Klio #9 (93) 2014

Theoretical issues

Ageyev N.V. (Moscow). On the Structure of Military History as a Science, Its General Provisions and Methodology………. 3

Now, there is no consensus among scholars regarding the place, subject and interrelations between military science and military history. The views of the researchers of the second half of the 1980s are still prevalent. The article provides the author’s alternative to the structure of military history as a science, relations between subjects of military history and military science, revealing the key methodological aspects of a military and historical research.

Key words: object of science, subject of science, history, military history, military science, military history methodology, military and historical research.

Gavrilina N.A. (Tula). Charity and Mercy in Russia in the 18th and 19th Centuries. Methodological Aspects of the Problem………. 6

The paper is dedicated to methodological problems of the history of charity, public and state mercy in Russia in the 18th and 19th centuries. The principles are analyzed that enable the author to provide multilateral assessment of the events, review the object of research as a system with internal structure considering the conditions under which the events in question took place.

Key words: methodology of the problem, charity.


Source studies

Orlova A.P. (Saint Petersburg). Specific Nature of Study of Parish Registers of the Church of the Transfiguration (Orlinsky Parish of TsarskoselskyCounty) ………. 11

The article aims at study of specific features of parish records and confessional registers of the 18th and 19th centuries as mass historical sources. As exemplified by micro-research into the materials of the Orlinsky Parish in the Southern part of TsarskoselskyCounty, techniques of analysis of sources, and methods of processing data of the current church population accounting, and demographic indices calculation are considered. Such sources offer a possibility to study both mass demographic processes, and life of an individual. Results of the investigation can be useful for genealogic, social and economic works, research into local history, historical demography, and source studies.

Key words: parish records, confessional registers, historical sources, history of population, birth, marriage, mortality rates, Orlinsky Parish of TsarskoselskyCounty.

Oztruk A. (Istanbul, Turkey). Coverage of War in the South Ossetia by Turkish Mass-Media………. 16

The article deals with the response of the Turkish mass-media to the events that took place in August of 2008 in the South Ossetia. The author provides a stage-by-stage analysis of changes in coverage of the conflict within five days of the war. Also, specific attitude Turkey expressed given its political interests and geopolitical situation. On the one hand, the country is interested in support provided by the United States of America, and Georgia is its neighbor. On the other hand, Russia is the largest economic partner of Turkey. Therefore, officials and mass-media preferred to take a neutral stance striving at objective assessment. Besides, the author considers other researchers’ analytical papers published during the military actions in the South Ossetia.

Key words: Mass-media, Turkey, Russia, Georgia, South Ossetia, foreign policy, foreign affairs.



Nesin M.A. (Veliky Novgorod). The First News about Novgorod “Tysiatskiis” (Captains of the Thousand) (before the Late 12th Century)………. 20

The paper is devoted to study of the first news about Novgorod tysiatskiis before the late 12th century. During the investigation, the first true mentions of the tysiatskiis are revealed, social status of the first tysiatskiis and sotskiis (captains of the hundred) analyzed.

Key words: Veliky Novgorod, social status, tysiatskii, sotskii, Rus’ in the 12th century.

Pisanova A.K. (Saint Petersburg). Money for Higher Education Facilities (to Historiography of Modernization of the Higher School)………. 22

The article presents the results of historiographical analysis of native literature dedicated to modernization of the Russian higher school after 1917, particularly, the problem of funding higher education facilities. The author has carried out historiographical analysis of the process of updating the Russian higher school in terms of organization of material and technical provision and scholarship funding of the higher education facilities.

Key words: state educational policy, funding, modernization, higher school, reforms, scholarship funding, material and technical provision, teachers, students.


Universal history

Sagalova A.L. (Saint Petersburg). League of Nations and International Security as Viewed by a Left-Wing Labor Party Politician (as Exemplified by K. Zilliacus’s Opinions)………. 26

The article considers the history of establishment, mechanisms of activity, and reasons for historical insufficiency of the League of Nations as a system of International security as interpreted by one of the most outstanding representatives of the left wing of the Labor Party of Great Britain – the political writer and the Secretariat official – Konni Zilliacus. By an example of Zilliacus’s views, the author demonstrates how the left-wing Labor Party members perceived the League of Nations, who believed that Geneva failed primarily because it was not able to become a center of the new world economic system.

Key words: left-wing Labor Party members, Labor Party, League of Nations, international security.

Petrykina D.V. (Saratov). Jeffrey Sachs Struggling with Hyperinflation in Bolivia………. 30

The article is dedicated to the research into activity of the famous American economist Jeffrey Sachs in Bolivia. This country exemplifies the results of neo-liberal reforms in Latin America.

Key words: Latin America, Jeffrey Sachs, Bolivia, hyperinflation, neo-liberalism.

Surzhik D.V. (Moscow). World War II: Images of the Allies of the USA in the American Printed Media………. 32

The paper considers the mechanisms of generation the USA allies’ images during World War II in American press in 1941-1945. The focus is on the mechanisms of generation of images of the fighting Great Britain and USSR, and nuances in description of the latter. The analysis carried out enables to clarify some modern concepts of historical anthropology and imagology.

Key words: public opinion, USA, World War II, “image of an alien”, Great Britain, USSR, printed media.

Yeremenko K.S. (Vladivostok). “The Nation Existing Thanks to Communications”: Radio and Television as the Tools of Establishment of Canadian National Identity in 1950–1960s………. 36

The article tracks evolution of the concept of interconnection between communications and enhancing national unity in public discourse of Canada in 1950–1960. The author reviews how this concept affects public discussions and state policy in radio and TV broadcasting.

Key words: Canada, national identity, communications, radio, television, technological nationalism


National history

Kostyayev E.V. (Saratov). The Issue of “Orientation” on All-Russian Party Meeting at the Central Committee of the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party in May of 1918………. 43

The article reviews the opinions defended by representatives of various courses in Menshevism at the party meeting held in 1918 regarding the problem of orientation of various political forces to Germany or the Entente state, which became extremely burning after Russia withdrew from the World War I. It is concluded that the most part of the delegates declared against any “orientation” in favor of independent revival of Russia by means of national democratic forces.

Key words: World War I, Russian social democracy, Menshevism, orientation, Entente.

Khudyakova N.D. (Saint Petersburg). All-People’s Support of the Leningrad Evacuees………. 46

The article written by the oldest Petersburg historian – N.D. Khudyakova investigates the history of support resident of different regions of the Soviet Union lent to the citizens of Leningrad evacuated from the city during the Great Patriotic War. It is concluded that nation-wide moral and physical support offered by the Soviet people helped the Leningraders to survive under the severest conditions.

Key words: siege of Leningrad, evacuation from Leningrad, the BigLand, extensive support.

Latyshev A.V. (Moscow). The Network of Checkout and Filtration Camps of NKVD of the USSR in 1942–1945………. 48

The article provides generalized data on checkout and filtration (special) camps of NKVD of the USSR existing from January 1942 through May 1945. The data on deployment of checkout and filtration camps at various stages of the war, and distinctive features of this process are discussed. The author investigates the circumstances under which decisions were made on opening the camps.

Key words: checkout and filtration camps, special camps, NKVD, checkout, filtration, special checkout, counter intelligence, compulsory labor.


History of the regions of Russia

Golubin R.V., Nikolayev D.A. (Nizhny Novgorod). Activity of Nizhny Novgorod County Council in Terms of Organizational Process of Mobilization of Economy of Nizhny Novgorod during the Initial Period of the World War I………. 53

The paper reviews the history of organizational problems of economic mobilization in Nizhny Novgorod province during the early of the World War I and of practical activity of Nizhny Novgorod county council within the scope of support of the army and state.

Key words:Nizhny Novgorod county council, military and industrial committees, stock exchange committees, all-Russian county council union.

Azernikova I.P. (Moscow). Charitable Activity amongst Theater Circles of Moscow during the World War I………. 56

Based on the charity album “Moscow artists for the Russian Army” published in 1915, the author investigates the aspects of fund raising for purchasing tobacco for the filed forces. One of the pages of the collection is analyzed, signatures and illustrations are deciphered, and their authors are identified, amongst whom V.V. Dyachkov – the theater designer of the Imperial theaters, Ye.V. Geltzer, A.M. Balashova – the ballet dancers and others.

Key words: charity, World War I, tobacco, theater, theatrical costume, Bolshoi Theater.

Tarasov K.A. (Saint Petersburg). Petrograd Military Organization of Bolshevists and Community in 1917………. 58

The article is devoted to an important activity carried out by bolshevists in Petrograd, i.e. arrangement of country communities. Despite the communities had arisen before revolution, their number started growing in spring and summer of 1917. Originally, they were just organizations of mutual support of the natives of a variety of regions of the former Russian Empire. However, in autumn, the Military organization of bolshevists interfered into the process pursuing the aim of politicization of the same and use for agitation purposes. That activity affected the course of the revolution both in Petrograd and in the province, where members of the communities carried out their activity with bolshevist literature.

Key words: country communities, military Bolshevistic organization, Petrograd garrison, the revolution of 1917.

Lipyanina M.A. (Saint Petersburg). Peasants’ “Letters to the Government” in 1920s: Dialogue or Monologue?………. 61

The article is dedicated to investigation of the methods of settling conflicts between peasantry and Soviet government during the new economic policy based on the materials from Leningrad province. The paper highlights the process of writing an article for a newspaper, specific procedures for its publication by editors, and the mechanism of further investigation performed by the government based on the newspaper materials. The article allows for revealing the mechanism of kind of a dialogue between population and government at the time being, when solving the most acute problems the country faced.

Key words: NEP, peasantry, Soviet government, social conflict, social protest, dialogue with the government.

Kuzmina A.V. (Sevastopol). Development of Fishing Industry in Sevastopol in the Soviet Period………. 64

The article is dedicated to the history of fishing industry of Sevastopol region during the Soviet period, it running about rise of fishing industry starting with fishing collective farms in 1920s through the oceanic fishing establishment.

Key words: fishing industry, food industry, Azcherryba, “Atlantic”, oceanic fishing, Sevastopol.

Dianova Ye.V. (Petrozavodsk). Social and Cultural Activity of Cooperation in Orphan Homes of the European North in 1920s………. 65

The article touches upon the problem of social and cultural activity carried by cooperation in the social educational facilities in 1920s. Most of the focus is on the issues concerned with its participation in material support of orphan homes in the European North. The author makes an attempt to show the key aspects of social and cultural activity arrangement of cooperative societies in the European North for supplying foster children with food and essentials.

Key words: cooperation, cooperative societies, social and cultural activity, orphan homes, material support.

Strebkova N.V. (Saratov). Living Status of the Students of Saratov Higher Education Facilities in 1920s………. 70

The article considers the level of the students’ living conditions in Saratov higher education facilities during NEP. The author reviews the Soviet government activity to stabilize the students’ living standards, as well as their activities for their material status improvement.

Key words: students, NEP, decree, living standards, hostel, refectory.

Kondratyuk G.N. (Simferopol). “Localization Policy” within the Health Care System in the Crimean ASSR (1920–1930s)………. 73

The article investigates the processes of localization policy in the healthcare system of the Crimean ASSR in the 1920–1930s. System transformations in healthcare arrangement in the early 1920s are reviewed. “Localization policy” in health care meant extension of medical assistance for the indigenous community – the Crimean Tatars. National educational facilities of the Crimean ASSR were training doctors and nurses.

Key words: localization policy, Crimean ASSR, healthcare, Crimean Tatars, doctors.


History of foreign relations

Fedorov O.D. (Saint Petersburg). Russia in Public Diplomacy of the USA at the Turn of the 20th and 21st Centuries………. 76

The article deals with evolution of the role and place of Russia in public diplomacy of the USA in 1991-2012. Theoretical mindsets of the American public diplomacy as well as its principal programs applied in the territory of Russia are analyzed.

Key words: public diplomacy, soft force, Russia-American relations.

Tsalikov Z.R. (Moscow). Assessment of the State and Development Trends of Trade and Economic Relations of the Russian Regions with the Regions of Spain and Portugal ………. 82

Based on a number of sources, the author analyzes the current state and prospects for the development of trade and economic relations of the Russian regions with Spain and Portugal. The author arrives at a conclusion of prospective future for such cooperation.

Key words:Russia, Russian regions, Spain, Portugal, economy, trade, bilateral relations, trade and economic relations.


Military history

Yefremov F.Yu. (Moscow). The Baltic Naval Forces during the Russo-Swedish War in 1808–1809………. 84

The publication for the first time introduces for scientific use quarter logs from the Russian Squadron ships under the command of Admiral P.I. Khanykov of the Baltic ship fleet during the campaign of 1808 in the Russo-Swedish war of 1808–1809, making an attempt to characterize the quarter log as a historical source.

Key words: Russo-Swedish war of 1808–1809, quarter log, Mikhail Petrovich Lazarev, ship “Vsevolod”, Admiral P.I. Khanykov, ship “Blagodat”.

Gokov O.A. (Kharkov, Ukraine). Quality of Training of Staff and Status of the Persian Cossack Brigade in 1882–1885………. 95

The article considers in detail specific nature of preparation of junior officers of the Persian Cossack Brigade, highlights positive and negative factors of the process, and identifies the reasons. The author arrives at conclusions that in appearance that was a well-established, equipped and trained military unit. However, the internal problems accumulated in the Brigade upon arising, by 1882–1885 had acquired principally new content. Changes were left unattended by military authorities to have an increasing impact on the internal environment of the PCB, and its state.

Key words: Persia, Persian Cossack Brigade, Cossacks, military training, General staff officers.

Suryayev V.N. (Minsk, Belarus). Organization and Military Skill of the Russian Army Officers in the Early 20th Century………. 97

The article touches upon organization of training officers during the period preceding the Russo-Japanese War. Drawbacks of training the Officer Corps which came to the surface during the military activity are mentioned. The measures taken to improve military skills of all categories of the officers are reviewed, general assessment of their readiness to pursue a war provided.

Key words: junker training, officers’ exercises, skills of company officers, senior and generalship, characteristic of commanders and leaders of various ranks.

Strunin G.Ye. (Hannover, Germany). Russian Soldiers Fought and Were Killed Far from Their Motherland………. 101

The article makes an attempt to essentially clarify available information about the Russian Expedition Corps in France: data on its amount, whether the suggestion that the corps refused fighting is true, the revolt allegedly put down with a heavy hand of the French authorities, soldiers’ destinies, and how they were coming back to the Motherland. The author attacks an important problem – to reserve reminiscence of the Russian soldiers’ deeds both in Russia and in France.

Key words: World War I, Russian Expedition Corps, Western Front, France, Salonika Front, special brigade, A.A. Ignatyev, I.K. Sinyavsky, La Courtine.

Kiselev O.N. (Moscow). Trends in Personnel Losses in the Red Army in Fighting for Suomussalmi in Winter 1939–1940. Based on Documents from the RussianState Military Archives………. 109

Based on the archive documents, the article thoroughly tracks losses in the Workers and Peasants’ Red Army in the battle near Suomussalmi in winter of 1939–1940.

Key words: Workers and Peasants’ Red Army, Soviet-Finnish War, Suomussalmi, 1939–1940, losses in the Red Army.


Historical characters

Kitayev V.A. (Moscow). M.M. Karpovich is a Historian of the Russian Public Thought………. 121

The article reviews M.M. Karpovich’s contribution to creation of the integral picture of history of the Russian public thought in the 18th – 20th centuries, distinctive features of his research method are described, disputable issues and gaps in the lecture course in intellectual history of Russia.

Key words: M.M. Karpovich, rationalism, romanticism, realism, neo-romanticism, nationalism, conservatism, liberalism, populism, Marxism, Menshevism, Bolshevism.

Krotova M.V. (Saint Petersburg). N.V. Ustryalov’s Surroundings in Harbin………. 128

The paper deals with Harbin period of life of N.V. Ustryalov – a national-bolshevism ideologist. Generation and evolution of N.V. Ustryalov’s ideas were greatly affected by his inner circle – like-minded fellows, friends and colleagues little known. Those people’s destinies reflected the Russian intelligentsia search of its place in the new post-revolution situation, opportunities and terms of collaboration with the Soviet power, reasons for disappointment in politics and departure from the Ustryalov’s mindsets.

Key words: N.V. Ustryalov, biography, Russian emigration, Harbin, Manchuria.

Karaseva Yu.V. (Saint Petersburg). Head of OGPU V.R. Menzhinsky as J.V. Stalin’s Support in Struggle for Power………. 132

The article investigates the role of the head of OGPU (Joint State Political Directorate) V.R. Menzhinsky and OGPU authorities in strengthening political power in the country in the second half of the 1920s. It is shown, how J.V. Stalin succeeded in making away with his political opponents to take the place of the “leader” having resorted to OGPU opportunities. It is mentioned that the fabricated criminal cases and repressions initiated by Stalin in the later 1920-1930s made a significant part of OGPU activities, which became an obedient tool in hands of the leader of the USSR.

Key words: OGPU, power, opposition, struggle, fabricated accusations, V.R. Menzhinsky.


Scientific publication reviews

Izmozik V.S., Poltorak S.N. (Saint Petersburg). History of Military Arming………. 135

The review highly appreciates the collective scientific work of famous Petersburg historians. It is noted that the publication gains insight into the most important issues of history, current state and development prospects for the national military industrial complex.

Key words: V.I. Yevseyev, A.V. Losik, A.N. Shcherba, arming, military equipment, military production.

Krymskaya A.S. (Saint Petersburg). Great Afterword: About the Collection “Age of Revolution in Russia”………. 137

Alexander Rabinovich is one of the most famous American scientists studying the Russian history, in particular, the history of the revolution of 1917. The content of the collection of articles prepare by his followers – experts in the Russian history – is analyzed

Key words: Alexander Rabinovich, Russian revolution, American specialist in Russian philology, Soviet-American scientific exchanges

Kostyuk R.V. (Saint Petersburg). The Radical Lefts in Contemporary Europe………. 141

In the review is analyzed the contention of collective scientific monograph “Radical left in Europe”, which was published at 2013 inFrance. Ascertained the importance of this publication for all researches, which involved in the study of contemporary history of European left movement; are marked something omissions, which authors of study admitted.

Key words: left, Europa, European construction, party, policy, liberalism.

Omelyanchuk I.V. (Vladimir). Review of the Collection “Tauric Readings in 2012. Timeliness of the Problem of Parliamentary System: History and Modern Times”………. 143

The article reviews the collection published following the results of the scientific conference “Tauric Readings in 2012. Burning Problems of Parliamentary System: History and Modern Times”, considering the most significant and interesting works included in the collection.

Key words: “Tauric Readings in 2012”, parliamentary system, State Duma, State Council, election campaign, parliamentary faction, deputy group.

Mikhailov V.V., Puchenkov A.S. (Saint Petersburg). Review of A.A. Nepomnyashchy’s Monograph “Professor Nikolay Ernst: Pages of History of the Crimean Local Lore”………. 147

The review provide assessment of scientific significance of the monograph “Professor Nikolay Ernst: Pages of History of the Crimean Local Lore” by Andrey Nepomnyashchy, the Crimean historian, published in 2012, characterizes disputing issues of Nikolay Lvovich Ernst’s creative path, and his contribution to the Crimean local lore revealed in the book under review.

Key words: Crimea, Nikolay Lvovich Ernst.

Vinichenko M.V. (Moscow). Review of the 6th Volume “Secret War. Intelligence and Counter Intelligence during the Great Patriotic War” of the Fundamental Multivolume Work “The Great Patriotic War of 1941–1945”………. 148

The review provides assessment of the content of a sequent volume of the twelve-volume edition dedicated to the history of the Great Patriotic War. The author of the review emphasizes a wide range of the issues touched upon in the volume dealing with research of intelligence and counter-intelligence activities in the Soviet Union.

Key words: Great Patriotic War, intelligence, counter-intelligence, 1941–1945.