Klio # 12 (156)



Bulgakova L.A. (St. Petersburg). Preparation for print and introductory article to the memoirs of a military doctor S.A. Sokolskaya “Cholera on the Volga in 1919”……… 13



Candidate of Historical Sciences, Senior Researcher, St. Petersburg Institute of History of the Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, 197110, Petrozavodskaya St., 7,

8 (812) 235-65-24, E-mail: liudmila_lb@mail.ru


In her memoirs, doctor S. A. Sokolskaya, who served in the Red Army, told about the medical and sanitary measures taken to stop the outbreak of cholera in late August-early September 1919 on the Volga. Mass cholera cases, often fatal, occurred on three barges returning with detachments of factory organizations after purchasing grain up the Volga. In Simbirsk, Sokolskaya was appointed the head of the paramilitary detachment to combat cholera, which accompanied the barges throughout their further journey. To prevent the spread of cholera, barges were forbidden to land. In the conditions of the unfolding Civil war, the anti-cholera detachment on the Volga acted promptly, cohesively and selflessly. The medical staff carried out universal vaccinations, treated and isolated the sick, conducted sanitary and enlightening work, extracted the necessary food. This time, as a result of the activities, carried out, the epidemiological team managed to extinguish the hotbed of a dangerous infectious disease in a short time.

Keywords: Civil war in Russia; epidemiological detachment; cholera on the Volga; medical and sanitary-preventive measures


Tleptsok R.A. (Maykop), Sheudzhen E.A. (Maykop). The North Caucasus: “native – alien” (metamorphoses and transformation of consciousness)…………. 19


Doctor in historical Sciences, head of the Department of national history, historiography, theory and methodology of history of Adygea state University

385000, Republic of Adygea, Maykop, st. May Day, d. 208

E-mail: bum102@yandex.ru


Doctor in historical Sciences, Professor of the Department of national history, historiography, theory and methodology of history of Adygea state University

385000, Republic of Adygea, Maykop, st. May Day, d. 208

E-mail: emil.scheujen2013@yandex.ru


There is no denying that nowadays the majority of the world’s countries have come to form multiethnic institutions. For historical reasons, connected with the domination of specific geopolitical circumstances, Russia has been evolving into a multinational type of power. The southern state frontiers used to be the areas of particular concern in this respect. Both voluntary and coercive territory acquisition methods used to be integrally woven into the overall geopolitical stabilization process, taking place within Eurasia over many centuries and causing inevitable inter-ethnic tensions and clashes, which have been echoing back at us until this tradition of coexistence of the peoples in multi-ethnic enclaves, to which, in particular, the North Caucasus used to belong, thus resulting in subsequent arising of tensions of ethnic and political nature. Changes in the external situation and social conditions led to the emergence of new values, beliefs, or modifications of old ones, which could not but manifest themselves in the field of ethnic relations. The ongoing metamorphosis stems very day. Even though the Russian historiography sticks to the point of view that the state system was found not on suppression but rather on a political compromise, any attempts to create a “homogeneous empire” would invariably come in conflict with the established from the complex process of struggle between consciousness (awareness) and traditional views plus dominant feelings. The “special identity” of contact-prone areas could not but be influenced by the environment’s natural and geographical aspects: whereas the coastal territories of the North-Western Caucasus have since ancient times materialized into “rendezvous points” of the Greeks with the so-called barbarian world, the mountain areas went on to actually remain inaccessible to outer influence up until the XIX century, being enclaves of “natives” rejecting any contacts with “aliens”. Development of navigation and exploration of the Black Sea led to the increase in the number of contacts of mainly one-sided interest only: while local tribes presented interest from the ethnographic point of view only, their lands were associated solely with a kind of raw material base designed for the improvement of trade. The surviving sources (records of travelers and missionaries, verbal traditions of the Circassians) are illustrative of the type of mutual interest at the question. Both indigenous peoples and strangers were perceived as “different” based on criteria of different appearance, manners, and behavior. Despite the existing dissimilarities, the Circassians had for centuries displayed a remarkable level of tolerance to newcomers. Fundamental changes occurred later in the years of the Caucasian War. Along with aggravation of confrontation, the “different” would turn into hostile “aliens”, posing a threat to the traditional frame of life. It should be added that it was true not only about the Russian soldiers, officers, and Cossacks but also about mountaineers that would come in contact with “aliens”: ethnic affiliation to “natives” would only further promote the alienation of this group of population. When trying to challenge ethnic tensions and conflicts, special significance is taken on by addressing the problems of historical memory, which testifies to the stability of ethnic communities and preservation of latent types of contradictions in the “native – alien construct”.

Keywords: peoples of the North Caucasus, consciousness, transformation, perception of “alien”, metamorphosis.


Kozlov N.D. (St. Petersburg). Western historians and media on the role of the USSR in the defeat of Germany ……… 29



Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Professor of Department of History,

Pushkin Leningrad State Universiteti Russian Federation, Saint Peterburg, Puschkin Peterburgskoe schosse, 10, E-mail: koznik49@yandex.ru


The article discusses the main directions, means, techniques and methods used by modern Western media, historians and politicians in the process of falsifying the history of the Second World War, aimed at belittling and oblivion of the role and contribution of the SSR in the defeat of Nazi Germany and its allies, demonization of its successor-modern Russia. At the same time, it is noted that in the West there are historians and journalists, who are guided by the principles of science and historicism and seek to objectively cover the common past. It is emphasized in General the tendency to distortion and oblivion of the joint struggle against the common enemy of politicization and Americanization of the history of the Second World War prevails.

Keywords: the Second World War, the Great Patriotic war, the role of the USSR in the defeat Nazi Germany, the landing of the allies, mass media historians.


Serebryanskaya G.V. (Nizhny Novgorod). Everyday life of the people during the Great Patriotic War in the works of M.S. Zinich………………….. 37



 Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the Department of History,

Philosophy, Pedagogy and Psychology,

Nizhny Novgorod State Architectural and Construction University.

603950, Russian Federation, Nizhny Novgorod, ul. Ilinskaya, 65.

E-mail: serebrianskaya55@yandex.ru

The article presents the scientific activities of a famous historian, senior researcher at the Institute of Russian History of the Russian Academy of Sciences Margarita Stefanovna Zinich. It tells about her biography related to the events of the Great Patriotic War. The main achievements of the scientist, the field of scientific interests are noted. M.S. Zinich is a member of the team of authors of multivolume fundamental works on the history of Russia and the history of the working class of the war period. Her works on the history of everyday life are analyzed. New pages of this topic are revealed in the recently published monograph “Everyday Life of the People during the Great Patriotic War”, where, based on a variety of archival documents, sources of personal origin, published regulatory acts and statistical materials, M.S. Zinich investigated a range of issues related to ensuring the social and cultural needs of citizens of the war era.

Keywords: M.S. Zinich, historian, scientific direction, World War II, people, everyday life.


Sidnenko T.I. (St. Petersburg), Lisitsyna E.N. (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk). Soviet historiography of the history of oil and gas production on Sakhalin……………………………………………………………………. 41



Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Professor of the department of Russian and World history, Sakhalin State University, 693008, Russian Federation, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Lenin, 290, 8 (914) 7469331, E-mail: Lisitsina1997@yandex.ru



Doctor of history sciences, Professor, Professor of the Department of state and municipal management, Director of the Center for educational technologies

Leningrad state University named after A. S. Pushkin

196605, St. Petersburg, Pushkin, Petersburg highway, 10

E-mail: sidnenko@list.ru



The article is devoted to the analysis of the Soviet historiography of the history of oil and gas production on Sakhalin. Researchers distinguish two periods in it, which cover the second half of the 1920s – early 1990s. Attention is focused on the first publications within the Soviet period of domestic historiography on the subject under study, identified by the authors, still remains out of the attention of scientists. Within the framework of the system analysis, the problem-thematic blocks of studying the history of oil and gas production on Sakhalin are highlighted. The absence of complex historical and historiographical works in the domestic historiography devoted to the study of repressions of the 1930s and their impact on the development of the oil industry, the use of labor of “Eastern” workers, the postwar participation of Japanese prisoners of war in the restoration of the oil industry of Sakhalin is revealed.

Keywords: historiography, concession construction on Sakhalin, discovery of Sakhalin oil, oil production, oil refining, international cooperation.


Lagoshina N.A. (Rostov-on-Don). The “Great Famine” of the 18th century as a factor in Irish migration….. 48



PhD Student of the second year of study,

Department of Foreign History and International Relations,

Institute of History and International Relations,

Southern Federal University, Bolshaya Sadovaya St., 33,

Rostov-on-Don, 344082, Russia.

 +79897142996. E-mail: natallidalli@mail.ru


Environmental changes have affected most Western European countries with agricultural economies. The unstable socio-economic situation in Ireland deteriorated due to periods of cold snap in the first half of the eighteenth century and food crises coinciding with demographic growth. The years 1740 – 1741 have long been known as a period of General crisis, caused by the loss of crops, food shortages, high prices of staple foods, and high mortality. The degree of risk, the ability to resist negative climatic factors and the processes of adaptation of the population to new conditions in different countries differed significantly. The report focuses on the famine in Ireland of 1740 – 1741, because this famine left a greater mark on Irish national history than in the history of any other European country, due to the subsequent outbreaks of the famine years in 1845 – 1852 and the long-term demographic consequences.

Keywords: Great famine, economy of Ireland, food crisis, migratory issues, adaptation of the Irish.


Belousov M.S. (St. Petersburg), Poretskaya A.Yu. (St. Petersburg) Images of Antiquity in the Poetry and Political Activity of Decembrists…………………… 53



PhD in History, Associate Professor, Saint Petersburg State University.

199034, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya nab., 7–9.

E-mail: m.belousov@spbu.ru



research assistant, Saint Petersburg State University.

199034, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya nab., 7–9.

E-mail: poretskaya09@yandex.ru


The article is devoted to the problem of the existence of antique plots and images in the work and in political activity of the Decembrists. The significant role of the works of classical authors in the education and formation of the generation of participants in the first Russian secret society is shown. The nature of the use of antique themes in a number of key works of Decembrist poets is analyzed (P. A. Katenin, F. N. Glinka, V. K. Kuchelbecker, K. F. Ryleev). The process of transferring literary forms into concrete political actions during the period of the interregnum of 1825 is displayed. It is about using K. F. Ryleev, the term “dictator” in relation to S. P. Trubetskoy, the actualization of tyrannical rhetoric in the discussion of a possible attempt on the Grand Duke Nikolai Pavlovich. The similarities of the unfolding of the political crisis associated with the confusing dynastic situation and the role of the Senate as the highest state body with a similar case from the history of ancient Rome are demonstrated.

Keywords: Decembrists, interregnum, rebellion, ancient images, literature, dictator, tragedy.



Geht A.B. (St. Petersburg). From the history of the Winter War: the main directions of Sweden’s policy towards Finland on the eve of and during the Soviet-Finnish War of 1939–1940………………………………………………… 64



Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of History and Regional Studies,

Federal State Budget-Financed Educational Institution of Higher Education The Bonch-Bruevich Saint-Petersburg State University of Telecommunications.

193232, Russia. St. Petersburg, prospekt Bol’shevikov, 22/ 1.

e-mail: a.geht@yandex.ru


A short confrontation between the USSR and Finland happened 80 years ago. The multilateral study of the Soviet-Finnish war of 1939-1940. An extensive and very representative historiography is presented, presented both by the works of domestic historians and a large number of foreign researchers. At the same time, the importance of the position of Sweden, whose foreign policy is extremely important for understanding the decisions made by the Finnish political leadership, is often not fully disclosed. This work is an attempt to briefly outline the factors that determined the dynamics of the development of Sweden’s policy towards Finland within the specified time frame: identify positions within the Swedish leadership regarding actions towards its eastern neighbor, consider the main aspects of the creation and activities of the Swedish Volunteer Corps, which took part in the fighting actions against the Red Army on the side of the Finnish armed forces, to clarify the issues of military and non-military assistance provided to Finland by the Swiss the Swedish side, and also describe Sweden’s position on the transit of British-French troops through Swedish territory in the event of British and French intervention in the war on the side of Finland and Sweden’s influence on negotiations to conclude a peace between the USSR and Finland in early 1940.

Keywords: Finland, Sweden, Soviet-Finnish war, Åland Islands’ question, Baltic Sea region, Swedish Volunteer Corps, Moscow Peace Treaty, history of Swedish-Finnish political relations.


Pogodin S.N. (St. Petersburg), Sablina M.A. (St. Petersburg). Origin and initial stage of feminism development in Finland……………………………………. 75



Doctor in Historical Sciences and Professor of the Higher School of International Relations of the Humanities Institute at Peter the Great St.Petersburg

Polytechnic University. 195251, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Polytechnicheskaya, 29.  E-mail: pogodin56@mail.ru



PhD, Associate Professor of the Higher School of International Relations of the Humanities Institute at Peter the Great St.Petersburg Polytechnic University. 195251, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Polytechnicheskaya, 29.  E-mail: marina.sablina2011@gmail.com

The emergence of the feminist movement in Finland is a key moment in the development of the struggle for women’s rights. Finland was one of the first countries in which there was a women’s movement. The desire for equality of the Finnish women born in the mid-nineteenth century and it was the hard way. The origins of the Finnish feminist movement were: Minna Kant, Lucia Hagman, and Mikey Friberg. The official date of the Finnish feminist movement can be considered February 20, 1884, when the “Helsinki Association for the advancement of women” was established. The organization included offices in the capital and the field. In its activities, the Association advocated for the observance of political, social and educational rights, as in men. The emergence of the organization “Martha’s Association”, determined the creation of a Patriotic public educational organization in which women played the role of educator. The organization’s goal was to rally women throughout Finland. In the postwar years, until the late 60s, there was a decline in the popularity of the women’s movement. The studied period can be considered the initial or first stage of the feminist movement in Finland, the purpose of which was to obtain women’s political, social and educational rights in society.

Keywords: feminism, equality, feminist organizations, the feminist movement, feminist nationalism, Finnish feminism, nationalist ideology.


Larionov I. S. (St. Petersburg). “The Struggle for the Soul of British Nationalism” – a radical right ideology in Britain in the 1980s………………………….. 81



Aspirant of historical sciences,

Department of Modern and Contemporary History

Saint-Petersburg State University


E-mail: st075397@student.spbu.ru


The ideology of right-wing radicalism in Britain has a relatively short history in comparison with other European countries. In the contemporary period, only in the 1970-s the British National Front was able to seriously attract attention and arouse concern among the liberal public. However, a period of decline followed very soon, and the British right almost disappeared from the political scene. Nevertheless, their activities continued and, moreover, the next decade became the time of the most unexpected and diverse ideological searches. In the 1980s the alchemical process of smelting a new ideology takes place using various sources of inspiration – from the ideas of National-Bolshevism of the Strasser brothers to the concepts of the French New Right. Although in the historical period under review, these searches did not bring practical results, they became the basis due to which the success of the British National Party in the early 2000s became possible.

Keywords: Great Britain, right-wing radicalism, New Right, National Front, British National Party, Nick Griffin.


Pravdyuk D.A. (St. Petersburg). Chile as a locomotive of the Pacific integration of Latin America in the XXI century (by the year of the Chilean presidency of APEC)…………………………………………………………………….. 89



Postgraduate Student, Faculty of International Relations,

St. Petersburg State University

Russia, St. Petersburg, 1/3 Smolny Street



The unofficial status of the Republic of Chile as a bridge state between Asia and South America is based on its geographical position, Chile’s openness and its commitment to a liberal market model, historical experience in concluding free trade agreements, links with MERCOSUR and the Andean Community, and, finally, on diverse multilevel ties with the Asia-Pacific region. The Chilean authorities are actively implementing the strategy of open regionalism, as evidenced by 26 trade and economic agreements signed by Chile and covering 64 markets and more than 86% of the global gross domestic product. Chile’s integration mechanisms with the Asia-Pacific region are often subsequently successfully implemented by other Latin American countries, and initiatives contribute to strengthening economic stability. Chile’s chairmanship of the APEC Forum in 2019 was a great opportunity to demonstrate a commitment to multilateralism and international integration for both regional neighbors and the Forum’s partners.

Keywords: Latin America, Chile, Asia-Pacific region, regional integration.


Nefedov D.A. (Moscow). The fight against corruption in the USSR during the period of stagnation………… 98



Applicant of the faculty of history

Lomonosov Moscow State University

119192, Moscow, Lomonosovskyi pr., 24-4

+79268249263, E-mail: nefedovd.a@mail.ru


This article describes the specifics of the anti-corruption policy implemented by the Soviet Government in the “era of stagnation”. The most characteristic features of political and social activity for the given historical period are described. Definitions are given to the terms “stagnation” and “era of stagnation”. A connection has been established between the growth of corruption in Brezhnev’s rule and the previous period of the Khrushchev’s thaw. Corruption is analyzed as an economic phenomenon of Soviet history in the context of the era of stagnation. The analyzed historical period is conditionally divided into several stages: Brezhnev’s attempts to counter and radical anti-corruption policy of Yu.V. Andropov. At the first stage of the analysis, attention is focused on ignoring and suppressing corruption abuses. The work contains specific corruption precedents, the investigation of which was suspended by L.V. Brezhnev (Galushko case, “fish” and “Sochi-Krasnodar” cases). At the second stage of the analysis, aspects of the anti-corruption “purge” initiated by Yu.V. Andropov, including the party apparatus. The most high-profile corruption investigations carried out during the period of the government of Yu.V. Andropov (purges in Azerbaijan and Georgia, the case of Brovin and Shchelokov, the “cotton case”, the case of “Mosprodtorg”). The article contains some statistics on the growth rate of corruption crimes. The features of the functioning of the republican economy are noted. The main omissions of legal support and regulation of official and state relations are highlighted.

Keywords: corruption, bribe, era of stagnation, L.I. Brezhnev, Yu.V. Andropov, anti-corruption policy, «purge».


Gatilov E.V. (Lipetsk), Nikolashin V.P. (Tambov). Land conflicts of black earth of the initial Soviet period 1917-1920 ………. 104


Candidate of Historical Sciences,
Associate Professor, Department of History, Theory of State
and law and constitutional law,
Lipetsk State Technical University
398055, Russia, Lipetsk, Moskovskaya Street, 30

E-mail: gatilow.e@yandex.ru

Candidate of Historical Sciences,
Deputy Director for Innovation of Technology park
Derzhavin Tambov State University
392000, Russia, Tambov, International
naya Street, 33

E-mail:  nikolashin.vadim@yandex.ru


The article is devoted to the problem of the development of land conflicts in the Chernozem village in 1917-1920. The relevance of the study is due to the specificity of the participation of the peasantry in the agrarian reform of Soviet power in this period. In comprehending the essence of the land conflict, special attention is paid to foreign studies of conflictogenes in traditional agricultural economies with a great role of communities. Based on sources (the State Archive of the Russian Federation, the Russian State Archive of Economics, the state archives of the Voronezh, Tambov, Oryol, Lipetsk, Kursk Regions), the conditions and features of the formation of land conflicts in the chernozem village at the inter-coastal, inter-county and inter-provincial levels are identified, the stages and nature of their development are defined. Particular attention is paid to the methodological and theoretical foundations of land conflicts, the concept of this socio-economic phenomenon is formulated. The authors conclude that land conflicts in most cases occurred because of the destruction of established institutions in the village. The high degree of their manifestation in the life of the black earth village in 1917-1920 allows us to consider land conflicts as an indicator not only of the socio-economic state of the village but also as an indicator of peasant identity. As a result, it is concluded that with the implementation of agrarian transformations, the Sovietization of the village, land conflicts had degenerated, lost their inter-settlement character and were reduced more and more to the intra-settlement lawsuits of an individual peasant. They reflected the transformation of the peasantry itself, and, first of all, its identification bases.

Keywords: Chernozem village, land conflict, conflictogene, peasantry, identity.


Magomedkhanov M.М. (Makhachkala), Bakanov A.V. (Makhachkala), Garunova S.M. (Makhachkala). Russian-Dagestan trade and economic communications during existence of Kievan Russ and the Golden Horde …………. 122



PhD in History, Professor, Head of Ethnography

The Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the

Dagestan Federal Research Center of RAS

Russia, Makhachkala, M. Yaragskogo 75 st.



Junior Researcher

The Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography, Russia, Makhachkala, M. Yaragskogo 75 st. of the Dagestan Federal Research Center of RAS



Junior Researcher

The G. Tsadasa Institute of Language, Literature and Art of the

Dagestan Federal Research Center of RAS Russia, Makhachkala, M.Gadzhieva 45 st. saida-mag@yandex.ru


The Caucasus has historically been a crossroads of the North and South, East and West. From time immemorial, here international trade and transport communications have converged and intertwined, and with them the interests and aspirations of the leading world powers. Due to natural-geographical, climatic and other reasons, only the Caspian lowland located on the western coast of the Caspian Sea could provide a year-round connection between Europe and Asia. Based on the analysis of historical information, the article substantiates the thesis that Dagestan was the key region in the trans-Eurasian trade and transport communications during the Middle Ages. It is noted that the trade and transport route, connecting the Baltic, Black and Caspian seas through the river basins: Dvina, Dnieper, Don, Neva, and Volga, including all the relics, was the main economic artery of “Dokievskaya” and Kievan Russ almost throughout VIII, IX and X centuries. The connection of Kievan Russ with the West Caspian region ceased during the Mongol-Tatar invasion. Russian-Dagestan trade and economic ties were not significant on the eve of the Golden Horde. Only after the liberation from the Horde dependence, the logistic resources of Dagestan will become for Great Russia, the key to the transit connection of Asia and Europe.

Keywords: Kievan Russ, the Golden Horde, the West Caspian region, trade and economic relations, trade and transport routes, The Great Silk Road.


Baryshnikov M.N. (St. Petersburg). Putilovsky and Nevsky plants: perspective for cooperation on the eve and during the First World War…………………………………………………………………………………………. 132



PhD in History, professor; Head of the Department of History

The Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia

48, Moika Embankment, St.-Petersburg, 191186, Russia

E-mail: barmini@list.ru


This article analyzes the economic integration of the Putilov and Nevsky plants in 1911-1916. Author uses archival data to explore the long-term effects of organizational cooperation on measures of production efficiency. Presents evidence that mutual business interest between the investors and the owner-managers of industrial companies positively affects the adoption of new decisions and the resulting long-term economic outcomes. I show that technical, technological and financial changes in firms that are institutionally more similar to best western and Russian business experience, in terms of corporate content, generate better long-term economic performance. I suggest that organizational cooperation was associated to the coordination for production purposes, which started nowell before the First World War through increase private and government orders. By contrast, the imbalance of financial and economic interests rather was associated to be associated to government policy changes and their effects on business cooperation changes. These findings are important, as mutual interest among company shareholders remained one of a critical factor in explaining the successes and failures in the industrial business during the war years.

Keywords: Petersburg, corporations, industry, Putilovsky plant, Nevsky plant, shareholders, directors, interests.


Gomon K.A. (St. Petersburg). “Political explosion” in the Caucasus in October 1917…………………………… 144



PhD in History

 Senior researcher at the Museum of military costume

Russia, Saint Petersburg, 3th Sovietskaya ul., 8.

+7(996)790-30-15; E-mail: kupigriliato@yandex.ru


The article is devoted to the political developments in the Caucasus – the future of the republics of Azerbaijan, Georgia and Armenia on the eve and in the first months after the coup, committed by the Bolsheviks in Petrograd on 25 October (7 November), 1917 In the course of the revolutionary events of March – October 1917 in Transcaucasia took the collapse of the government, there are new players in the first place, nationalist and separatist bias. Political parties focused on attracting the Muslim population have emerged in Azerbaijan and Baku. In the post-October 1917. in the political turmoil, none of the forces was able to obtain a legitimate power space, and the presence of a strong Caucasian army in the region made the situation extremely explosive. The analysis of the situation shows that the democratic forces of Transcaucasia, which did not accept the Bolshevik power, faced a serious challenge, both external – due to the ongoing world war, and internal, caused by political disagreements of the party leaders, as well as national and religious conflicts among the population of Transcaucasia. In October-December 1917 a number of significant political events took place in Transcaucasia: congresses of various political parties, meetings in the Caucasian army, elections to local authorities. In General, we can talk about the unwillingness of any of the parties, except the Bolsheviks, by force to seize power, and Transcaucasian leaders of democratic and religious-nationalist bias bet on the all-Russian Constituent Assembly. Elections to the Constituent Assembly showed a strong influence of regional national political forces, while the Bolsheviks and Democrats “February” (socialists and cadets) received significantly fewer votes. Further events in Transcaucasia confirmed this political situation, as the Transcaucasian Federation was not viable and broke up into three national republics in the first half of 1918.

Keywords: revolution of 1917 in Transcaucasia, collapse of the Caucasian front of the First world war, Transcaucasian Commissariat, Baku city Duma, all-Russian Constituent Assembly, Baku commune, S. G. Shaumyan, M. E. Rasulzade.


Halin A.A. (Nizhny Novgorod), Pedanov D.B. (Nizhny Novgorod). Reconstruction of the Mordovshikovsky. (Navashinsky) ship repair plant in 1928 – 1930……………….. 153



 Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor

History and Theory of State and Law Department

Nizhny Novgorod Institute of Management – branch of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA),

603950, Russia, Nizhny Novgorod, Gagarin Avenue, 46

8-9043-909-35-76; a.halin@niu.ranepa.ru



 Post-Graduate Student,

History and Theory of State and Law Department

Nizhny Novgorod Institute of Management – Branch of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA),

603950, Russia, Nizhny Novgorod, Gagarin Avenue, 46

8-920-052-73-73; pedanov.nn@mail.ru


The socio-economic development of Russia is directly related to the development of transport. Historical experience shows that in the freight and passenger transportation one of the important places was occupied by inland water transport, despite the low speeds and seasonality, which had a serious advantage in the low cost of transportation. A key role in the functioning of river transport was played by shipbuilding and ship repair enterprises. For the rivers of the Volga basin, one of these was the Mordovshchikovsky (Navashinsky) ship repair plant. The article is devoted to the history of the reconstruction of the Mordovshchikovsky shipyard at the beginning of the first five-year plan. On the basis of previously unpublished archival materials stored in the Central Archive of the Nizhny Novgorod Region (Nizhny Novgorod), the purpose and project of the reconstruction of the enterprise are considered, the personalities of the authors of the project are presented, the problems that occurred during the reconstruction of the enterprise are identified. The article cites facts not previously covered in scientific research.

Keywords: Mordovshchikovsky shipyard, ship repair plant, shipbuilding in the first five-year plans, reconstruction, design, survey team, economic efficiency.


Likhachev V.G. (St. Petersburg). The influence of the socio-political and ideological atmosphere of the second half of the 1940s – early 50s on the work of naval schools on the example of the North-West of the RSFSR………… 159



graduate student, Leningrad state University named after A. S. Pushkin

196605, St. Petersburg, Pushkin, Petersburg highway, 10

8-921-303-99-55, E-mail: suna-kivach@yandex.ru


The article discusses current issues that are devoted to the analysis of the influence of the socio-political and ideological atmosphere of the second half of the 1940s – early 50s to the work of naval schools on the example of the North-West of the RSFSR. Special attention is paid to the organization and content of ideological and educational events, to the particularities of party political and mass political work. Concrete measures and actions are described in the example of the Leningrad Naval College. Particular emphasis is placed on improving patriotic education and training of teachers of naval schools, agitators, for whom educational seminars and additional training courses on working with party documents were also held. As a result, this made it possible to achieve a high ideological level in the teaching of all studied disciplines by cadets and helped to increase their academic performance. Also, cultural work and the fulfillment of socio-political assignments were of particular importance.

Keywords: education, sailors, patriotism, ideology, party, program, teachers, agitation, fleet.


Soloviev K.A. (Moscow). The architectural ensemble of the Nikolo-Berlyukovsk desert and the background of its foundation…………………………………………….164



 PhD in Culturology, Associate Professor

Department of Designing Buildings and Structures

National Research University –

 Moscow State University of Civil Engineering

129337, Moscow, Yaroslavskoe chose 26, ISA office 508.

8903-177-81-30; solovyev.cyrill@yandex.ru

Associate Professor

Department of History and Theory of Decorative Arts and Design

Stroganov Moscow State Academy of Design and Applied Arts

125080, Moscow, Volokolamskoe chose 9, office 408,

8495-158-68-58; solovyev.cyrill@yandex.ru


The article is devoted to a historical study of the Nikolaev Berlyukov desert of the Moscow region and the background of its founding. The author, in his study, relying on historical and archival documents, as well as using the method of historical research, tries to support historical evidence that the Nikolo-Berlukovskaya desert, based on documents founded in 1606, actually had a very interesting background to its origin and that hieroskhimonakh Varlaam, who came in 1606 from the Assumption Stroman Monastery, ravaged by Polish-Lithuanian invaders, to the bank of the Vori River did not come to an empty place, but in order to revive the fallen monastery b. The second part of the study is devoted to the history of the origin and construction of the architectural ensemble of the monastery of the late XVIII – first half of the XIX centuries, which has survived to our time. A distinctive feature of this architectural complex, as the author notes, is the preserved integral architectural ensemble, designed by a single architect in a mixed Empire-Neoclassical style.

Keywords: Ivanovo Monastery, Nicholas-Berlukovskaya Deserts, Vyatichi, Grand Duke Vladimir Monomakh, Pr. Kuksha Pechersky, hieroskhimonk Varlaam, designs F. M. Shestakov, Icon “Christ kissing Judah”.


Deveykis M.V. (St. Petersburg). Museums of St. Petersburg at the turn of the XIX — XX centuries…………173



Graduate Student, Institute of History, St. Petersburg State University

199034, Russia, St. Petersburg, Mendeleev Line, 5.

89062511247, E-mail: deveykis@bk.ru


The topic of the article is relevant since museums occupy a special place in the historical and cultural heritage of the country, and Petersburg is the founder of museum construction. The study defines periods in the history of the museums of St. Petersburg of pre-revolutionary Russia, and also studied the final stage of the first museum boom. At this stage, the role of museums in the cultural life of society is activated. The analysis of the dynamics of the emergence of museums at the turn of the century and their influence on the cultural sphere is carried out, for which a matrix is used that shows these connections. The article provides a grouping of all created museums in St. Petersburg from 1893 to 1916 by the degree of their influence on the spheres of culture the history and activity of the main museums in each group are reflected. In the context of historical and comparative analysis, the connection between the emergence of museums and the dynamics of the country’s industrial development is revealed. The article used archival materials, statistical collections, monographs and works of contemporaries.

Key words: museum, museum life, cultural spheres, stages, scientific centers, cultural policy, profile groups, museum dynamics.


Sapogova E.E. (St. Petersburg). The demand for works by Leningrad-Petersburg artists of the realistic direction of the second half of the twentieth century in the antique and art markets……………………………………………179



art critic, Member of the Union of Artists of Russia (St. Petersburg).

194214, Russia, Saint-Petersburg, Ydelnii avenue, 45-105.

E-mail: Ekat-sap@yandex.ru


The article analyzes the pricing policy and the relevance of works of Russian realistic art at world auctions “Sotheby’s” and “Christie’s”. Is discussed the problem of the formation of private collections in Russia and abroad and an attempt is made to analyze prices for paintings by Russian realist artists. Particular attention is paid to the works of the Leningrad-Petersburg school of painting and their relevance among collectors. The articles of the doctor of art history, V. Skurlov were introduced into the scientific circulation. An interview with the head of the department of Russian art of the Christie’s Auction House Alexei Tizengauzen about the demand for Russian art among collectors around the world has been put into scientific circulation. The 2014 Russian Trading in London at the Sotheby’s auction is analyzed, where works from the Soviet period from the Moscow Art Gallery (International Confederation of Artists’ Unions) were presented. The article discusses the largest collections of the Leningrad-St. Petersburg school of painting of the second half of the twentieth century, which the Russian and foreign collectors managed to form.

Keywords: Leningrad-Petersburg artists; Leningrad school of painting of the 50-90s; art and antique market; realism; socialist realism; St. Petersburg State Academic Institute of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture named after I.E. Repin (SPbGAIZHSA named after I.E. Repin).



Savvinov P.O. (Novosibirsk). Olesov Nikita Innokentyevich: policeman and Yakut emigrant…………………. 184



Postgraduate student,

Institute of History of the Siberian Branch of the RAS,

Russia, Novosibirsk, 630090, 8 Nikolaev St.

e-mail:  pavel_savvinov@mail.ru


The article studies the police history at the beginning of the 20th century in Yakutia and Yakut emigration in Manchuria on the example of a former policeman and Yakut emigrant Olesov Nikita Innokentyevich. This work is a part of the project aimed at studying the mental characteristics of the world of Yakut emigration in 1917−1940. The study relevance is due to the fact that historical science has not sufficiently considered the history of the pre-revolutionary police in Yakutia and Yakut emigration. Most works on the history of law enforcement agencies investigate the activities, formation, and organization of the pre-revolutionary local police and the Soviet militsiya. The topic of Yakut emigration and “Yakut world” is a “blank spot” and a significant scientific problem that requires comprehensive research against the background of the revolution of 1917 and the civil war in the context of world history. By applying the historical-biographical method, the author has found that the police in Siberia were performing unusual duties, and Harbin became a center for Russian emigrants in the Far East and South-East Asia.

Keywords: Yakut region, city police, regional police department, Harbin, Russian emigration.


Kaschenko E. S. (St. Petersburg). Review of publication: L.V. Zavyalova “Maria Fedorovna. Wife, Mother, Empress”(St. Petersburg, Vita Nova Publ., 2018. 528 p.)……………………………………………………………………188



Candidate of Art Criticism, Associate Professor,

Department of Western and Russian Culture,

History Institute, Saint Petersburg State University.

199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Mendeleevskaya Liniya, 5.

e-mail: e.kaschenko@spbu.ru


The text of the review provides a brief description and analysis of  separate chapters of the monograph by L.V. Zavyalova “Maria Fedorovna. Wife, mother, empress”. This monograph contains detailed and logically corrected biography of Empress Maria Fedorovna, wife of Emperor Paul I and mother of two Russian reigns: Alexander I and Nicholas I. Maria Fedorovna’s charitable work received extensive coverage; the author analysis of her character and actions. We would particularly like to note the author’s work with sources; attracting a wide range of memoir literature to create an attractive image of this historical figure.

Keywords: Empress Maria Fedorovna, Princess Sofia Dorothea of Wurttemberg, Emperor Paul I, Russian autocracy; domestic charity, health and education.


Alekseev T.V. (St. Petersburg), Losik A.V. (St. Petersburg). Chronicle of the battling city (review of the monograph by B.P. Belozerov “Leningrad is fighting”. 1942. St. Petersburg, Knowledge Society Publ., 2017, 287 р.)………………. 191



Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor

Professor of the Military Space Academy named after A.F. Mozhaysky

197198, Russia, St. Petersburg, Zhdanovskaya str., 13.

Tel.:   7 (911) 273-96-44; e-mail: timofey1967@mail.ru


Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor

Deputy Editor-in-Chief of the Journal for Scientists “Clio”

197374, Russia, St. Petersburg, School Str., 88, 2, sq. 81.

Тел.:  7 (812) 534-28-28, e-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru



Monograph of one of the oldest St. Petersburg historians B.P. Belozerova is a continuation of a series of four books conceived by him and is devoted to the history of the besieged Leningrad in 1942. The author conducts a comprehensive analysis of various aspects of the city’s life: the military operations of the troops of the Leningrad and Volkhov fronts to break through the enemy blockade and the dramatic events that accompanied them, the combat and organizational work of the commander of the Leningrad Front L.A. Govorov, the decision by the leadership of the city and country of the food problem of Leningrad, the contribution of workers, peasants, intellectuals, university and students to the defense of the city, as well as the deployment of the resistance movement in the territories occupied by the enemy. The study, built on strict adherence to the principles of historicism and objectivity, the best traditions of the Soviet historical school, can find application in the framework of the patriotic education of the young generation.

Keywords: World War II, blockade of Leningrad, L.A. Govorov, military operations, food supply, partisan movement, military industry, defense developments

Alphabetical list of authors of articles published in the journal Klio in 2019………………………………………….194