suppression of their illegal, anti-government and anti-war actions. The sixth is the question of the interaction of the Ministry of Internal Affairs with the command of the acting army on issues of mobilization in the troops and the procedure for the performance of liturgical duties by clergymen not of Orthodox faiths. The seventh is the interaction of the Interior Ministry units with the administrations of the governor-general and the governorates of front-line and border areas on ethno-confessional issues.

Keywords: Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Empire, general and political police, ethno-confessional question, German issue, Jewish issue, Polish issue, Department of Religious Affairs of Foreign Confessions (DDDII), Protestant clergymen, Catholic clerics, sectarian organizations.


Semenova O.A. (Saint Petersburg). The almshouse for poor girls of noble rank: life under the regulations……………….105

OLGA ALEKSANDROVNA SEMENOVA — Postgraduate student, History department, Pushkin Leningrad State University. 196605, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Pushkin, Peterburgskoe shosse, 10. E-mail: ivanova.olga.al@mail.ru

The article is devoted to the activities of the institution of charity called the Almshouse for poor girls of a noble rank in St. Petersburg. The official sources of the Russian state historical archives and the regulations of the institution served as the main material for writing this article. Based on the material, the article examines the measures of support of elderly graduates of private female educational institutions, who had dedicated themselves to the system of education. The goal and the conditions of acceptance and accommodation in this House are described in this article. Special attention is paid to the household of the institution. It is concluded that only in the middle of the XIX century an institution for the care of women from all over the Russian Empire engaged in the education system appeared in Saint Petersburg. First, women served the State, then the State served them.

Keywords: social assistance, charity, the Almshouse for poor girls, female educational institution, Saint Petersburg.





Panichkin A.P. (Saint Petersburg). Political Situation around the Opening of the Saint Petersburg Eparchy in the First Half of the 18th Century. To Mark the 275th Anniversary of the Opening of the Saint Petersburg Eparchy……………………..111

ALEXANDER PHILIPPOVICH PANICHKIN — Candidate of Theology, Archpriest, Assistant Chief of Military Educational and Scientific Centre of the Navy «The Naval Academy named after Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union N.G. Kuznetsov», Senior priest of the St. Paul the Confessor and St. Righteous Warrior Feodor Ushakov Church in the Peter the Great Naval Corps (St. Petersburg). 192023, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, prospect Elizarova, 10, apt. 282. E-mail: alpriest13@yandex.ru

This article marking the anniversary of the creation of the St. Petersburg Eparchy describes the difficult internal political situation in the country at the time of Peter I and his closest successors, the empresses Anna Ioannovna and ElizavetaPetrovna. It tells about the attitude of the clergy to Peter’s reforms addressing the Church; the creation of the Holy Synod; the struggle of various groups of hierarchs for power and influence during the era of the Biron’s regime when active interference of public authorities in this conflict led to the dethronement of many bishops and their exile to remote monasteries mainly due to the intrigues of Archbishop Theofan Prokopovich who had a strong hold over Anna Ioannovna; the establishment of the episcopal chair in the new capital; the change of the situation with the accession to the throne of Elizaveta Petrovna driven by her favorable attitude towards the Russian Orthodox Church. Further, the article tells about the initiators of the opening of the new episcopal see and about the attempt to return to the old pre-Petrine church order and the restoration of the patriarchate; describes the situation of the new bishop and his significance in the capital and the church circles; and gives information about the size of the eparchy.

Keywords: St. Petersburg Eparchy, Empress Anna Ioannovna, Empress Elizaveta Petrovna, Archbishop Theophan Prokopovich, Archbishop Ambrose Yushkevich, Metropolitan Arseny Matseevich, Bishop  Nikodim Srebnitsky.


Shomahov Z.H. (Nalchik, KBR). Dynamics of social mobility of the Kabardino-Balkaria population under the conditions of Soviet modernization………………………………………………………………………………118

ZAUR HAMIDBIEVICH SHOMAHOV — Junior researcher, Institute of Humanitarian Research — branch of the FSBSI “Federal Research Center “Kabardino-Balkarian Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences”. 360000, Russian Federation, Kabardino-Balkar Republic, Nalchik, Pushkina ul., 18. E-mail: shoma31@rambler.ru

The article deals with the problem of transformation of the social structure of the Kabardino-Balkaria in the Soviet period. The urgency of the work is conditioned by the necessity of understanding of the problems of social mobility in Kabardino-Balkaria under the conditions of Soviet modernization.

Based on the materials of the funds of the National Archive of Kabardino-Balkaria, the periodical press and scientific works of the Soviet era, industrialization and development of secondary and higher education systems are being studied as key channels of social mobility, during which multilevel changes in the social, economic and cultural space occurred. The features of the Soviet state-distributive nature of the mechanism of social mobility and various ways of its implementation in the republic are indicated. The author substantiates the view that the intensity of the processes of social mobility in the period of stagnation began to decline gradually due to the transformation of a number of channels of social mobility into the mechanisms of simple reproduction of social status groups, which conditioned the relative stabilization of the social landscape of the republic towards the beginning of perestroika.

Keywords: stratification, social mobility, social status, differentiation, social elevators, system of education, urbanization, industrialization and socialist modernization.


Sacovich N.V., Gordin A.A., Serebryanskaya G.V. (Nizhny Novgorod). Health care of the rear city during the Great Patriotic War. 1941–1945 (On the example of Avtozavodsky district of Gorky)…………………………………………………123

NATALIA VLADIMIROVNA SACOVICH — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor of the Department of History, Philosophy, Pedagogy and Psychology, Nizhny Novgorod State Architectural and Construction University. 603950, Russian Federation, Nizhny Novgorod, ul. Ilinskaya, 65. E-mail: sakowich.nata@yandex.ru

ALEXEY ALEXANDROVICH GORDIN — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Head of the Department of History, Philosophy, Pedagogy and Psychology, Nizhny Novgorod State Architectural and Construction University. 603950, Russian Federation, Nizhny Novgorod, ul. Ilinskaya, 65. E-mail: alexei.gordin@yandex.ru

GALINA VLADIMIROVNA SEREBRYANSKAYA — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the Department of History, Philosophy, Pedagogy and Psychology, Nizhny Novgorod State Architectural and Construction University. 603950, Russian Federation, Nizhny Novgorod, ul. Ilinskaya, 65. E-mail: serebrianskaya55@yandex.ru

In the article on the example of Avtozavodsky district of Gorky (Nizhny Novgorod), the health of the rear city in 1941–1945 is being investigated. The peculiarities of this process are revealed in a particular region and at a specific enterprise — the Gorky Automobile Plant (GAZ), which was one of the leading machine-building plants in Russia and the Soviet Union during the Great Patriotic War and the post-war period. The contribution of GAZ to the defense of the country is shown. New statistical data, drawn from the Nizhny Novgorod archives, on the population, the availability of medical institutions and personnel, the incidence and consequences of their liquidation, shows the restructuring and work of the GAZ Medical Unit in military conditions, the efforts of the authorities and medical personnel in the fight against infectious diseases.

Keywords: Great Patriotic War, rear city, Gorky Automobile Plant, health care, medical unit, medical institutions, personnel, infectious diseases.





Kochegarov S.A. (Arkhangelsk). The attitude of the Estonia to the creation of the Northwest government and the offenses of N.N. Yudenich on Petrograd in August-September 1919………………………………………………………………………..128

SERGEI ANATOLYEVICH KOCHEGAROV — Rector of Northern enterprise Institute. 163000, Russian Federation, Arkhangelsk Suvorov str., 2. E-mail: kochegarovsergey@yandex.ru

In article the questions of interaction and contradictions which were earlier not drawing attention of historians between the government of the neogenic Republic of Estonia, leaders of the white movement in the Northwest of Russia and representatives in the region of the countries of the block of the Entente which won World War I are studied. Failures of white armies in fight against Bolsheviks in the first half of 1919 caused displeasure of the British representative in the Baltic region of the general Marsh which having held a meeting of the Russian and Estonian military in Pskov, put forward the idea of creation of the political center of the white movement in Estonia. Having arrived in Tallinn, Gen. Marsh summoned on August 10 leaders of the Political meeting at Yudenich’s headquarters to consulate where categorically suggested them to form the government of the Northwest of Russia. The Estonian politicians ambiguously treated creation in their capital of the government of the not really comprehensible State. Ya. Poska expressed satisfaction with actions of the government of the Northwest, but said that Estonia can recognize the government of the Northwest and begin with it joint actions only after recognition it by the Supreme governor of Russia and satisfaction of a request of Estonia to allies and Kolchak about recognition of its independence. Were made the proposal to transfer it closer to the front and in general to the Russian territory, as it did not announce itself the government in exile. On the other hand, creation of the Northwest Government of the Russian Federation created a collision in respect of the political relations of Estonia and Russia. On the one hand, the government initiated by British actually and on sense was the state autonomy within the territory of the former empire, and even formal recognition of the Supreme governor by it in the person of Kolchak did not eliminate this fact. The contradictions created as a result of Gen. Marsh’s actions influenced most negatively the preparation of joint White Guard-Estonian offensive at Petrograd in the fall of 1919 and in many respects, exactly they led to the defeat of Northwest army.

Keywords: Estonia in 1919, the government of the Northwest of Russia, the Civil war on the Northwest of Russia, J. Laidoner, N. Yudenich, defeat of Northwest army near Petrograd.


Aniskevich N.S. (Moscow). Latin America between MERCOSUR and the Pacific Alliance: political risks and regional stability……………………………………………………………………………………………………136

NATALIIA SERGEEVNA ANISKEVICH — Postgraduate student of the Institute of Latin America of the Russian Academy of Science. 115035, Russian Federation, Moscow, Bol’shaya Ordynka st., 21. E-mail: nataniskevich@gmail.com

The studies of regional integration processes are currently relevant. Latin America is a region having simultaneously a large number of integration associations with both economic and political orientations. The article analyzes the political aspect of contemporary problems of the Latin American integration associations. Based on the analysis of programs of South American political parties, the author reveals the political challenges facing the South American market (MERCOSUR), and the contemporary perspectives of new forms and areas of integration, in particular, the Pacific Alliance created in 2011. Relying on the completed studies by domestic and foreign authors, this paper examines the prospects of regional political stability in the context of struggle of integration associations and within the framework of formation of a multipolar world and new centres of power. The point of view of the various governments in the region is considered regarding the current state and development prospects of the MERCOSUR and the Pacific Alliance. The paper analyzes the foreign policy orientation of individual states and the views of the parties that are significant in their countries. The fight between two vectors of the Latin American integration demonstrates that the political forces similar in their beliefs are behind each of the forms of regional associations. The MERCOSUR project is supported by the left and centre-left parties. The Pacific Alliance is supported by the right-wing forces aimed at the strengthening or renewal of relations with the USA. The integrated future of integration in Latin America should be supported by the collaboration of governments in the region for the development of common goals and objectives for the countries of the continent.

Keywords: Latin America, multipolar world, Latin American integration, MERCOSUR, the Pacific Alliance, the Trans-Pacific Partnership, economic stability, foreign policy, political risk.





Skurlov V.V. (Saint Petersburg). Items of modern style (Art Nouveau) and Neo-Russian style in the work of artists and masters of the firm of Faberge………………………………………………………………………146

VALENTIN VASIL’EVICH SKURLOV — Ph.D. in Art History, Expert of the Ministry of culture of the Russian Federation, Scientific Secretary of the Memorial Fund Faberge (Saint Petersburg). 199406, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Nalichnaya ul., 37–3–47. E-mail: valentinskurlov@mail.ru

The task is to investigate the genesis and implementation of Art Nouveau in the works by the world-famous jewelry firm of Faberge. Actuality of the problem is caused by appearance and accumulation of a huge amount of Faberge articles in antique market and in collections, the need for theoretical reasoning of stylistic features, elimination of differences in terminology between foreign and domestic researchers, differentiation of definitions of modern style and solution of the problem of genesis of Neo-Russian style in the work of artists and masters of the firm of Faberge.

Main monographs and catalogues of exhibitions for more than 60 years have been studied, masters of the firm who worked in modern style have been determined, biographies of jeweler Victor Aarne who was named “our Lalique” and Moscow enamel master Fyodor Ryukert are specified. It is established that in general the share of items made in Art Nouveau and Neo-Russian style is at least 5 %, but for the diamond group ― at least 25 %, in the work of V. Aarne ― not less than 20 % and in the production of Fyodor Ryukert’s workshop ― at least 30 %. The artists-composers (designers) who created the designs in these styles were determined, and period of their active functioning for branches in Saint Petersburg and Moscow was defined. This period does not coincide with periodization of architectural modern in both capitals. The influence of customers from privileged classes on creative decisions of designers was revealed. Items in the newest styles were not subject to replication.

The article is intended for historians of jewelry art, antique dealers and art lovers.

Keywords: jewelery, Art Nouveau, Faberge, Neo-Russian style, artists-composers.


Krivoshey D.Y. (Moscow), Skurlov V.V. (Saint Petersburg). Fabergé firm items in collections of monarchy houses of Bulgaria, Serbia and Montenegro (the end of the 19th — beginning of the 20th cent.)…………………………………………160

DMITRY YUREVICH KRIVOSHEY — Independent researcher. 117279, Russian Federation, Moscow, Generala Antonova str., 4–1–172. E-mail: academicien@yandex.com

VALENTIN VASIL’EVICH SKURLOV — Ph.D. in Art History, Expert of the Ministry of culture of the Russian Federation, Scientific Secretary of the Memorial Fund Faberge (Saint Petersburg). 199406, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Nalichnaya ul., 37–3–47. E-mail: valentinskurlov@mail.ru

In the article, we have a task to introduce into scientific circulation the new data about a range and an amount of Fabergé firm art items, which were acquired by some members of Bulgarian, Serbian and Montenegrin dynasties. Dynastic ties between Russian Empire and Serbia and Montenegro let these countries to get monetary subsidies from the Tsar Nicholas II, which led to possibility of spending large amounts of money for Fabergé firm items. Also in the article will be reviewed the amount of gifts by Fabergé firm from the Cabinet of His Imperial Majesty. The main sources of the report are materials of the Cabinet of H.I.M. from funds of the Russian State Historical Archive and “Fabergé’s bookkeeping book, 1909–1916”, which was found out in the State Archive of the Russian Federation.

Keywords: south Slavonic, Bulgaria, Serbia, Montenegro, Fabergé, Russian imperial family, house of Romanov, monarchic houses, gifts, Petrović-Njegoš dynasty, Karadordević dynasty, Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.


Barkova O.N. (Moscow). Anthropology of the Russian literary abroad in 1917–1939: Vera Lurie and Zinaida Vengerova. Forgotten names and fates……………………………………………………………………………165

OL’GA NIKOLAEVNA BARKOVA — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor of the Legal Disciplines Department, Supreme State Audit School (Faculty) of Lomonosov Moscow State University. 119992, Russian Federation, Moscow, GSP-1, Leninskiye Gory, 1, str. 13–14. E-mail: olgabarkova@list.ru

The article focuses on the problem of the personification of the female literary abroad of 1917–1939 in the context of the study of the anthropology of the Russian emigration of the twentieth century. A special emphasis in the article is placed on the coverage of the «personal history» of the women of the Russian diaspora of 1917–1939 — V.O. Lurie and Z.A. Vengerova, who were engaged in literary work and journalistic activities in emigration. The author analyses their separate publications and provide information on various publishing houses and publications that formed the communicative space of the emigrant community of «the first post-revolutionary wave». The article is written on the basis of the archival documents of the Russian Federation State Archive, the memoirs of contemporaries and the press of those years

Keywords: Russian Literary Abroad 1917–1939, Vera Lurie, Zinaida Vengerova, printed word in emigration, anthropology of the Russian emigration of the 20th century.





Sokolov O.V., Eschenko A.O. (Saint Petersburg). Russian diplomacy in Spain in 1812 or German “Khlestakov”……….170

OLEG VALERIEVITCH SOKOLOV — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Institute of History, Saint Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Universitetskaya emb., 7/9. E-mail: sokolov1796@yandex.ru

ANASTASIYA OLEGOVNA ESCHENKO — Master’s degree student, Institute of History, Saint Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Universitetskaya emb., 7/9. E-mail: eshencko.anastasya@yandex.ru

This article is written on the basis of archival sources stored in the Archive of foreign policy of the Russian empire that weren’t previously introduced in the scientific circulation. It continues the theme of Russian diplomacy in Spain during the War for Independence of 1808–1814. It deals with activity of Wallenstein who was personal secretary of Russian chargé d’affaires in Spain P.O. Mohrenheim. Wallenstein was left in order to conduct affairs in Madrid during the departure of Mohrenheim with the court of King Joseph in Valencia on the eve of the entering of the British troops in the Spanish capital. The authors after studying a number of inconsistencies in the early biography of Wallenstein proposed their version of the emergence of this figure in the Russian service, gave an analysis of his activities, his vision of the war in Spain on the basis of synchronous sources.

Keywords: Napoleon, Alexander I, King Joseph, Wallenstein, Mohrenheim, Wellington, Cadiz Constitution, the War for independence of Spain.


Solomakha E.N. (Nizhny Novgorod). Formation of N.L. Rubinstein as historiographer…………………………………….180

ELENA NIKOLAEVNA SOLOMAKHA — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor of the Department of Shakhunsky Branch of Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod. 603022, Russian Federation, Nizhny Novgorod, pr. Gagarina, 23. E-mail: elenasolomakha@yandex.ru

The article reveals the facts of the creative biography of the scholar N.L. Rubinstein, his preparation for writing a fundamental historiographical work. Interest in history manifests itself early, even in the gymnasium years. In the Novorossiysk University, the range of scholarly interests of N.L. Rubinstein were socio-economic history and historiography. Early articles reflect the influence of his teachers, who formed his idea of the importance and necessity of historiographic analysis as an indispensable element in the study of the past. Research work in the libraries, archives of Moscow and Leningrad, editorial, research activities, lecturing in higher educational institutions on national history and historiography in the 1930s are all important steps towards the accumulation of knowledge in the field of general history and historiography, development scholarly methodology, concrete studies on historiography, which later became part of the basic historiographic work.

Keywords: history of the Higher School, historiography, formation of the scholar, N.L. Rubinstein.


Reznikova E.D. (Moscow). P.S. Vannovskii and the effort to solve the problem with student disgust (1899–1901)……..188

EVGENIYA DMITRIEVNA REZNIKOVA — Postgraduate student of the department of the Russian history of the 19th – the beginning of the 20th century, History faculty of the Lomonosov Moscow State University. 117216, Russian Federation, Moscow, Kulikovskaya str, 3–48. E-mail: janika91@yandex.ru

The article represents an outline of P.S. Vannovskii`s activity under the conditions of socio-political crisis in Russia during the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries. At the focus of the author’s attention there is personal and professional approach of Vannovskii to the problems with numerous student riot of that period.

By the end of the 19th century the student movement had strengthened its presence a lot and suffered certain qualitative change. The level of its organization had raised, new political demands had been added to traditional academic request of the abolition of the university issue of 1884.

Different student demonstrations, meetings, walkouts took place more and more frequent and became a common phenomenon of the university life. One of the climaxes of this movement was the student demonstration of 1899, February 8th, timed to the anniversary of the St Petersburg`s University. This article deals with this event as well as the reaction of the government which initiated the investigation of its causes. The results of that investigation (conducted by P.S. Vannovskii) are of primary concern for the author of this article. They are to be the key topic of this outline.

Keywords: P.S. Vannovskii, Union Council, the university, student demonstration of 1899, student walkout, Vannovskii`s investigation, socio-political crisis, Nicolas II, Temporary regulations of 1899.


Budaeva L.A. (Moscow). The Diplomatic activity of the Soviet Ambassador A.M. Kollontay in Sweden during the Great Patriotic War of 1941–1945. The role of personality in international relations…………………………………………………..195

LINA ANDREEVNA BUDAEVA — Postgraduate student in the department of the history of social movements and political parties of Russia of the Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 119991, Russian Federation, Moscow, Lomonosovskiy Prospect, 27/4. E-mail: linabudaeva7@yandex.ru

The article focuses on diplomatic service of the Soviet ambassador A.M. Kollontay in Sweden during the Great Patriotic War. Emphasis in the article is placed on the coverage of the role of the Soviet ambassador A.M. Kollontay in solving two important issues of the foreign policy of the USSR during the Great Patriotic War — Sweden’s adherence to its position of neutrality in the years of war and achieving a truce with Finland in 1944. The author pays attention to the work of A.M. Kollontay aimed to create a truthful image of the USSR in the Swedish society, the organisation of the newsletter of the Soviet Embassy in Sweden, etc. The article was written on the basis of sources of personal origin — diary entries and correspondence of the Soviet ambassador A.M. Kollontay, memoirs of the press secretary of the USSR Embassy in Sweden in 1941-1945 soviet intelligence officer Z.I. Voskresenskaya, reminiscences of diplomat V.I. Erofeev, personal assistant to the Ambassador of the USSR in Sweden in 1942-1944 and others

Keywords: Alexandra Kollontay, Zoya Voskresenskaya, Soviet Embassy in Sweden, Great Patriotic War of 1941–1945, Soviet-Swedish relations, Soviet-Finnish relations, counterpropaganda.





Grinёv A.V. (Saint Petersburg). Siberia and Russian America on pages of the monograph of Dittmar Dahlmann…………202

ANDREI VAL’TEROVICH GRINEV — Doctor in Historical Sciences, Professor of the Higher School of Social Sciences of the Humanities Institute, Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University. 195251, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Polytechnicheskaya, 29. E-mail: agrinev1960@mail.ru

The review is devoted to a brief survey of the contents of fundamental monograph of German Professor Dittmar Dahlman on the history of Siberia from ancient times to the present which was published recently in Russian. The author focuses on the problems of conquest, exploration and colonization of the vast Siberian region and Russian America. In parallel, the author concerns the situation with the indigenous population, analyzes the contribution of German scientists to the study of Siberia, writes about the Siberian ecology and touches on many other topics. The review indicates that the work of D. Dalman represents a certain value in three aspects. First of all, it acquaints the reader with the specific view of the foreign academic on the problems of Russian history. Secondly, the book introduces the scientific data of many rare and little-known German sources and information from contemporary foreign literature. Thirdly, the work of Professor Dalman allows us to present more visibly the contribution that German and, in general, foreign travelers and scientists have made to the development of Siberia. Despite certain advantages, the monograph under review is not without some shortcomings of a general and a private nature, as also mentioned in the review.

Keywords: Siberia, Siberian natives, geographical discoveries, Russian colonization of Siberia and Alaska.


Losik A.V., Sherba A.N. (Saint Petersburg). Ego-sources of the great Patriotic war: their role and importance in the understanding of the phenomenon of war (Review of the book: «This is my war: the Great Patriotic war in the written and visual ego-documents. Collection documents» / Ed. by A. Yu. Rozhkov, I. G. Tajidinova. Krasnodar: Tradition, Pabl., 2016)………………………………………………………206

ALEXANDER VITALIAVICH LOSIK — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the Baltic state technical university “Voenmech” D.F. Ustinov, deputy editor of the journal “KLIO”. 197374, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Shkoljnaya ul., 88–2–81. E-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru

ALEXANDER NIKOLAEVICH SHERBA — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Researcher of Research Department (military history of North-western region of Russian Federation), Research institute (of military history), Military Academy of the General Staff. 191055, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Nevskiy pr., 10. E-mail: a.n.sherba@maiil.ru

In recent years, many historians base their research on documents of a personal origin. Their contents often allows for a different way to interpret many of the events, phenomena and processes of war, and sometimes to reconstruct them. Is sufficiently reliably and convincingly shown in the work of the Krasnodar scientists “This is my war: the Great Patriotic in the written and visual ego-documents”. A collection of documents. Edited by A.Yu. Rozhkov, I.G. Tajidinova. Krasnodar, 2016, 592 p. the collection contains personal documents: diaries, notebooks, letters, poems, school essays, drawings, photographs created during the war years in the army, in the rear and under occupation. These materials reflect primarily the daily life of various categories of Soviet people, their perception of the war, the duma and the aspirations in the period of the war years.

Keywords. Ego-documents of the Great Patriotic war, soldiers, diaries, letters, school essays, collection.


Plaksin V.N. (Voronezh). Review of the publication: Grigorova V.A. Handicraft industries of the Central Chernozem region on the way to modernization (the second half of the 19th — early 20th centuries.). Voronezh, FGBOU VO “VGTU” Publ., 2017…………………………………………………………………………………209

VICTOR NIKOLAEVICH PLAKSIN — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Dean of the Humanitarian and Law Faculty, Professor, Head of the Chair of General Legal and Humanitarian Disciplines, Voronezh State Agrarian University named after Emperor Peter the Great. 394087, Russian Federation, Voronezh, Michurin, 1. E-mail: barys-yuliya@yandex.ru

The article is review on the monograph of V.A. Grigorova “Handicraft industries of the Central Chernozem region on the way to modernization (the second half of the 19th — early 20th centuries)” (Voronezh, FGBOU VO “VGTU” Publ., 2017. 291 p.), dedicated to the history of the formation and development of artisan industry in the Central Chernozem region. The article emphasizes that the monograph is written based on numerous archival documents, which gives it a fundamental importance. The author traces the modernization of the handicraft industries of the region in the period from the second half of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century. For the first time, the process of transition of local and related industries to industrial production is analyzed: the state of development of handicraft industry in the post-reform period is revealed, the role of artisanal handicrafts in the development of the regional economy is determined, the process of implementing state policy in the sphere of handicraft production in the conditions of the reforms of the 1860–1870s.

Keywords: monograph, handicraft industry, crafts, Central Chernozem.




A word to teacher. To the 95th anniversary of R.Y. Khabibullina………………………………………………212

This publication contains memories of people of different age and profession. But there is one thing in common that unites all of them. The feelings of deep gratitude to your beloved Master, Mentor and Friend — Raisa Yakovlevna Khabibullina.

August 18, 2017, Raisa Yakovlevna Khabibullina celebrated her 95th birthday. She was born in one year with the Soviet Union and along with the country went a long way, marked as joyful, and sad, and sometimes even tragic events. Almost half a century of her life, Raisa Yakovlevna Khabibullina devoted herself to the historical faculty of the Leningrad State University. Here she was formed as a talented scholar and an outstanding lecturer, a teacher who prepared hundreds of historians-researchers. Her attention to the students, caring for them forever left a feeling of gratitude in their hearts. The desire to express it to Raisa Yakovlevna Khabibullina, to congratulate her on a remarkable anniversary, encouraged her former students, and also friends, to write memoirs about her and share them with the general public and the scholarship community.

Keywords: memories, students, friends, teacher, mentor, gratitude.

Publication is prepared by Olga Nikolaevna Eroshkina

198510, Saint Petersburg, Petrodvorets, Dashkevicha st., 11–a/9–2.

E-mail: o.eroshkina@mail.ru