Klio #9 (165) 2020


Postnikova A.A. (Yekaterinburg). Moscow in 1812: Russian campaign as represented by the soldiers of Napoleon’s Great Army...................................................................13

PHD in history, associate professor, senior researcher at the “Scientific and Educational Center for Regional Historical and Cultural Heritage and Cross-Cultural Relations” of the Institute of History and International Relations of Saratov State University named after N.G. Chernyshevsky;
Associate Professor of the Department of General History and Methods of Teaching Historical Disciplines of the Ural State Pedagogical University
620017, Yekaterinburg, Kosmonavtov Ave., 26

The article, based on published and unpublished sources of personal origin, analyzed the representations of the ranks of the Great Army about the events of the Russian campaign, about the enemy during his stay in Moscow. It was this stage of the war that clearly demonstrated the clash of different “cultures” and the influence of the “collective imaginary” on the process of forming historical memory. The author noted the transformation of the individual memory of the French soldiers into a collective one about the Russian campaign under the influence of events that took place in Moscow. Thus, feeling fear, feeling danger, a significant part of the soldiers had to confide in official propaganda, erasing from their memory the images of events imbued with personality, thereby contributing to the formation of the “collective imaginary.” Moreover, not a comfortable stay in Moscow contributed to the formation of a negative image not only of the enemy but also of Russian civilization itself. Bearing in mind that French soldiers played the role of peculiar mediators in the dialogue between cultures, we believe that the “sitting in Moscow” seriously influenced the consolidation of the idea of this war as a cruel struggle of civilizations not only in the minds of the ranks of the Great Army but in general of Western European society.
Keywords: Napoleon’s Russian campaign, historical memory, Moscow fire, imagology, clash of civilizations.

Savchuk A.A. (Vladivostok). None’s. Aliens. Redundant. Hard labor women in the memories of eyewitnesses...........................................................................................20

Candidate of Historical Science, associated professor of the Department of
history and archaeology Far Eastern Federal University
690091, Russian Federation, Vladivostok, Sukhanova str., 8
e-mail: savchuk.aa@dvfu.ru

The article deals with the memories of eyewitnesses who visited Russian hard labor in Siberia and on Sakhalin island during the second half of 19th – the beginning of the 20th century and fixed the attitude to the convict women. Our aim in this paper was to analyze the main aspects which were mentioned in the memories and the differences between women’s and men’s view on the problem. During the second half of 19th – the beginning of the 20th centuries the position of women in prisons and penal servitude was awful: these places of detention were not adopted for women: for example, on Sakhalin island, there were no women’s prisons and labor for them. Sometimes women’s cells were not isolated from the men ones, they did not have women-supervisors and midwives in many prisons. All the eyewitnesses wrote about violence against prisoned women which included rape and constraint to prostitution. But it has been found that men and women fixed on the different aspects: men described purely external side (unwed marriages, rapes, prostitution), women focused on specific psychological defenses of prisoned women (women’s fellowship, mutual aid, the order in cells). According to the conception of care ethic offered by E. Zdravomyslova and A. Temkina, we may regard women’s memories as the demonstration of a specific woman’s experience. The findings are of direct practical relevance for the exploration of women’s position in other times and prisons.
Keywords: penal servitude, prisoned women, Siberia, Sakhalin, penal system.

Krylova E.N. (St. Petersburg, Pushkin). Postal and Telegraph periodicals of the Russian Empire of the early ХХ century: state and private initiatives........................................28

Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor,
Associate Professor of the Department
of Advertising and Public Relations
of Pushkin Leningrad State University,
196605, Russia, St. Petersburg,
Pushkin, St. Petersburg highway,10
E-mail: hellennak@yandex.ru

The article is devoted to the poorly studied aspect of professional publications aimed at civil servants of the General Administration of posts and telegraphs in the Ministry of the Interior in the early twentieth century. The author analyzes the state and private initiatives in publishing magazines for officials using the example of the periodicals “The Postal and Telegraph Journal” and “The Postal and Telegraph Echo”. The author concludes that “The Postal and Telegraph Journal” was a highly specialized body with state funding, it did not discuss topics of interest to employees and was organized without feedback. A private publication, on the contrary, focused on the problems of Postal and Telegraph officials and formed the attitude of employees to their position. A private journal differed from a government publication in its presentation of information, the subject matter of the issues, and took into account the target audience, its social, political, ideological, and consumer characteristics. Despite the advantages for the target audience, “The Postal and Telegraph Echo” lasted five months. Among the reasons for closing a private journal, there were both objective and subjective reasons.
Keywords: “The Post and Telegraph Journal”, “The Postal and Telegraph Echo”, “The Post and Telegraph Bulletin”, officials of the General Administration of posts and telegraphs, the Ministry of the Interior in the early twentieth century, periodicals for officials, A. O. Glembotsky, N. I. Gerasimov.

Borodovskii A.I. (St. Petersburg). Service people of the Staritsa appanage principality: historiography of the problem......................................................................................35

2nd year post-graduate student
Institute of History of Saint Petersburg State University
199034, Russia, St. Petersburg, 5 Mendeleevskaya Line
E-mail: alexanderborodovski@yandex.ru

The article examines the historiography of the service corporation of the Staritsa appanage, one of the last Russian appanage principalities in the 16th century. The main attention is paid to the works of historians from the second half of the XX century to the early XXI century. During this period, the study of this subject has achieved significant success, which was associated with the expansion of the source base. While earlier historians relied mainly on chronicles, later scholars began to actively use the information from scribe books, landholding acts, register and genealogical books. Researchers have established a large number of names of people who served Princes Andrei and Vladimir of Staritsa, traced the family ties between Staritsa courtiers and the Moscow aristocracy. Source studies have shown that information from the chronicle about the change of the appanage court after the return of the appanage to Prince Vladimir does not fully correspond to reality. The important problem is the correlation between the landowners of the Staritsa appanage and the service people of the Staritsa appanage court: modern historiography proves that the identification of these categories is not justified. In conclusion of the historiography study, it is concluded that the service corporation of the Staritsa principality deserves further investigation. In particular, it is necessary to study in more detail the continuity of the courts of Princes Andrei and Vladimir of Staritsa, as well as changes in the service corporation after the disgrace to Prince Vladimir and the repeated change of his court.
Keywords: historiography, Staritsa appanage principality, Prince Andrei of Staritsa, Prince Vladimir of Staritsa, service people, appanage court.

Drozdov V.A. (St. Petersburg). Fakhr ad-Din ʻIraqi’s mathnavi poem “ʻUshshaq-nama”: the historiography ........................................................................................................43

PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Iranian Philology, Faculty of Asian and African Studies, St. Petersburg State University,
Russia, 199034, St.Petersburg, Universitetskaya emb., Build. 11.
E-mail: v.drozdov@spbu.ru

The paper is devoted to the famous Persian Sufi poet Fakhr ad-Din ʻIraqi (1213-1289) and his prominent but contested mathnavi poem “ʻUshshaq-nama” (“The Book of Lovers”). This book became the first Persian poem on the subject of mystic love. The overview is given to the history of studying ʻIraqi’s masterpiece by scholars. The latter process goes back more than a century and gave birth to the debates on the authorship of the “ʻUshshaq-nama”. The author critically examines the history of the study of the said work and proposes a new approach to solving the problem of its authorship. Paying tribute to the methods of traditional textual criticism, V. A. Drozdov concludes that digital tools for analyzing text data open up opportunities for more objective and quick identification of the set of stylistic techniques of a particular author (the so-called “fingerprint”). The latter allows us to compare contested work with one that the author has no doubts about with high precision. It is a digital style that lets you get an impartial and verifiable answer to the question of the authenticity of the text. Until now, the technique described above has been used almost exclusively for the study of European literature. The modern adaptation of the most advanced software package for the described purpose makes it possible to use it in the study of texts written in left-to-right script including Arabic.
Keywords: Mystiс Love, Iranian Sufism, Sufi Literature, Persian Medieval Poetry, Iraqi.

Tsyb A.V. (St. Petersburg). The Myth of the «Tenth Labour» and the Heracles cult in Spain.............................................................................................................................49

PhD, Associated Professor of Peter the Great St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University. Associate member of Sociological Institute of the Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 195251, Russia, Saint Petersburg, 28 Prospect Grazchdanskiy, of. 104,
E-mail: alex.tsyb@gmail.com

The article discusses the history of the import of the Hercules cult to the Iberian Peninsula and the connection between the Greek myth of Heracles abducting Geryon’s herds and historical realities. The popularity of the Heracles-Melqart-Hercules cult in ancient Spain is confirmed by many historical and literary facts. Spanish archeology of the last forty years demonstrates numerous new artifacts and places for the possible location of God’s temples. These are the Heracleions mentioned in the Greco-Roman historiography. These archaeological complexes show the deep antiquity of the Hercules cult in southern Spain, its Phoenician-Greek syncretic origin, demonstrate approximate data on the time of its establishment and on the stages of syncretic transformation. But at the same time, the complete absence of authentic indigenous literary sources and the incomplete nature of literary evidence of the classical, Hellenistic and Roman eras of the history of Spain do not allow now with absolute certainty to combine archaeological and literary complexes of facts for the final reconstruction of this history and for a complete understanding of the syncretic evolution of the cult.
The Article poses questions if the myth of the “Tenth Labour” of Heracles is able to explain the history of the arrival of the Hercules cult in Ancient Spain, and there is a connection with local tartessian-celtic theologies and with the cults of the tricephalic Celtic deities of southern France? Or was the original myth of Heracles’ journey for Geryon’s wealth to southern Spain “anticipated” by Greek mythological culture and imported into ancient Spanish culture along with the syncretic cult of Heracles-Melqart?
Keywords: History of Spain, Greek mythology, Hercules cult, Geryon’s herds.

Gabrielian M.O. (St. Petersburg). Venezuelan migration during the crisis of 2013-2019 to Colombia, Peru, Spain and the USA .......................................................................58

Second year student of the School of International Relations of St. Petersburg State University,
prize-winner of the youth competition of the IV International Forum “Russia and Iberoamerica in the Globalizing World”
194214, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Yaroslavskiy pr., st.66
E-mail: gamax2011@gmail.com

In the article, the author identifies the key features and specifics of migration from the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela to the Republic of Colombia, the Republic of Peru, the Kingdom of Spain and the United States of America during the political and economic crisis of 2013-2019, which caused the migration crisis. The data sample of the four states is related to leadership in the number of refugees accepted, the specifics of their social structure and origin, as well as the desire to compare and contrast different models and methods of overcoming the migration issue. Among the main problems and peculiarities, the issues of the number of migrants and the problem of their exact counting, ways of reaching specific countries and places of their resettlement, as well as methods of refugee integration and actual problems of its implementation were raised. The issue of international cooperation is also being raised to resolve the existing migration situation.
Keywords: Venezuela, Columbia, Peru, USA, Spain, migration crisis.

Pravdiuk D.A. (St. Petersburg). Present and future of Latin American regional integration in the course of the COVID-19 pandemic....................................................................63

Postgraduate Student, Faculty of International Relations,
St. Petersburg State University
Russia, St. Petersburg, 1/3 Smolny Street
E-mail: dariapravdiuk@gmail.com

The COVID-19 pandemic has become a clear reminder of the importance of cooperation in solving cross-border problems. In this context, the regional level, as intermediate between the national and the international, seems to be the key for decision-making where the efforts of countries alone do not provide the necessary synergy to overcome the crisis. The COVID-19 crisis will inevitably adjust the existing patterns of integration in the region and challenge national governments to find new mechanisms for economic recovery in light of the structural changes that will occur in the post-COVID-19 world. Regional cooperation seems to be the most effective tool for mitigating the consequences of the crisis, as well as stimulating recovery and preparing for future crises, however, the exacerbation of a number of disintegration trends, such as protectionism, isolationism and political contradictions, calls into question the further development of existing associations. The determination of each country to fight the epidemic on its own and the lack of effective supranational decision-making mechanisms explain the region’s weakness in the face of this unprecedented challenge.
Keywords: Latin America, regional integration, COVID-19 pandemic.

Bakanov A.V., Magomedkhanov M.M. (Makhachkala). Russian-Dagestan legal relations during the period of existence of Kievan Russ and the Golden Horde (Part one, section 2).....................................................................................................71

Junior Researcher The Institute of History,
Archaeology and Ethnography of the
Dagestan Federal Research Centre of RAS
Russia, Makhachkala, M. Yaragskogo 75 st.

D.Sc. (in History), Prof., Head of Dept. of Ethnography
The Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the
Dagestan Federal Research Centre of RAS
Russia, Makhachkala, M. Yaragskogo 75 st.

The era of the early Middle Ages, being a period of multiple changes within the Central Eurasian space, became for the lowland and partly for Mountain Dagestan, including its southern part and the city of Derbent the culmination of the formation of Dagestan part of the Islamic World, while the northern part of Dagestan practically throughout the same period was the internal region of the state called Great Khazaria. When establishing control of the Arab Caliphate and Kaganate within their boundaries and over the above-mentioned territories, their systems of legal coordinates were formed. De facto, both the Arab-Muslim and the Khazar Empires had very complex legal systems. The latter was developed and regulated the entire way of life. With the difference in state systems in which they were formed, the mentioned legal dimensions had an evident difference. With this difference, both the Khazar Kaganate and the Arab Caliphate, and those states that formed after its collapse, although in varying degrees, were characterized by legal pluralism. In the era of the early Middle Ages, the Western Caspian region was the place of the military-political, trade-economic, and diplomatic activity of the Old Russian state. This activity was not chaotic, but, on the contrary, was built based on a dialogue of diverse legal systems.
Keywords: Caspian region, Dagestan, Great Khazaria, Arabian Caliphate, Kievan Russ, Derbent, legal coordinate systems, cultural specifics.

Kislitsyn A.V. (St. Petersburg). The problem of the use of naval artillery in the views of the leading representatives of Russian naval thought at the turn of the XIX - XX centuries .......................................................................................................................84

researcher, Russia, Saint Petersburg, Mytninsky lane, 5, apt. 14
Tel.: +7 (911) 095 57 28; E-mail: aleks.k.44-40@yandex.ru

The article examines the views of the leading representatives of Russian naval thought on the use of naval artillery, which developed in the last decade of the 19th — early of the 20th centuries. This issue, in connection with the active development of the material part of the fleet and, especially, its weapons, and the significant changes caused by this process in the field of the theory of naval affairs, became at that time one of the main problems in the fleets of the world powers. Russian naval thought also paid much attention to this issue. Thanks to the efforts of its representatives, in Russia at the turn of the 19th — 20th centuries developed their own ideas about the use of naval guns in a naval battle. However, due to the fact that Russian theorists were strongly influenced by ideas that were formed in the 1870s — 1880s, which they could not abandon, Russian naval thought was unable to develop a concept for the use of naval guns that could fully implement the possibilities of new artillery weapons and to create for the Russian fleet on the eve of the Russo-Japanese war tactics of sea battles that meet the needs of the time.
Keywords: naval thought, tactics of naval battles, naval artillery, V.F. Pestich, S.O. Makarov, N.L. Clado, Russo-Japanese War.

Markova M.M. (St. Petersburg). On the issue of the population size of the peasant family in the St. Petersburg province in the 1850s–1880s...........................................96

PhD in History
Journal for Scientists “Klio”,
195220, St. Petersburg, Grazhdansky pr., 11, office 1N
+79052116083, E-mail: spbmarkova111@gmail.com

The article presents some preliminary conclusions about the size of the peasant family in the Petersburg and Luga districts in 1850 – 1880, obtained from the analysis of materials from the revision and church registration of the population, as well as data from the zemstvo statistics. The author notes that a comparison of the data of the confessional paintings and revision tales of the 1850s. did not reveal critical discrepancies in the information of sources on the average size of a peasant household. Comparative analysis of the population size of a peasant family, calculated based on the materials of the revision and church registration of the population of the 1850s. of various counties of the St. Petersburg province, showed that the households of the Petersburg district were significantly smaller than the indicators of the Luga, Tsarskoselsky and Yamburg counties. The “peculiarity” of the Petersburg district, the structure of rural employment atypical for agrarian territories, the large, relative to other territories, the share of the non-Orthodox population determined the small size of the peasant family here already before the reform of 1861. The indicator of the average size of the peasant family in the Luga district decreased in the post-reform period more significantly than in the Petersburg district.
Keywords: population size of the family, population of St. Petersburg province, peasant reform of 1861, confessions, zemstvo statistics.

Aminov R.R. (Kazan). Marriage unions of the Turks-Cossacks of the Orenburg and Ural Cossack troops in the second half of the 19th – early 20th centuries ......................100

PhD in History,
Sh. Marjani Institute of History of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences
Russian Federation, Kazan, 420100
E-mail: rustem_270988@mail.ru

The article is devoted to the study of family and marriage relations among the Turks-Cossacks of the Orenburg and Ural Cossack troops. Based on the study of registers for 1851, 1875, 1879, 1896, 1897, 1913, 1915. the period of a marriage of the Turks-Cossacks, the average age of the bride and groom by settlement and year, were determined, the ratio of marriages and divorces, as well as the reasons for the latter, the place of origin of brides, were identified and counted the number of interethnic marriages and outsiders. The fragmentation and lack of preservation of registers of births – did not allow us to analyze marriages in the studied settlements for all the years under consideration. In particular, in 1851, metric books of 16 settlements were studied, for 1875 and 1879 – 17, 1896 and 1897, the number of settlements studied decreased to 7, and in 1913 and 1915 – to 6. Exceptional attention is paid to the peculiarities of paying the makhr. In particular, its maximum and minimum values were revealed for each studied year. Makhr in the settlements under consideration was paid exclusively in monetary terms and was considered a prerequisite for marriage, out of 734 marriages only in one, registered in 1913 in the village. Novocherkassk, there is a case of non-payment of mahr. The maximum values of the average age of the groom were recorded in 1896 – 29.1 years, for the bride in 1913 – 21.6 years, the lowest – in 1875: 25,4 years for the groom and 19,2 years for the bride.
Keywords: Turks-Cossacks, marriage unions, divorces, polygamy, Orenburg Cossack army, Ural Cossack army, mahr, bride, groom.

Popov F.A. (Moscow). Power and the Press in white Primorye (1921 – 1922): mechanisms of relationships .....................................................................................115

Post-graduate student, Moscow Pedagogical State University, Modern History department
119571, Moscow, Vernadsky prospect, 88
E-mail: popovf1992@mail.ru

The article analyzes the policy of the anti-Bolshevik Provisional Priamur government in relation to the press. Shows the gradual development of the legislation of the white Primorye in the field of printing in 1921-1922, provides a summary of legal acts. Specific episodes of court proceedings involving newspaper editors, cases of closing newspapers due to their political position were analyzed. The activity of the Provisional Press Court is covered. Attention is paid to the conflicts that the anti-Bolshevik regime of S.D. Merkulov both with the opposition left, and with the loyalist right-wing press. The article is written on the basis of primary sources: periodicals of Primorye 1920-1922 («Vestnik Vremennogo Priamurskogo pravitel’stva», «Slovo», «Golos Rodiny», «Volia», «Ussuriyskoye Slovo», «Russkij kraj») and archival material.
Keywords: White movement, anti-Bolshevism, Far East, Provisional Priamur government, Civil War, periodicals of Primorye.

Lyubeznikov O.A. (St. Petersburg). Architects-researchers and the problem of continuity in the practice of architectural restoration in Leningrad in the 1920s – 1940s. Part 1 124 Pustyrev P.V. (Nizhny Novgorod). “Heart” for Sormovsky T-34 (1941-1942) .....................139

Applicant for the scientific degree of candidate of historical sciences,
Department of History and Politics of the Institute of International Relations and
World History, Nizhny Novgorod State University N.I. Lobachevsky
603950, Nizhny Novgorod, Gagarin Ave., 23
E-mail: vvs-dao@mail.ru +7(920)078-13-13

The article made an attempt to consider one of the pages of the history of tank production at the Krasnoe Sormovo plant during the Second World War – installation on the T-34 tank as a temporary measure with a deficit (or rather, the absence of the B-2 tank diesel engine due to the evacuation of the plant No. 75) of the M-17T aviation engine. The urgency of this problem is explained by the weak coverage of this issue in the national historiography on the one hand, and on the other hand by the fact that the T-34 tanks of the Sormov production were originally intended to be equipped with these carburetor engines. The production of the M-17T engines was organized on the areas of aircraft engine production at the Gorky Automobile Plant named after V.M. Molotov. This makes it possible to study another page of the military history of the Fatherland – the localization of tank production, organized at non-core enterprises of one city in wartime conditions.
Keywords: factory, quality, engine, production, tank.


Podrepny E.I., Chernyshova A.V. (Nizhny Novgorod). Women’s hands of the Gorkovsk tankoprom (Introduction of female labor at the enterprises of the tank industry of the Gorky region in 1941-1942) .................................................................................144

Associate Professor of the Department of History and Politics of the Institute of International Relations and World History,
Nizhny Novgorod State University N.I. Lobachevsky
(Russia, Nizhny Novgorod, Ulyanov St., 2)
E-mail: podrepnyy@yandex.ru 7(908) 234-95-48

Professor of the Department of History and Theory of State and Law, Nizhny Novgorod Institute of Management – a branch of the Russian Academy of National Economy and State service under the President of the Russian Federation.
Russia, Nizhny Novgorod, Gagarin Ave., 46.
E-mail: metodika-vvags@rambler.ru

The article is devoted to the contribution of women from the Gorky region to the development of defense production using the example of tank factories in the region. The women of the region showed a high level of consciousness and understanding of their role in strengthening the rear. During the first year of the war, only 65 thousand new workers joined the enterprises of Gorky, including about 30 thousand women. By December 1941, the proportion of women among the workers in the regional industry was 55.2%. Thousands of housewives, who had never seen production before, replaced their fathers, husbands, brothers and sons who had gone to the front. Already on the first day of the war, 1,723 women came to work at the Gorky Automobile Plant, and 560 at the Vyksa enterprises. From July 1941 to December 1942, the number of workers at the Krasnoye Sormovo plant increased by 154%, including 266% of milling workers, crane operators – by 123, electric welders by 96 percent. More than 4 thousand women have become donors. Workers mastered sanitary and military knowledge. More than 1200 female workers of the Krasnoye Sormovo plant were involved in the work of the Ministry of Defense Industry. Not having the physical strength of men, women were forced to work where not all representatives of the stronger sex could stand. During the battle for Moscow, the woman-blacksmith of the Gorky Automobile Plant M.V. Melnikova worked one and a half shifts in a row and fulfilled five norms. During the raids of German aviation on GAZ, the Komsomol youth detachments of M.S. Kruglova, A.N. Solovieva. The process of adapting women to the work of tank builders was not easy, but it made it possible to solve many issues of the production of light and medium tanks in the Gorky region.
Keywords: woman, qualification, development, profession, labor.

Arutyunyan L.V., Doroshenko L.A., Shevchuk A. S. (Sevastopol). Artists of the Russian Diaspora in Turkey......................................................................................................150

Candidate of Philosophy, Associate Professor of the Department of management, tourism and hotel business, the Sevastopol branch of Plekhanov Russian Academy of Economics
Russia, Sevastopol, 299053, st. Vakulenchuk, 29/4
+7(978)8599557, E-mail: sevastopol@rea.ru

Candidate of Philology, Associate Professor of the Department of management, tourism and hotel business, the Sevastopol branch of Plekhanov Russian Academy of Economics
Russia, Sevastopol, 299053, st. Vakulenchuk, 29/4
+7(978)7514178, E-mail: sevastopol@rea.ru

student, The Saint Petersburg Stieglitz State Academy of Art and Design
191028, Russia, St. Petersburg, Solyanoy lane, 13
+7(978)9473976, E-mail: sevastopol@rea.ru

The article is devoted to the phenomenon of the Russian Diaspora and shows the fate of artists who ended up in Turkey during the Exodus, tragic events for the White movement. Russian emigres’ cultural life in Constantinople in the 1920s through the creation of various institutions is analyzed, and the contribution of Russian exiles to world culture is emphasized. The authors traced the creative path of artists N. Zaretsky and D. Izmailovich in the period of their stay in Constantinople. Russian expatriate artists in Turkey, through their creative and exhibition activities, carried out an important mission of getting acquainted with Russian art. They created and arranged one-man exhibitions being sure that in this way they would be able to keep Russia in their hearts and in their memory. Russian artists, who were far from Russia, adapted to local conditions, but not assimilated, were actively engaged in the formation of a closed-type Russian society with its traditional ideas about Russian life and culture. Russian intellectuals had not lost its national identity due to its Russian environment and connection with Russian culture.
Keywords: revolution, the Exodus of white emigres, white Russian emigres, the Russian Diaspora, one-man exhibition, artists, emigres.

SMIRNOVA I.N. (St. Petersburg). The Petrograd Artistic and Historical Commission and evacuation of The Winter palace in 1917 ...........................................................156

3rd year graduate student
Institute of History
of the St-Petersburg State University;
197198, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg, Mendeleev line, 5.
E-mail: i.nsmirnova@yandex.ru

The article analyzes the participation of the Petrograd Artistic and Historical Commission in the evacuation of the Winter Palace collections in 1917. It describes the process of preparation and packaging of the art treasures from the palace collections. The evacuation of the collections of the Winter Palace was combined with the evacuation of the Hermitage museum collections. As distinct from the Imperial Residence, the Hermitage staff systematically prepared museum exhibits for export to Moscow from 1913. For this reason, the evacuation of the Museum could not make any difficulties. But we could not say the same about the Winter Palace collections. The Palace was one of the main participants of the political events in 1917, moreover, most of the palace halls were occupied by the Provisional Government and its protection. In such difficult conditions, the Petrograd Artistic and Historical Commission prepared for evacuation and send to Moscow more than 50 boxes with the most valuable works of art. The article is based on the journals of the artistic-historical commission, which reflect its activities in detail.
Keywords: protection of cultural heritage, Petrograd artistic and historical commission, the Ministry of the Imperial Court, the Hermitage, the evacuation of Petrograd, the Winter Palace.

Savvinov P.O. (Novosibirsk). Preservation of the cultural and national identity of Yakut emigrants....................................................................................................................161

Institute of History of the Siberian Branch of the RAS
Russia, Novosibirsk, 630090, 8 Nikolaev St.
E-mail: pavel_savvinov@mail.ru

Research is executed with financial support of RFBR (No. Project 18-09-00414 “Local and regional history in the global dimension: the world of Yakut emigration between East and West”).

In Russia, the Russian emigration has always been a topic of scientific interest starting from the works of Soviet historians. The authors used retrospective method for disclosing the topic. As a result of the research, it was determined that the reasons for the attempt to preserve the cultural and national identity of the Yakut emigrants were mainly longing for their small homeland (Yakutia) by maintaining connections among themselves in their native language and performing various rituals in their everyday practices.
Keywords: Yakut emigrants, Russian foreign countries, China, Japan, USA, Finland, Yakut diaspora, Russian emigration.

Sleptsova T.V., Boeva O.M. (Moscow). Museums of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation as centers for the preservation of memory on the history of internal affairs bodies, patriotic education of personnel and popularization of the heroism of the police and police profession .......................................................167

candidate of history
Leading researcher of the Department for the study of the history
of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation
Scientific center
Management Academy of the Ministry of the Interior of Russia
Russia, 125993, Moscow, Zoi and Alexander Kosmodemyanskikh st., 8
Contact of the author: slepzova@mail.ru

candidate of pedagogics
Аssociate Professor of the Department of psychology, pedagogy and personnel management the Management Academy of the Ministry of the Interior of Russia.
Russia, 125993, Moscow, Zoi and Alexander Kosmodemyanskikh st., 8
Contact of the author: omboeva@bk.ru

The article examines the development of museums in the internal affairs bodies of the Russian Federation, the role and importance of museums in the patriotic and spiritual and moral education of personnel. In the jubilee year – the 75th anniversary of the Victory in the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945, the authors – attach importance to the preservation of historical memory and the revival of traditional Russian values in modern society.
The article provides an overview of the museum spaces of the departmental museum network, which is directly subordinate to the bodies and departments of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, analyzes its forms, provides statistical data. The authors pay special attention to the museum spaces of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia in the Central Federal District of the Russian Federation, among which the Central Museum of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia is of great importance. The role of the Central Museum and museums of the Central Federal District of Russia in the heroic-patriotic education of employees of the internal affairs bodies, designed to “encourage young people to follow the best traditions, educate them on examples of the history of the past and difficult everyday life of the present” is revealed.
Museums of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia – to be! Thanks to museums, the memory of the heroes and deeds of law enforcement officers is preserved, and then they become popularly known.
Keywords: Central Museum of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia (Museum), forms of museum spaces, room of history, expositions, national traditions, feat, patriotic education, interactive map.

Hippolitov G.M. (Samara). Commander of the 4th Army of the Eastern Front Mikhail Vasilievich Frunze: formation of a commander..........................................................178

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Leading Researcher of the Samara Federal Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Tel.: 8-937-172-56-07; Email: gippolitov@rambler.ru

Mikhail Vasilievich Frunze (1885 – 1925) entered the history of our Fatherland as an extraordinary and large-scale historical person. The son of a simple military paramedic who could not even get higher education in tsarist Russia, historical fate prepared the life path of a professional revolutionary, a commander during the fratricidal massacre – the Russian Civil War (1917-1922), an outstanding military chief and military theorist of the Soviet state. And this life path was filled with such events that could become a plot for a behind-the-grabbing adventurous novel. The author of this article covers a rather short time interval (late December 1918 – early March 1919) in the activities of Mikhail Vasilyevich Frunze. At this time he ordered the 4th army of the East Front of the Workers’ and Peasants’ Red Army (WPRA). However, it must be stated that, despite such a small period of time indicated above, it was then that M.V. Frunze became a commander. The commander, who will be destined to go down in the history of the bra-murderous slaughter, of which the Russian Grage-Dan War was unparalleled, and one of the key figures in the defeat of the white armies of Admiral A.V. Kolchak, the defeat of the forces of the Russian counter-revolution in Turkestan, and, somehow, the winner of the Russian army, Lieutenant General BarPP. The source of the study was, first of all, business documents and materials, both archival and published. The author also relied on ego documents and, of course, on the historiographic achievements of his predecessors. Of course, the researcher does not claim the completeness of the coverage of the problem under consideration.
Keywords: Mikhail Vasilievich Frunze, The 4th Army of the Eastern Front of the Red Army, military specialists, order, commander, morale, dir-rectiva.

Korsakova N.L. (St. Petersburg). The new study of the loyalist movement during the era of the American Revolution (XVIII c.) (Review of the monograph by K.P. Artemenkova, M.S. Class, V.A. Ushakov “American Loyalism (New England)”. St. Peterburg: “Poltorak” Publ., 2019. 152 p.)...........................................................186

Ph. D. in History, Senior Researcher.
Saint-Petersburg Institute of History, Russian Academy of Science.
197110, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Petrozavodskaya, 7
E-mail: korsakovanatalia@gmail.con

The review highly appreciates the monograph prepared by the three historians from Saint Petersburg — K.P. Artemenkova, M.S. Class, and V.A. Ushakov. The reviewer notes that the monograph based on extensive historiography and different historical sources allows to trace the beginning, development, and extinction of the loyalist movement in the British colonies in North America (late in the USA) during the American Revolution and especially in the years of the War of Independence (1775–1783). The authors of the monograph highlight several principal elements in the history of American loyalists: the exact chronology and basic periods of this movement; the strength and social and political characteristics of it; the main groups and leaders of loyalists and their activity in social and political life and also the military operations of loyalist detachments and British army against the American troops. In this book, the role and fate of so-called “neutral” groups in American society also were described. The authors of the said book studied the history of the loyalist movement from all sides and according to their conclusion the principal cause of the loyalist movement’s downfall in North America was the decisive and furious struggle of the most Americans against their enemies.
Keywords: American patriots, loyalists, War of Independence, Great Britain, USA, New England, Boston.

Markov B.V. (St. Petersburg). Notes on the margins of the book: Library and Destiny: A.B.Nikolskaya / V.P. Leonov – the author of the foreword and the 1st part. St. Petersburg: BAN, 2019. 224 p. ..................................................................................190

Doctor of Philosophy, Professor,
Department of Philosophy St. Petersburg State University, Universitetskaja naberechsnaja 7/9, 199034, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation; Novgorod State University, Department of Philosophy, Cultural Studies and Sociology. Velikiy Novgorod, Yaroslav the Wise Novgorod State University, B.Sankt-Peterburgskaya St, 41, Russian Federation
e-mail: b.markov@spbu.ru

December 1 (14) December 2019 marked the 120th anniversary of the birth of Anna Borisovna Nikolskaya – literary scholar, linguist, paleographer, translator, writer, teacher. When they talk about the Silver Age of Russian culture, they remember the great writers, poets, composers, philosophers who emigrated to Europe after the revolution and continued their work there. But we should not forget about the remaining intelligentsia in Russia, the fate of which turned out to be tragic and, nevertheless, not in vain. Its representatives have made an invaluable contribution to the development of Russian culture, and, despite ideological barriers, have maintained continuity with the past. No matter how much the Soviet culture is criticized, its achievements are indisputable. They became possible largely due to the inconspicuous selfless work of the last representatives of the old intelligentsia. As a rule, they did not hold the most significant positions and did not have high ranks, but worked as teachers, librarians, editors, employees of museums and archives. In addition to the contribution to the preservation and development of these areas of culture, the role of personal communication, mentoring in the education and education of young people should be taken into account. As you know, the intelligentsia itself maintained a creative spirit through conversations in kitchens, in the smoking rooms of libraries and on the sidelines of conferences. But it is necessary to remember the teachers of the old school, who worked diligently and methodically with the masses, but took note of talented young people. They had real disciples with whom they worked sparing no time and with whom they maintained friendships for the rest of their lives. It was through such personal relationships that, along with learning, the transfer of not only knowledge, but also traditions, and most importantly, what is called a scientific ethos – responsibility, honesty, impartiality, attention not only to facts, but also to basic human values.
Keywords: historical memory, library, archive, museum, book, bibliography, information.

Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project No. 19-011-00775)

Gogun A.S. (Berlin, Germany). “Modernisation” into poverty...........................................195

Candidate of Historical Sciences, doctoral student at the Free University of Berlin, Friedrich Meneke Institute, Germany
14195, Germany, Berlin, the Free University of Berlin, Koserstrasse, 20, A 313,
Email: a.gogun@fu-berlin.de

In the review of the book of the American Slavist George Liber, the initial premise of this work, put in the headline – the modernization of Ukraine through the extermination of Ukrainians and wars, is being questioned. The counterargument is given: the fact, that mass killings are rather an indicator of the country’s wildness, as well as the way of its archaization. Ukraine was not modern by the time of Stalin’s death, which is the upper chronological boundary of the narrative, and at the contemporary moment Ukraine is not among the advanced states. The poverty of both the Stalin period and the poverty of the present country show that overcoming the consequences of mass atrocities and economic exploitation is possible through the spread of freedom, peace and well-being of citizens and entire regions. The work receives a moderately negative assessment, as it does not use new sources and is a compilation. Paradoxically, Liber largely unconsciously repeats the Stalinist thesis that the leader was afraid of the attack and believed in the economic efficiency of the collective farms. Thus, in the book under review, Stalin is erroneously presented as a defender and modernizer, that is, the benefactor of the Ukrainians.
Keywords: communism, totalitarianism, World revolution, red militarism, military-industrial complex, USSR, Ukraine.

Izmozik V. S. (St. Petersburg). The “Blue Division” from the perspective of a Russian historian. A review of the book “Spanish Division – Ally of the Third Reich. 1941-1945.” by Boris N. Kovalev, published by Piter Publishing House in 2020...............198

Doctor of History, Professor,
Department of History and Regional Studies,
The Bonch-Bruevich St. Petersburg State
University of Telecommunications (Russia,
193232, St. Petersburg, pr. Bolshevikov, 22/1,
E-mail: izmozik@mail.ru

The review focuses on Boris N. Kovalev’s book “Spanish Division – Ally of the Third Reich. 1941–1945”. The book marks the first time in Russian historiography that such a large-scale study is undertaken of this military division that was stationed in the Eastern Front near Novgorod and Leningrad from October 1941 till November 1943. In his writing, the author refers to official documents, some of which have never been mentioned in scientific publications; books and articles by authors of varied ideological and political affiliations; recollections by military veterans from both sides of the conflicts; and interviews with the inhabitants of the occupied regions who had encountered the Spanish soldiers. The book culminates in a chapter describing the fates of the Spanish soldiers who were taken prisoner during combat, the majority of whom returned home in 1954.
Keywords: Blue Division, Division Azul, Blaue Division, General Francisco Franco, Agustín Muñoz Grandes, Emilio Esteban Infantes, Novgorod, Krasny Bor, Francoist Spain.