Klio # 9 (153) 2019





Artemenkova K.P. (Saint Petersburg). «Father Le Loutre`s War» (1749–1755) in the reflection of the newspaper «Sanktpeterburgskie vedomosti» ………………………………………………………………… 13

KSENIA PAVLOVNA ARTEMENKOVA — 3rd year student of baccalaureate, Department of Modern and Contemporary History, Institute of History, Saint Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya Emb., 7–9. E-mail: artemen-ksen@mail.ru.

The article is devoted to the history of the Anglo-French and Indian War in Nova Scotia (Acadia), unknown in the Russian and incompletely studied in foreign historiography – “Father Le Loutre’s War” (1749–1755). Based on the materials of the newspaper “Sanktpeterburgskie vedomosti”, it is reported about the course of the war, its causes and methods of conducting of the war used by British and French colonists and Indians. The paper also explores the official position of England and France in regard to this war in North America. The military-strategic importance of Nova Scotia region in resolving more than a century of rivalry between England and France for the possession of the North American continent is also revealed. The article describes “Father Le Loutre’s War” as a stage leading to the “French and Indian War” in North America and the “Seven Years` War” in Europe.

Keywords: USA, Canada, “Father Le Loutre’s War”, “Anglo-Micmac War”, Nova Scotia, Acadia, Halifax, Edward Cornwallis.


Akhmadullin V.A. (Moscow). Anthology of errors in archival documents and ways to overcome them to ensure the reliability of historical research (on the example of studying the policy of the USSR in relation to Muslims) ……………………………………………………………………………………… 22

VYACHESLAV ABDULOVICH AKHMADULLIN — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Senior Research Scientist of the Russian Council of Muftis, Senior Researcher of the Moscow Islamic Institute. 129090, Russian Federation, Moscow, Vypolzov pereulok, 7. orcid.org/0000-0003-4441-2384, e-mail: slavaah@yandex.ru

The article contains analysis of the Soviet state activities in administration of the Muslim Spiritual Authorities the policy in relation to Muslims was an important element of the political history of the USSR. Starting from 1944 this policy was implemented mostly through the Council for Religious Affairs at the Council of People’s Commissars of the USSR / Council of Ministers of the USSR. During more than twenty years of its activities it prepared a big number of papers which reflect different sides of life of the Soviet Muslims. Still, thorough analysis of these materials and documents such as acts, decisions, and opinions by the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of the Bolsheviks, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, and the Council of Peoples’ Commissars/Ministers of the Soviet Union, is of great scientific and practical value. One of the main problems during research оf above mentioned papers and other governmental bodies. In article you will find the analysis of several mistakes and provided its narrators classification.

Keywords: Soviet Muslims, Council for the Affairs of religious cults, Muslim religious board, Muslim education system, madrasah, Public-Muslim relations, UN.


Yakovlevа A.E. (Saint Petersburg). Coverage in the Soviet press of the history of Germany’s accession to NATO ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 27

ANNA EVGEN’EVNA YAKOVLEVА — Postgraduate student, Department of Modern and Contemporary History, Institute of History of Saint Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Mendeleevskaya line, 5. E-mail: pavlovaanna@mail.ru

The entry of the Federal Republic of Germany into NATO in May 1955 legally shaped the beginning of the remilitarization process of West Germany by including the country in the military defensive blocs, which was opposed by the Soviet Union. For a long time, attempts to create national West German military units under the control of allies were a topical issue for the Soviet press. The article discusses the coverage of the key moments of the Federal Republic of Germany rearmament in the periodical press of the USSR: France’s refusal to ratify the European Defence Community Treaty; the search for new ways of incorporating the German military contingent into the European defense system; pressure on France by America and Konrad Adenauer; the conclusion of the Paris Agreements; popular actions against the remilitarization of the Federal Republic of Germany in the countries of Western and Eastern Europe; the entry of Germany into NATO.

Keywords: rearmament of West Germany, enlargement of NATO, European Defence Community, West Germany (FRG), Soviet press, Western European Union, German Question, European integration.





Ishchenko A.S. (Novocherkassk). Oleg the Prophet in contemporary historiography ……………………………… 35

ALEKSANDR SERGEEVICH ISHCHENKO — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Department of History, Philosophy and Social Technologies, Novocherkassk Institute of Engineering and Land Reclamation, Don State Agrarian University. 346416, Russian Federation, Novocherkassk, per. Zavodskoy, 9a. E-mail: ischenko-2010@mail.ru

The monographs of E.V. Pchelov and V.M. Rychka, dedicated to the life of Prince Oleg the Prophet, are analysed. Attention is paid to their features. It is shown that these works, published with a difference of a year, represent two different views on the biography of the old Russian Prince and his historical image. The book of E.V. Pchelov was written in the classical biography genre. V.M. Rychka focuses his work not so much on the life of the prince as on his image, especially on the perception and reconstruction of his biography by chroniclers and historians. Both works have both advantages and some disadvantages. E.V. Pchelov underestimate the symbolism of many chronicles about Oleg, and interprets them mostly literally. V.M. Rychka, on the contrary, gives preference to the symbolic reading of texts, describing the activities of the prince.

Keywords: E.V. Pchelov, V.M. Rychka, Oleg the Prophet, chronicle, reconstruction, symbolism, historical memory.





Sidorenko L.V. (Saint Petersburg). The problem of Tory counter-revolution in the first decades after the Glorious Revolution ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 40

LEONID VLADIMIROVICH SIDORENKO — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Department of Modern and Contemporary History, Saint Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya Emb., 7/9. E-mail: l.sidorenko@spbu.ru

The article examines the evolution of the Tory faction from the Glorious Revolution of 1688–1689 till the Hanoverian succession in 1714 in the context of the analysis of its counter-revolution through the threat to the revolutionary regime. The author examines the ideology of the Tory faction before and after the revolution, its connection with the High Church movement, the tactics of political struggle against Whigs and the system of relations with post-revolutionary monarchs William III and Anne. The article concludes that the Tories could not agree with the methodology of the change of Royal power, remaining faithful to the traditional ideas of the divine right of kings, in which they were supported by representatives of the High Church. Although this ensured the well-known counter-revolution of the Tories, they never became open Jacobites, remaining part of the political system that emerged as a result of the Glorious Revolution, which allows us to consider the counter-revolution of the Tories only as element of their political struggle in the post-revolutionary reality.

Keywords: The Glorious Revolution, counter-revolution, Tories, Whigs, Jacobites, the Hanoverian succession, the divine right of kings, nonresistance theory, passive obedience.


Boode M.A. (Saint Petersburg). From the United States to Confederate: Florida on Its Way to Secession ……. 48

MARK ANDRESOVICH BOODE — 3rd year student of Baccalaureate, Department of Medieval History, Institute of History, Saint-Petersburg State University. 192029, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Olga Bergholz Str., 17–69. E-mail: mark.boode00@gmail.com

The article attempts at tracking down the processes in the political environment of Florida at the end of 1840s and 1850s which led to Florida’s departure from the United States of America. Chronologically, the article covers the period between 1848, marked by the conclusion of the Mexican-American war and discussion of territorial expansion matters, and 1861, when the secession took place. This research aims to provide a stage-by-stage description of the secessionist movement development within Florida and determine the main causes of its departure in the early 1861. Such main causes are identified as a split in the Democratic party at the national level which took place at the 1860 party Convention, and considerable radicalization of Florida political elite supported by the governor’s office and a significant number of mass media sources. And last but not the least role was played by skillful manipulation of public opinion existing in Florida in the 1850s. Further, this article studies the opposition of democrats, whigs, nativists, and to a lesser extent, republicans to analyze the mood spectrum within the state and makes conclusions about Florida’s position in the southern political system. The closing section of the article offers a brief summary of several military actions in January 1861 when the state’s militia was gaining control over the federal property throughout the peninsula (in preparation for the forthcoming secession). The article is based on a wide variety of sources including a considerable number of periodicals published in Florida in the middle of the 19th century.

Keywords: American Civil War, Florida, the Old South, secessionism in the USA, sectional crisis.


Nasibova A.S. (Saratov). «Football diplomacy» of Turkey and Armenia: prehistory and aftermath ………………. 57

AITEN SOKHRAB KZY NASIBOVA — Postgraduate student of the Department of International Relations and Russian Foreign Policy of the Institute of History and International Relations, Saratov National Research State University named after N.G. Chernyshevsky. 410007, Russian Federation, Saratov, Panchenko St., 4/5, ap. 6. E-mail: ayten-nasibova@mail.ru

The article is devoted to the analysis of the political relations of Turkey and Armenia in 2008–2010. The author considers the background of bilateral relations that has developed since the collapse of the Soviet Union. In addition, analyzed the factors that led to the rapprochement of Ankara and Yerevan in 2008. Among them are the strategic interests of Turkey and Armenia in establishing diplomatic relations, pressure from border regions and intergovernmental organizations of both countries, a change in the political map of the South Caucasus region, which developed after the Georgian-Ossetian conflict in 2008. Special emphasis is placed on the Azerbaijani factor in the dynamics of Turkish-Armenian political relations. It is concluded that the reconciliation and the soon-coming recession in political relations between Turkey and Armenia were the result of a redistribution of the balance of power in the South Caucasus.

Keywords: diplomatic relations, South Caucasus, Armenian-Turkish relations, Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, region, «Five-day» war, unconventional weapons, protocol.


Nikitin L.V., Pavlova O.Y. (Chelyabinsk). Edinburgh and Charlotte vs. London and New York: The History of the «Second Capital Cities» in Banking Systems of the United Kingdom and the United States (1970–2010s) …………………………………………………………………………………… 62

LEONID VITALIEVICH NIKITIN — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Department of World History, South Ural State Humanitarian and Pedagogical University. 454080, Russian Federation, Chelyabinsk, Lenin Pr., 69; Department of International Relations, Political Science and Regional Studies, South Urals State University. 454080, Russian Federation, Chelyabinsk, Lenin Pr., 76. E-mail: lnd2001nikitin@mail.ru

OLGA YURIEVNA PAVLOVA — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Department of Foreign Languages, South Ural State Humanitarian and Pedagogical University. 454080, Russian Federation, Chelyabinsk, Lenin Pr., 69. E-mail: o.yu.pavlova@mail.ru

Based on statistical and other materials, the article discusses two largely similar precedents for the rapid strengthening of banking “vice capitals” (Edinburgh in the UK and Charlotte in the USA), which have become serious competitors for the absolute financial leaders of their countries (respectively, London and New York). The authors show that in this ascent, which began in the 1970s and 1980s, not only economic factors, but also historical interregional differences played an important role. Along with that, the growth of banks of Edinburgh and Charlotte, especially in the 2000s, was largely based on risky mortgage instruments, which led to heavy losses during the crisis of 2008–2009. However, under the post-crisis business recovery, both cities remain very important financial nodes, maintaining competitiveness and increasing efficiency of the national banking systems.

Keywords: history of banks, 1970–2010s, competition, the UK, the USA, Edinburgh, Charlotte.





Puchina T.A. (Moscow). The phenomenon of «sovereign» Cossack army of the 16th–17th centuries ……………….. 70

TATYANA ANATOLYEVNA PUCHINA — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Department of Social and Humanitarian and General Legal Disciplines, Moscow University of Finance and Law. 117342, Russian Federation, Moscow, Vvedenskogo St., 1A. E-mail: tat1472@yandex.ru

The article presents a historiographical review of the subject of corporate devices the Moscow state in 16th–17th centuries on the example of the military service groups of the Cossacks. The creation of a system of military service corporations “instrument service” on the southern borders of the state contributed to the successful solution of a number of tasks: the formation of the administrative system, the effective organization of military service and economic development of new territories in the process of state colonization of the South of Russia. The conclusion is made about the fragmentary interest of domestic researchers in this topic, despite the fact that to clarify the mechanism of formation of the state territory of Russia in the process of colonization of the southern regions, it is important to turn to a comprehensive study of the composition of new social groups that develop this territory. Evolution of the views of historians on the question of the nature and location of the service corporations Cossack life in the structure of Russian society in the 17th century became the subject of consideration in this article. The main approaches of domestic historians to the theme of creation and organizational registration of the state Cossack service in the specified period are given. The data collected by the author on the basis of the documentary material of the Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts, characterizing the scale and dynamics of the Cossack service, departmental affiliation and the number of Cossack corporations are presented.

Keywords: Moscow state, army of the Moscow state, state colonization of the South of Russia, military service groups, service “on the device, Cossack service, corporations “city Cossacks”, historiography.





Sharafiev E.I. (Kazan). Newspaper «Keräşen süze» and its collections in the context of studying the history of Tatar-Kryashens of the Republic of Tatarstan in the post-soviet period ……………………………………… 77

EMIL ILHAMUTDINOVICH SHARAFIEV — Applicant, Sh. Marjani Institute of History of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences. E-mail: magdiev.emil@gmail.com

The article is devoted to one of the most important public, cultural and educational institutions of Kryashens of the Republic of Tatarstan in the 1990s – early 2000s – the newspaper “Keräşen süze”. For several years the periodical in question was the only specialized press media in the Republic, endeavouring to highlight the life of the representatives of this ethno-confessional community in a variety of ways. The author carries out a detailed analysis of the most famous and significant collections of this periodical, and also concerns the problems of their completeness and preservation. It also addresses a number of issues related to various aspects of the history of this newspaper: its causes and prerequisites, management, editorial staff, organizational structure, livelihoods. A detailed analysis of its internal and external features are given, the content and orientation are briefly characterized. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of statistical data of the press, identification the relevant trends therein.

Keywords: Kryashens, “Keräşen süze” (“Slovo kryashen”), “Keräşen xäbäre”, L.D. Belousova, A.V. Fokin, Yamaş İgänäy (A.N. Malov), N.P. Antonov, social and ethnocultural movement of Kryashens, Republic of Tatarstan.





Rysev S.E. (Saint Petersburg). Dragons and Beasts: At the Dawn of Christianity ……………………………………. 88

SERGEY EVGEN’EVICH RYSEV — Independent researcher, translator. 193079, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Oktyabr’skaya Emb., 70–1–114. E-mail: se-rysev@mail.ru

The article examines in detail the chapters of the book of Revelation (Apocalypse), in which feature monstrous creatures represented as antagonists of those who are called ‘saints’ and ‘martyrs of Jesus’ in the book. The content of given chapters is interpreted by means of data given in the works of Josephus and in the Acts. Besides, in the article, the analyzed part of the Revelation is repeatedly compared with the prophetic chapters of the book of Daniel, which allows to specify the date of the latter. Proceeding from such juxtapositions, a conclusion is drawn that, in chapters 12 and 13 of the Revelation, the events described are arranged in a strict chronological order. The author of the article proposes identifications of the heads and horns of the creatures, offers an original interpretation of the number of the beast and suggests the date of the book. Also, attention is drawn to the figure of Judas the Galilean mentioned by Josephus and in the Acts.

Keywords: Apocalypse, book of Daniel, Seleucides, Hasmoneans, Herod, Roman Empire, Julius Caesar, Caligula, Agrippa I, census, Jewish War.


Okroshidze L.G. (Moscow). Picturesque portraits of Emperor Charles IV as elements of religious propaganda and the glorification of power …………………………………………………………..90

LIYA GURAMIEVNA OKROSHIDZE — Postgraduate student of the Department of General History of Art at the Faculty of History of Lomonosov Moscow State University. 119192, Russian Federation, Moscow, Lomonosovsky pr., 27/4. E-mail: vaudetar@gmail.com

The article deals with the elements of religious propaganda during the reign of Emperor Charles IV, which is considered to be the Golden age in the history of the Bohemia. This became possible due to the fact that the emperor actively patronized art, and he was also a very devout person. Throughout his life, Karl showed a special attitude to the relics that were brought to Prague. A patron has become a center around which a cultural environment is formed, and interest in a portrait in such a situation directly depends on the interest in a person. The article notes that the paintings of Karlstejn castle played a key role in the glorification of the Royal power, in which the emperor’s activity was reflected. Almost every significant space of the Сastle contains images of the emperor. Thanks to the representation of the monarch’s image as a donor in scenes with relics and in front of the patron saints, the portrait genre got the opportunity to actively developing. Along with the Karlstejn, portraits of the emperor appear in St. Vitus Cathedral, which was built by his decree. It is concluded that after the death of Karl IV, the eminent ruler did not appear on the throne, and, as a result, the art of portraiture declines. Paris has become the new artistic center for the development of this genre, where King Charles V the Wise rules.

Keywords: Medieval art, portrait, Bohemia, Charles IV.


Panichkin A.P. (Saint Petersburg). On the significance of studying the history of the Saint Petersburg Eparchy …………………………………………………………………………………………. 96

ALEXANDER PHILIPPOVICH PANICHKIN — Candidate of Theology, Mitred Archpriest, Assistant Chief of the Military Educational and Scientific Centre of the Navy “The Naval Academy named after Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union N.G. Kuznetsov”, Senior Priest of the St. Paul the Confessor and St. Righteous Warrior Feodor Ushakov Church in the Peter the Great Naval Corps (St. Petersburg). 192023, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Elizarova Pr., 10, apt. 282. E-mail: alpriest13@yandex.ru

The article discusses the establishment of the Saint Petersburg Eparchy and its importance for the Russian Orthodox Church. It states the grounds that prompted Peter I to be wary of opening the new diocese and the principles applied to select its archbishop, tells about the establishment of an ecclesiastical school in the new capital city and the goals it had to achieve, gives information on the composition and educational background of the school teaching staff as well as the transformations of the school in the course of time. In addition, the article describes the prospects for the graduates and teachers of the theological school and tells about old believers in Saint Petersburg and their activities. Finally, the author provides a number of findings and conclusions instrumental for understanding the importance of studying the history of the Saint Petersburg Eparchy for a successful insight into the church reforms conducted by Peter I.

Keywords: Saint Petersburg Eparchy, Saint Petersburg Theological Academy, Saint Petersburg Theological Seminary, old believers in Saint Petersburg, teachers and students of Saint Petersburg theological schools, ecclesiastical reforms in the Russian Orthodox Church.


Solomakha E.N., Brusnikin R.M., Ryzhakova E.V. (Nizhni Novgorod). Traditions and innovations: historical and cultural environment of the capital of Golden Khokhloma ……………………………………… 103

ELENA NIKOLAEVNA SOLOMAKHA — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor of the Department of Dzerzhinsky Branch of Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod. 603098, Russian Federation, Nizhny Novgorod, Prospekt Gagarina, 23. E-mail: elenasolomakha@yandex.ru

ROMAN MIKHAYLOVICH BRUSNIKIN — Assistant lecturer of the Department of Dzerzhinsky Branch of Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod. 603098, Russian Federation, Nizhny Novgorod, Prospekt Gagarina, 23. E-mail: brusrm@yandex.ru

ELENA VLADIMIROBNA RYZHAKOVA — Ph.D. in Culturology, Senior Lecturer, Dzerzhinsky Branch of Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod. 603098, Russian Federation, Nizhny Novgorod, Prospekt Gagarina, 23. E-mail: r_and_l@mail.ru

The article is devoted to the preservation of the traditions of Khokhloma painting, the stages of production are analyzed, a historical overview of the formation and development of the craft, a historiographical review of studies on Khokhloma is given. Fisheries have long stepped on an industrial level. The enterprise of the Order of the Badge of Honor of JSC Khokhloma Painting is an industrial enterprise that preserves traditions and forms the historical and cultural environment of the whole city. Historical consciousness is formed in everyday life, upbringing and environment. The very environment of Semenov, the capital of the Golden Khokhloma, promotes life in the native culture and transmits the experience and skills of Khokhloma painting from generation to generation. The organization and holding of the Golden Khokhloma International Festival is aimed at popularizing the identity of folk art crafts, determining their territorial features and significance for preserving the history and culture of Russia. The products of this enterprise are widely represented abroad and are the visiting card of the Russian Federation at many international events organized by the first persons of the country and the government. According to the laws of modern design, painting elements are applied to all kinds of surfaces of various objects. For example, the decor with traditional painting can be seen on such items as stops, public and transit vehicles, dishes, clothes, furniture, fire extinguishers and even airplanes.

Keywords: industrial enterprise, historical consciousness, tradition, Khokhloma painting, historical and cultural environment, technology of painting, international Khokhloma festival.


Skurlov V.V. (Saint Petersburg). Creative interaction of his Majesty’s Cabinet with the Imperial Society for the Encouragement of Arts. 1911–1914 …………………………………………………………………………. 110

VALENTIN VASIL’EVICH SKURLOV — Doctor of Art History, Expert of the Ministry of Culture of the Russian Federation, Scientific Secretary of the Memorial Fund Faberge. 199406, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Nalichnaya St., 37–3–47. E-mail: valentinskurlov@mail.ru

The article is considered for the first time the cooperation of artists of the Imperial society for the encouragement of arts and Drawing school of the society when designing the sketches of the gifts (prizes) for the office of his Majesty’s in 1911–1914. It is noted that the first contacts of the Cabinet and Drawing school began in the late 1880s, and the graduates of the School worked in jewelry firms – suppliers of the Highest court and his Majesty’s Cabinet. The articles of the art critic Alexander Benois (1910) and the chief master of the Faberge Franz Bierbaum (1914) describes the activities of professors Bilibin, Shuko, Director of the Roerich and students of the Drawing school at the execution of creative projects, theme-related activities Cameral Department of the Cabinet of his Majesty. A list of artists and students of the School and the society for the encouragement of arts who participated in the development of projects for the Cabinet, fees, list of works, the provision on Tenders for building projects, examined the probability of realization of projects of the jewelry firms is considered a critical assessment of the projects. The information about publications of projects in the editions of the Drawing school are given.

Keywords: artists, his Majesty’s Cabinet, society of encouragement of arts, prizes, gifts, design projects.





Fedorova A.V. (Orenburg). Training of military personnel in the Chkalov region in the years of the Great Patriotic War ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 116

ALLA VLADIMIROVNA FEDOROVA — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Department of History and Philosophy, Orenburg State Agrarian University. 460000, Russian Federation, Orenburg, per. Svobodina, 1–46. E-mail: istogau@yandex.ru

Chkalov region was one of the USSR centers for training of military personnel during the Great Patriotic War. In the area there were 40 different military educational institutions. However, to date, the history of some military schools of the South Ural military district has not been considered by historians. The article deals with the four military educational institutions South Ural military district that were out of sight of researchers. The author considers the process of picking Sorochinskaya machine-gunners school, school of sniper training, military courses of junior commanders of radio-telegraph operators and district courses of technicians for regimental and anti-tank artillery. Statistical data relating to the replenishment of front commander’s staff and specialists in various fields are presented. Archival documents of the Central archive of the Ministry of defence of the Russian Federation are used.

Keywords: Great Patriotic War, Chkalov oblast, South Ural military district, military schools, machine-gun school, sniper, radio telegraphist.


Politov I.V. (Saint Petersburg). Activities of the Military Council of the Red Banner Baltic Fleet in the initial period of the Great Patriotic War ……………………………………………………………………….. 122

IGOR VITALEVICH POLITOV — Postgraduate student, Department of Public Administration, North-Western Institute of management – branch of the Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration. 199178, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Sredny prospect V.O., 57/43. E-mail: i.polit@mail.ru

The article deals with the peculiarities of organizational and administrative activities of military authorities during the war from June 22 to December 31, 1941 at the Baltic theater of operations. The article reveals the structure of the management bodies of the Military Council of the Red Banner Baltic Fleet, the transformation of the military-political management bodies, the factors influencing the change in the structure of the management bodies and the algorithm of management decisions. It describes the operational and strategic situation at the time of the entry of units and formations of the Red Banner Baltic fleet in the war. The new system of basing the Red Banner Baltic Fleet on the Baltic theater of operations is shown, its advantages and disadvantages are considered. The organization of command, combat and operational control of units and formations of the Red Banner Baltic Fleet during the war from June 22 to December 31, 1941 is considered.

Keywords: Military Council, the Red Banner Baltic Fleet, the Leningrad Front, governing bodies, authority.


Kokoshina Z.A. (Moscow). CSTO military exercises in the system of measures to ensure the safety of the members of the Organization ……………………………………………………………………… 130

ZLATA ANDREEVNA KOKOSHINA — Researcher at the Institute for Socio-Political Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 119333, Russian Federation, Moscow, Fotieva St., 6. E-mail: isprass@gmail.com

The article discusses the activities of the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) in the territory of the member countries of this organization. Antiterrorist exercises are an important component of its activities, since the purpose of the exercises is to prepare the CSTO countries to counter various potential threats. The organization has worked out the exercise algorithms. Such exercises as “Interaction”, “Thunder”, “Frontier”, “Cobalt”, “Indestructible Brotherhood”, “Search”, as well as a number of more private exercises within the “Combat Brotherhood” exercise were repeatedly held in the territory of the CSTO member countries. In addition, since peacekeeping is one of the main functions of the Organization, in a number of exercises the CSTO fulfills the tasks of conducting operations under a UN mandate. In recent years, the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation have used the Syrian experience in exercises, which plays an increasingly important role in their conduct. The purpose of this article is to review examples of these exercises over the past 8–10 years, their tasks, the composition and actions of the participants, the military and special equipment involved.

Keywords: military exercises, CSTO, security, military and special equipment, armed forces.





Saparov D.D. (Saint Petersburg). Essay on the life and work of a communications engineer S.N. Kulzhinsky (1874–1941) ………………………………………………………………………………. 141

DMITRY DMITRIEVICH SAPAROV — Postgraduate student, Department of History of the Nations of the Commonwealth of Independent States, The Institute of History, St. Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Mendeleev line, 5. E-mail: saparov93@yandex.ru

The article is dedicated to the fate of the prominent engineer of Russian Railways Sergey Nikolayevich Kulzhinsky (1874–1941). The author analyzes the surviving materials of the personal fund and archival documents on the basis of which a biographical article has been prepared. The article considers the labor and scientific activities of S.N. Kulzhinsky during his work at the Engineering Council under the Ministry of Railways, the Special High Commission for a comprehensive study of railway business in Russia, at the Technical Council at the People’s Commissariat of Railways, when an engineer actively combined scientific work with practical activities in railway transport. Based on the preserved correspondence of S.N. Kulzhinsky with his family, the author recreates the picture of everyday life in the Amur camp at the settlement of Magdagachi station. The conclusion provides a complete bibliographic list of his scientific works.

Keywords: Sergey Kulzhinsky, Russian railways, economic history, Chinese Eastern Railway, South Eastern Railway, Special high commission for a comprehensive study of the railway industry in Russia, NKPS Technical Council, BAMlag, Amurlag.


Yurganova I.I. (Yakutsk, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)). The hero of his time: an intellectual, a rebel, a madman? (The diaries of the priest F. Sivtsev) …………………………………………………………. 154

INNA IGOREVNA YURGANOVA — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Leading Researcher, Institute for Humanities Research and Indigenous Studies of the North Federal Research Centre “Yakut Scientific Center of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences”. 677027, Russian Federation, Republic Of Sakha (Yakutia), Yakutsk, Petrovskogo St., 1. E-mail: inna.yurganova@mail.ru. orcid.org/0000-0002-7751-8540.

The article attempts to describe the characteristics of the behavioral strategy of the spiritual estate of one of the remote outskirts of the state – the Yakut region, in the context of revolutionary events and the time of the Civil War. For example, the personal assessment of a priest Fedor Gavrilovich Sivtsev and on the basis, for the first time introduced into scientific circulation, journal entries, addresses the perception-minded individual selection of my past and present. Diary entries of Yakut intellectuals in the first generation, who was involved in the cycle of political events, give an idea of the events of the first decade of Soviet power in the national outskirts. In the ego-document there is an analysis of specific situations of a particular time allowing to reconstruct subjective pictures of the real world, reflecting the objective reality and the inner world of the subject, his understanding of the meaning and significance of his own belonging to cultural memory.

Keywords: priest F.G. Sivtsev, ego-documents, Yakut region, Yakut diocese, Bishop Sofrony (Arefyev), Yakut clergy, behavioral strategy, national Yakut intelligentsia, intellectual potential, cultural memory.





Massov A.Y. (Saint Petersburg). Review of the book: G.I. Kanevskaya «To Populate or perish». Immigration policy of Australia (19 – beginning of 21 centuries). Vladivostok: Publishing house of the Far East Federal University, 2017 ……………………………………………………………………………… 160

ALEXANDER YAKOVLEVICH MASSOV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor in History, Head of the Department of History and Cultural Studies, Saint Petersburg State Marine Technical University, Professor of the Master’s program “Pacific Studies” at the Department of American Studies, Saint Petersburg State University. 198328, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Kuznetsova St., 29–1–102. E-mail: amassov@gmail.com

A small monograph by professor of the Far Eastern Federal University Galina Kanevskaya is, in fact, the first comprehensive study in Russian historiography on Australian immigration policy over a more than 200-year period of its implementation. The peer-reviewed work is based on legislative acts and documents of the governments of Australian colonies and the Australian Commonwealth, materials from the Australian archives, publications in the press and memoirs. The monograph examines both the socio-economic and political aspects of the implementation of immigration policy. The author estimates the efforts of the Commonwealth Government to create a well-thought-out and effective system for its realisation at the present stage. Kanevskaya comes to a fairly reasonable conclusion that the quantitative characteristics of Australian society are largely the result of a targeted immigration policy.

Keywords: Australia, immigration policy, multiculturalism, White Australia policy, migrations, Diasporas.


Losik A.V., Grigoriev M.N. (Saint Petersburg). The most important source of military and economic mobilization during the First world war (review of the scientific reference edition of T.V. Alekseev «Industry of Russia – to the front of the First World War». St. Petersburg, Moya stroka Publ., 2017) ……………………………………………………………………………. 164

ALEXANDER VITALIEVICH LOSIK — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Deputy editor-in-chief of the scholarly journal «Klio». 197374, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Shkolnaya St., 88–2–81. E-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru

MIKHAIL NIKOLAEVICH GRIGORIEV — Ph.D. in Engineering Sciences, Professor, Professor of the Baltic State Technical University «Voenmekh» named after D.F. Ustinov. 195253, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Energetikov Pr., 62–60.

The article analyzes the scientific reference publication of T.V. Alekseev, devoted to the important and still very urgent problem of military and economic mobilization of the state during the World War. Considering this problem on the example of Russia during the First World War, the author cites in the publication of more than 8 thousand enterprises of the manufacturing industries of Russia involved in the implementation of defense orders in 1914–1918. In Addition to the above, the publication includes data on the production activities of 295 elementary, secondary and higher educational institutions of Russia. Published information about the production of Russian industry of various products for the army and Navy, as well as products of industrial consumption for the most mobilized industry is of interest to specialists dealing with the problems of military history, the history of the domestic military-industrial complex, as well as for all those interested in the history of the First World War.

Keywords: World War I, Russian industry, military-economic mobilization, industrial enterprises, tanneries, workshops of educational institutions.





Ippolitov G.M. (Samara). The review of the dissertation of E.N. Kalugina «Military commissariats of the Southern Urals during the Great Patriotic War (1941–1945)» presented for the degree of candidate of historical sciences, specialty 07.00.02 – National history ……………………………………. 168

GEORGY MIKHAILOVICH IPPOLITOV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Professor of the Department of National History and Archaeology, Samara State Socio-Pedagogical University. 443010, Russian Federation, Samara, L. Tolstoy St., 23. E-mail: gippolitov@rambler.ru

The review of the official opponent on the candidate dissertation of Kalugina Elena “Military commissariats of the Southern Urals during the Great Patriotic War (1941–1945)” reveals its positive aspects, as well as individual shortcomings that are not systemic in nature and do not reduce the quality of this qualification work. It is concluded that the applicant deserves the award of the required degree Ph.D. in History in the specialty 07.00.02 – domestic history.

Keywords: official opponent, E.N. Kalugina, the sources base, scientific thesis, dissertation, research novelty, the applicant, the Southern Urals, the Great Patriotic War, military commissariats, the experience of military mobilization, accounting recruiting and social work, K.K. Rokossovsky.