Klio # 4 (124) 2017





Robustova E.V. (Moscow). The narrativity of historical writing in the context of the problem of the relation between description and explanation, theory and “the story”………………………………………………13

ELENA VITALIEVNA ROBUSTOVA — Ph.D. in History, Head of the Department of Philosophy and Humanities, Moscow State University of Psychology and Education. 127051, Russian Federation, Moscow, Sretenka Str., 29. E-mail: robusta22@list.ru

The article examines approaches to the study of the particular historical theory on the basis of the conception of the narrativeness as the leading characteristics of historical writing. It shows the development of views on issues of theoretical justification of historical texts, on the assumption to consider narrative as a basic form of presentation of results of historical research. The narrative is positioned not only as the method of presentation, but also as optimal model of scholarly and historical explanation for the performance of historical knowledge. Statement of views on the broad theoretical possibilities of narrative historiography is shown in the background of discussions about the extent and form assumptions in the historiography of literary theory and concepts of sociological knowledge and the theoretical structures developed under the auspices of identity preserved approach.

Keywords: historiography, theory of history, historical writing, historical narratives.





Levin D.E. (Saint Petersburg). The story of D.K. Zelenin «Seminar revolt»……………………………………18

DMITRIY EMMANUYLOVITCH LEVIN (1947–2014) — Librarian of the National Library of Russia, Awardee of the Russian Ministry of Culture in 2004. Е-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru

This is a publication of a feature article of the well-known Russian ethnographеr D.K. Zelenin “Seminary riot”. It is devoted to the events that took place at Vyatka Theological Seminary in 1895. It contains valuable information about the everyday life of students and teachers at Russian Orthodox Church schools at the end of the XIX century. The article is interesting as a source on the history of the church and clergy, as well as of schools and pedagogy In the Russian empire. The factual basis of the plot of the story is analysed, possible prototypes of its characters are revealed. Use of specific Vyatka vocabulary by D.K. Zelenin is correlated with his dialectological studies and with general views on the development of the literary Russian language. The history of the story publication, which 5 times was offered for publication in the journal “Historical bulletin” of S.N. Shubinskiy, is described in details. But it was published without disclosure of authorship in the “Historical Journal for All” of I.I. Yasinskiy.

Keywords: D.K. Zelenin; Vyatka Theological Seminary; church; clergy; school; pedagogy; Russian empire; S.N. Shubinskiy; I.I. Yasinskiy.





Ippolitov G.M. (Samara), Poltorak S.N. (Saint Petersburg). Soviet historiography of the Civil war in Russia in the second half of 1960s and first half of the 1980s. The first Article. The terms of the development of Soviet history in the study period…………………………………………………………………………46

GEORGIYI MIKHAJLOVICH IPPOLITOV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Leading researcher of Institute of Russian History RAN (Povolzhsky branch, Samara), Professor of Department of Philosophy, Volga State University of Telecommunications and Informatics (Samara). 443101, Russian Federation, Samara, Novomolodezhnihyj pereulok, 21, 58. E-mail: pfiri@ ssc.smr.ru; gippolitov@rambler.ru

SERGEYI NIKOLAEVICH POLTORAK — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Editor-in-Chief of the journal «Klio», Head of the Department of International Relations and Foreign Regional Studies, St. Petersburg Institute of Foreign Economic Relations, Economics and Law. 195220, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Grazhdanskiyj pr., 11. E-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru

This article is a logical continuation of the authors’ works published in the journal «Klio»: Early Soviet Historiography of the Civil War in Russia. 1981–1922. 2016. No. 1 (109). January. Pp. 43–61; Historiography of the Civil War in Russia in the first post-war years (1922–1932). 2016. No. 3 (111). March. Pp. 21–38; Soviet historiography of the Civil War in Russia in the 1930s — the first half of the 1950s. 2016. No. 8 (116). August. Pp. 120–140. Soviet historiography of the Civil War in Russia during the Khrushchev thaw (the second half of the 1950s — the first half of the 1960s). 2017. No. 3 (123). March. Pp. 13–28. In this article, the authors analyze a large array of historiographical and historical sources, chronologically related to the second half of the 1960s — the first half of the 1980s. In those years, Soviet history developed under conditions when the authoritarian-bureaucratic regime, established in the USSR, was in crisis and was approaching its historic finale. At that time, many of the positive tendencies that emerged in the development of Soviet historiography during the Khrushchev thaw were devalued or destroyed. This left a particular imprint on the history of the Civil War in Russia (1918–1922). The problem under consideration is so voluminous and multifaceted that the authors decided to cover it within the framework of two articles. The first article highlights the conditions for the development of Soviet history in the period under study. The authors analyze it briefly: focused research efforts only on its individual aspects. The article is made in the format of problem-thematic historiography. The material is presented in an overview-analytical manner. The authors do not pretend to the completeness of the coverage of the problem.

Keywords: Soviet historiography, Civil war in Russia, authoritarian methods of leadership in history, B.N. Ponomarev, rigid organizational barriers, Marxist-Leninist historiographic paradigm, opportunistic party attitudes.





Markelov A.Y. (Samara). On the Problem Concerning the Permission to Leave Italy Granted to Senators during the Time of Augustan Principate…………………………………………………………………………58

ANDREY YURYEVICH MARKELOV — Postgraduate Student, Department of General History, International Relations and Documentation Management, Historical Faculty, Samara National Research University named after academician S.P. Korolev. 443011, Russian Federation, Samara, Str. Academician Pavlov, 1, office 103 ch/b. E-mail: aquila856@yandex.ru

In 29 B.C. Octavian prohibited to travel from Italy without his approval. The causes for this measure have been studied in historiography, in contrast to other aspects of the history of this decision. This issues are legalization of the solution, the number of the provinces accessible for free visiting by senators under Octavian, conditions let to entrance to some territories without permit of Princeps, which political authority (the Senate and/or Augustus) gave permission to departure from Italy and free accessible zones for senators. Scholars have expressed divergent opinions on the topics, reinforced only by the simple references to the sources. The author has come to the following conclusions. The prohibition was made official, probably, by law. From the reign of Augustus senators who possessed property in Sicily could visit this province without Emperor’s approval; the republican practice of a legatio libera granted by the Senate and the interdict brought in by Octavian have been coexisting till the Principate of Claudius.

Keywords: Roman Senate, Roman Senators, Octavian, Augustus, Roman Italy, Roman Sicily, legatio libera, estates.


Lu Sicong (Ningbo City, People’s Republic of China). The research of history of Taiping Rebellion in Communist University of Chinese Toilers………………………………………………………………………………64

LU SICONG — Postgraduate Student, Department of History of Social Movements and Political Parties, Faculty of History, Moscow State University. Room 104, Road Changling, Ningbo City, Zhejiang Province,People’s Republic of China. E-mail: lsc-04@mail.ru

In 1928–1929, scholars of Communist University of Chinese Toilers initiated a discussion on the history of Taiping Rebellion in 19th century China. The discussion was started by a teacher, M.I. Shchukar’, who came up with several important arguments in his textbook «Taiping Revolution». Having paid attention to the «bourgeois» character of Taiping Rebellion, Shchukar’ named the leading social class of rebellion — Chinese shenshi/gentry «petite-bourgeois noblemen». His arguments were criticized by his colleagues, among whom some drew an equation mark between Taiping Rebellion and European anti-feudal peasant uprisings, others found in Taiping fighters only «reactionary» factors. Unique arguments of Shchukar’ were not further developed by Soviet sinologists; however, they strongly influenced the works of Chinese historians on this topic. Marxist interpretation of Taiping Rebellion in China was born under the influence of Shchukar’s book.

Keywords: Communist University of Chinese Toilers, Taiping Rebellion, M.I. Shchukar’, «Taiping Revolution», bourgeois character, shenshi/gentry, «petite-bourgeois noblemen», Chinese historiography.


Geghamyan V.G. (Saint Petersburg). Taksim Square and the images of power: urban reconstruction as means and space for communications in Kemalist Turkey……………………………………………………………72

VARUZHAN GEGAMOVICH GEGHAMYAN Postgraduate Student, Faculty of Asian and African Studies, Saint Petersburg State University. 191011, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Nevsky pr., 40–42. E-mail: varuzhan.geghamyan@gmail.com

The role of the charismatic power and charismatic leadership increases during the authoritarian modernization of traditional society. Authoritites use different methods to construct and fabricate their images of charismatic leadership. During the one-party period in Early Turkish Republic the leader of the state exalted his personality through the transmission of his images, translating it into political cult. Urban reconstruction and architecture played an important role in this process. Turkish authorities constantly reinvent important public spaces. One of these significant places is Taksim square at the heart of Istanbul. From the very first days of the establishment of the republic until now this area is a subject of constant negotiation between the authorities and other actors of power in order to ascribe meaning and symbols to this place. Using the example of Taksim square as an illustration of construction of charismatic leadership in traditional societies, this paper will demonstrate the history of representations of power in authoritarian regimes. Large range of textual and visual materials (archival documents, memories, newspapers and journals) are examined.

Keywords: modernization, authoritarianism, Kemalism, urbanization, cult of personality, traditionalism, charismatic leadership.


Zolotarev V.A. (Moscow). The reasons for the Hitler’s success in the consolidation of the German society and the right-radical forces in Europe…………………………………………………………………………………79

VLADIMIR ANTONOVICH ZOLOTAREV — Doctor of History, Doctor of Law, Professor, The Military University of the Ministry of Defence. 125047, Russian Federation, Moscow, Bolshaya Sadovaya str., 14. Email: diana.agaeva.2012@mail.ru

The article attempts to comprehend the reasons for the rapid and successful Hitler’s rising to power and consolidation of German people around the national-socialists party. The author draws attention to a comprehensive offensive strategy which was quite competitive in relation to the political strategies of France and Britain, the victors of the First World War and discerned a consistent political, economic and ideological steps of Nazi Germany as nation-building, and reviving the economic potential of its military-political purposes. The article also drew attention to the fact that Hitler and his associates failed to properly evaluate and use psychological atmosphere that prevailed in German society. Positioning the German nation as a young nation, reborn from the flames of the last war, Adolf Hitler justified their aspirations to engage in neighboring, and in the future more distant territories, motivating the aspirations of some higher justice and pursuit of peace and stability in Europe.

Keywords: Hitler, national-socialism, Third Reich, Nazi party, Treaty of Versailles, Weimar Republic, pre-war Europe, the foreign policy of Hitler’s Germany.





Gorbik К.А. (Rostov-on-Don). Activities of the Rostov office of the State bank on the economic development of the Province of the Don Cossack Host during the second half of XIX — early XX centuries…………………………………………………………..90

KONSTANTIN ALEKSANDROVICH GORBIK — Postgraduate Student, Department «Philosophy and Russian history», Rostov State Transport University (RSTU). 344038, Russian Federation, Rostov-on-Don, Rostovskogo Strelkovogo polka Narodnogo Opolcheniya sq., 2. E-mail: gorbik.konstantin@mail.ru

The article is devoted to the order and organization of operations of the State Bank to support the national economy of the Province of the Don Cossack Host. It analyses the basic direction of commercial work of the Rostov Office during the second half of XIX ― early of XX centuries. The process of issuing grain loans to local traders and bread producers are considered. Special attention is given to the terms of circular provisions in of August 1893. It is identified the issues related to the construction of elevator facilities lending institutions in the Russian Empire. It is generalized practice of opening credit for conducting production activities. Also, this work characterizes features of lending of Don Coal industrialist. In the conclusion, it is stated key points describing the commercial activities of the Rostov Office of State Bank to stimulate the economy of the Province of the Don Cossack Host

Keywords: Russian Empire, Province of the Don Cossack Host, State Bank, Rostov Office, commercial activity, tradable loans, commercial and industrial credits, construction of elevators.


Milbakh V.S., Gorokhov V.V. (Saint Petersburg). The activities of the NKVD during the mass political repression of the Black sea fleet in 1937–1938……………………………………………………………………96

VLADIMIR SPARTAKOVICH MILBAKH — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Professor of the Department of humanitarian and social and economic disciplines, Mikhaylovsky military artillery academy. 196003, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Krasnoselskoye sh., 28–2–42. E-mail: v.milbach@yandex.ru

VYACHESLAV VITALIEVICH GOROKHOV — Head of the Department of physical training, Mikhailovskaya Military Artillery Academy. 195009, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, ul. Komsomola, 22. E-mail: gorohov_babr@mail.ru

The article is devoted to events related to political repressions command personnel of the Black sea fleet in 1937–1938. It reveals the activities of the Black sea fleet of the NKVD against command personnel. Based on the study of archival materials provides insights about what was used for the NKVD, the reason for arrests and convictions that mass arrests of military personnel, was conducted without probable cause and in violation of established norms and rules. Special attention is paid to the systematic use of unlawful methods by the staff of the NKVD in relation to a suspect in the so-called military conspiracy. Describing that period of time, concluded that the representatives of the high command and the political staff of the fleet could not prevent the extension of political repression among command personnel and the lawlessness of the NKVD. During the expansion of mass political repressions of the structure of the NKVD, including a Special Department of the Black sea fleet, was used by the political leadership of the country as a repressive tool to troubleshoot hidden and potential opposition.

Keywords: Black sea Fleet, political repression, command staff, military court, Special Department of the NKVD.


Katamadze N.S. (Moscow). А proof of modern concept of the Russian peasantry’s history in the XX century……………………………102

NADEZHDA SHAKROVNA KATAMADZE — Postgraduate Student of the Lomonosov Moscow State University. 119234, Russian Federation, Moscow, Leninskie gory, 1–Б, no. 913. E-mail: esperanse@inbox.ru

In the article the author analyzes the Russian agrarian historiography and gives methodological generalizations about the peculiarities of studying the history of the Russian peasantry in the XX century. The article reveals and examines the problem of the influence of the party approach on the character of working out the history of the peasantry. In the article the author identifies the main directions of studying the topic and raises the question of the validity of a number of modern conceptual developments of the problem.

The article points to the existence in the domestic historiography of a direct connection between the personal attitude of the scholar to the peasantry as an object of reality and its research position. The author concludes that the negative attitude of the researcher to the peasantry is the main factor in the formation of unreasonable concepts of the history of our ancestors.

Keywords: Russian peasantry, historiography, methodology, concept, defarming, tradition, culture, succession.


Gorokhov V.V. (Saint Petersburg). The repression of the command personnel of the Black sea fleet on a national basis in 1937–1938……………………………………………………………………………………………………108

VYACHESLAV VITALIEVICH GOROKHOV — Head of the Department of physical training, Mikhailovskaya Military Artillery Academy. 195009, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, ul. Komsomola, 22. E-mail: gorohov_babr@mail.ru

The article is devoted to the issues related to political repression of the highest command personnel of the Black sea fleet in 1937–1938. It describes the preconditions and the effects of repressive action on the Black sea fleet in relation to command and management staff of those nationalities, which had their roots outside the USSR. Based on the study of archival materials provides insights about the impact belonging to the nationalities have been taken by the NKVD mass political repression of the Black sea fleet. The commanders of the various nationalities were subjected to total cleaning. Along with the characteristics of that time period, it is concluded that the representatives of the high command and the political composition of the fleet could not prevent the extension of political repression among command personnel and to protect him from the arbitrariness of the NKVD. One of the component parts of the process of mass political repression of 1937–1938 was to share power resolve on a national basis with the leading posts in the army and Navy servicemen that caused suspicion among the commanders of the armed forces and the country’s leaders.

Keywords: Black sea fleet, flagship, political repression, the command structure, Military Council of the fleet, the dismissal for political reasons.


Karpenkina Y.V. (Moscow). The practice of sending Soviet clerks to the Western Belorussia in 1939‒1941 as a method of regional sovietization……………………………………………………………………………………112

YANINA VALER’EVNA KARPENKINA — Postgraduate Student, National Research University «Higher School of Economics» (HSE), Research Assistant, The International Centre for the History and Sociology of World War II and its Consequences. 119361, Russian Federation, Moscow, ul. Bolshaya Ochakovskaya, 28–50. E-mail: yanina.postbox@gmail.com

The article analyses the practice of sending of soviet clerks (so called «vostochniki») to the Western Belorussia after its` territorial affiliation to the Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (autumn of 1939). The paper is based on large number of soviet clerical documents which nowadays are stored in the soviet archives in Russian and Belarus. The article deals with the characteristic of the «vostochninki`s» social position in the Western Belorussia in 1939‒1941: they approximate total number and national structure, qualification, occupation and salary. Emphasizing on the strongly diversity of the «vostochniki», the author notices the contribution and significance of soviet clerks to rapid sovietization of the region.

Keywords: Western Belorussia, USSR, sovietization, «vostochniki», soviet clerks, «zapadniki».


Kupriyanov V.N., Losik A.V. (Saint-Petersburg). The space flight of Yuri Gagarin: a view at the real events of those years from the 21st century perspective. Part I. Preparation of the flight…………………117

VALERIJ NIKOLAEVICH KUPRIYANOV — Corresponding member of the K.E. Tsiolkovsky Russian Academy of cosmonautics, Chairman of the section of the history of cosmonautics and rocket technology of the North-West interregional public organization of the Federation of Cosmonautics of Russia. 197046, Russia, Saint Petersburg, Petropavlovskaya krepost’, 11. E-mail: kuvnik@yandex.ru

ALEXANDER VITALIAVICH LOSIK — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, The Baltic State Technical University “Voenmech” of D.F. Ustinov, Deputy Editor of the scholarly journal “KLIO”. 197374, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Shkoljnaya str., 88, 2, 81.

In the article the attempt is made on the basis of historiography and all currently available to the researcher of open sources to reconstruct the real events associated with the drafting history of the first orbital flight of man into space. The authors tried to point to some facts of the last days before the first flight, which were until recently, largely excluded from stories about the event.

Special attention is paid to specific information that reflects the contribution of specialists of Saint-Petersburg is an outstanding achievement of human genius.

New details about the well-known events are presented, basing on the newly discovered eyewitnesses and participants of activities providing the world’s first manned flight into space.

Also presented the facts clarifying the details of the communications of the first cosmonaut in the start position. They were tested by comparison of the memoirs of many different individuals.

The ongoing recent discussion about the reliability of the previously reported information about the flight of Yuri Gagarin is considered. The authors present arguments supporting their point of view on this debate.

Using the available documents, certificates the authors tried to get away from a kind of mythologizing of the events, which are often habitual in the publications that have appeared over the past fifty-six years after the flight of Yuri Gagarin. This has helped to clarify the chronology of some events important for the understanding of the process of preparation. The authors draw attention to the need to take account of new information declassified in recent years.

Keywords: flight, space, Yuri Gagarin, Belka, spaceship, Vostok, press conference, memoirs, OKB-1, Sergei Korolev, Sputnik.





Gergilev D.N. (Krasnoyarsk). Administrative and territorial reformation in Siberia in XIX – the beginning of XX centuries: experience and essential conclusions……………………………………………………129

DENIS NIKOLAEVICH GERGILEV — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Department of Russian History, Director of the Institute for the Humanities of Siberian Federal University. 660041, Russian Federation, Krasnoyarsk, Svobodnyi ul., 82a, room 460. E-mail.: turilak@yandex.ru

The article analyses the experience of administrative and territorial organization in Russia by the example of Siberia. The author analyses the projects combining regional with national interests. The projects’ goal was such interests’ harmonious synthesis achievement. Although the consequences of the policy can be noticed in today’s reality, in most cases the policy was successful. The role of M.M. Speransky in reforming the administrative-territorial system of Siberia has been considered. The author by multitude examples reveals the mechanism and the peculiarities of interaction between the capital and the governments in Siberia. It has been proved the Empire was stable in spite of the palace reshuffles and aggressive surroundings. The Russian territory reservation is the result of the efforts of all branches of the government, in spite of the numerous errors in administrative-territorial system in our country.

Keywords: governor, region, system of administration, governor-general, territorial organization, Siberia.


Antoshkin A.V. (Sterlitamak, Republic of Bashkortostan). The development of state-operated trade in Bashkiria in the second half of the 1930s…………………………………………………………………………………134

ANATOLIY VASILIEVICH ANTOSHKIN — Ph.D. in History, Teacher of History and Social Studies, Municipal Autonomous educational institution “Gymnasium № 2” of the city district Sterlitamak, Republic of Bashkortostan. 453100, Russian Federation, Sterlitamak, Republic of Bashkortostan, ul. Artema, 25–63. E-mail: aav151284@rambler.ru

The article is devoted to studying of the main processes which took place in the system of state-operated trade in Bashkiria in the late 1930s. The character of the problems in state-operated trade in the republic was caused, on the one hand, by reorganizing the consumer cooperation during which all the trade network of urban consumer cooperation was taken over by the state trading system; and on the other hand, by the lack of effective measures for adapting the state-operated trading organizations to free trade conditions.

A new stage in the development of state-operated trade started after the Council of People’s Commissars of Bashkiria passing a decree “On reorganizing the state-operated trade in Bashkir Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic” on 8 December 1935. In connection with the transition of the urban network of consumer cooperation to the system of the People’s Commissariat for Home Trade to facilitate forming centralized economical management of state-operated trade it was decided to agree to the USSR’s People’s Commissariat for Home Trade’s proposal to organize a republic-wide universal trading body — Bashtorg — with forming cost-accounting institutions inside it. As a result, Bashtorg turned into a monopoly in the field of urban trade in the republic, which was expressed in its dominating both by its share in the goods turnaround and the number of trading outlets. Mainly based on the archival materials the author has come to a conclusion that state-operated sector, despite the reorganization, could not achieve any qualitative improvements in economic activities because of a number of flaws and infringements.

Plans for the goods turnaround throughout the late 1930s were fulfilled not completely, the necessary assortment was not supplied, there occurred regular disruptions in trade, and waiting in queues for food and manufactured goods for hours became a daily phenomenon for people in Bashkiria. The inefficiency of management led to disorganizing the trade, encouraged anti-soviet ideas. At that an attempt of overcoming the apparent deficiencies in the work of the state-operated trade system by means of repressive measures failed. On the contrary, repressions led to the loss of the few qualified employees without who any further improvement in the efficiency of working with state-operated organizations became impossible.

Keywords: state-operated trade, consumer cooperation, rationing system, closed working cooperative, department for working supply, directive planning, People’s Commissariat for home trade, Bashgort, Bashtorg, Bashkiria.


Sacovich N.V. (Nizhny Novgorod). Influence of living and working conditions on the health of the population of the Gorky Region: 1938–1953………………………………………………………………………………142

NATALIA VLADIMIROVNA SACOVICH — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor of the Department of History, Philosophy, Pedagogy and Psychology, Nizhny Novgorod State Architectural and Construction University (NNGASU). 603950, Russian Federation, Nizhny Novgorod, ul. Ilinskaya, 65. E-mail: sakowich.nata@yandex.ru

In the article, mainly on the example of the Gorky (Nizhny Novgorod) region, the interrelation between the living conditions of the population and its health is traced, demographic processes, medical services for citizens on the eve and during the Great Patriotic War, prevention of mass infections, healthcare reform during the recovery period are shown. The dynamics of the birth rate and death rate of the population in the 30–40s is analyzed, depending on the solution of the problems caused by the complex epidemic situation in the region and in the country. The worsening of housing conditions caused by the evacuation process, malnutrition, changes in working conditions at work, disruptions in the work of public services, the lack of medical personnel in the war period and the solution of these problems by the authorities are shown. Restructuring of the healthcare system in the late 40s ― early 50s with the goal of eliminating the sanitary consequences of the war, providing qualified medical care to all segments of the population is examined.

Keywords: population; social problems; healthcare; pre-war, military and post-war periods of history; Gorky Region.





Corti M. (Artegna, Italy). Delator or von Thurn?……………………………………………………………………………..150

MARIO CORTI — Journalist, formerly Russian Service director of RFE-RL, author of historical essays mainly on Russian-Italian relations published in Russian and Italian. (Italy) Via Villa 165, 33011 Artegna (UD), Italia. Теl.: (39) 0432 987886, e-mail: mariocorti@gmail.com; https://independent.academia.edu/MarioCorti

Giorgio della Torre, one of Maximilan I’s envoys to Ivan III, was member of a noble Goritian family of Milanese ancestry. He is mentioned in Russian primary sources as «Delator», whereas in Russian and German historiography he is most frequently presented as Georg von Thurn, the German loan translation of his original family name. Against the background of the complex relations between the Habsburgs, Gorizia, and Venice, the author brings forward some elements of Della Torre’s biography hitherto, to the best of his knowledge, neglected by Russian historians, while linking him with other members of his stock who also served Maximilian in various diplomatic missions to Muscovy and Poland.

Keywords: Delator; Della Torre, family; Giorgio Della Torre, Maximilian I’s envoy to Ivan III; relations between Venice, the County of Gorizia and the Holy Roman Empire; von Thurn.


Sokolov O.V., Eschenko A.O. (Saint-Petersburg). Unknown page in history of Russian diplomacy. The activity of P.O. Mohrenheim in Spain of the king Joseph Bonaparte…………………………………………157

OLEG VALERIEVITCH SOKOLOV — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Institute of History, Saint Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya nab., 7/9. E-mail: sokolov1796@yandex.ru

ANASTASIYA OLEGOVNA ESCHENKO — Master’s degree student, Institute of History, Saint Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya nab., 7/9. E-mail: eshencko.anastasya@yandex.ru

This article is written on the basis of archival sources stored in the Archive of foreign policy of the Russian empire and in the Russian state historical archive that weren’t previously introduced in the scientific circulation. It continues the theme raised in the article “Russian diplomacy and Napoleonic Spain in 1808–1811”. The article discusses the activities of Russian diplomat P.O. Mohrenheim who was chargé d’affaires at the court of Madrid since 1810 until 1812. The activities of this man, and even the fact of his staying in Spain, ruled by King Joseph, brother of Napoleon, was left out of historical works to date. Meanwhile, correspondence of Mohrenheim with the Minister of foreign affairs of the Russian Empire Rumyantsev and other Russian statesmen opens new perspectives in the study of foreign policy of the Russian Empire, and especially Russian-French and Russian-Spanish relations in the age of Napoleon.

Keywords: Napoleon, Alexander I, Joseph Bonaparte, N.G. Repnin-Volkonsky, Laforest, the War for independence of Spain, the Cadiz Cortes, N.P. Rumyantsev, P.O. Mohrenheim, A.B. Kurakin, duke de Santa-Fe, count Campo-Alange.


Mikhailov V.V. (Saint-Petersburg). The Russian revolution and the negotiations of the British Prime Minister David Lloyd George for a separate peace with the Ottoman Empire in 1917–1918 (on materials of English archives)………………………………………………166

VADIM VIKTOROVICH MIKHAILOV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Department of History and Philosophy of the Humanities faculty, State University of Aerospace instrumentation (Saint Petersburg). 196105, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Sevastyanova st., 4–102. E-mail: batukom@mail.ru

The article examines the events related to the failed negotiations of the British Prime Minister D. Lloyd George and the war Minister of the Cabinet of the young Turks of the Ottoman Empire Enver Pasha on a separate peace. Lloyd George, faced with the need to confront the difficult financial situation in the country, a drop in morale of the nation due to high losses on the Western front, defeat the army and Navy in Gallipoli and Mesopotamia, at the beginning of 1917 showed willingness to conclude a separate peace with Germany’s allies. Attempt personally to achieve a separate peace with the Ottoman Empire, Lloyd George made through Vasily Zakharov, the famous arms dealer. Zakharov was able to meet with the assistant to Enver Pasha, Abdul Kerim. Through him he learned about the possibility to bribe Enver Pasha and to negotiate the acceleration of the peace process. These data were transferred to London, where he attracted the attention of Lloyd George, and negotiations were set in motion. The revolutionary events in Russia, weaken its army, further contributed to the desire of the English leader lead Turkey out of the war, however, it is also inspired by the young Turk government in its intention to continue the war. Despite the fact that Zakharov agreed with Abdul Kerim, of the amounts which were supposed to pass to Enver, Minister of war refused to take the bribe. Zakharov tried to follow the instructions received from London and convince Enver, but the result is not achieved. Conclusion the Bolsheviks of the Brest peace, under the terms of which Turkey received the territory that was taken from them during the Russian-Turkish war of 1877–78, completely changed the position of Minister of war, and this was transferred to Lloyd George, 4 February 1918, together with the expressing «profound disappointment». In the late summer of 1918, when the defeat of the Central block became inevitable, the plan of Zakharov again arose in the bowels of the British government, but the fall of Bulgaria and the defeat of the Turks in Palestine, as well as a meeting of the Military Council, adopted on 1 October a decision on development conditions concerning the Turkish surrender, made efforts Zakharova absolutely meaningless.

Keywords: Basil (Basil, Basileos) Zakharov, D. Lloyd George, Enver Pasha, Caucasus frontline of the First world war, Mosul operation 1918, General S. Mod, Brest peace.


Korolev M.S. (Saint-Petersburg). A comparative analysis of the theoretical foundations of Polish security policy before and after accession to the European Union……………………………………………………174

MIKHAIL SERGEEVICH KOROLEV — Postgraduate Student, Department of World Politics, School of International Relations, Saint Petersburg State University. 195298, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Entuziastov pr., 4114. E-mail: echnik2004@mail.ru

Modern Poland is a border state of NATO and the EU, an integral element of European security system that determines the relevance of the study of the theoretical foundations of the security policy of this Eastern European country. The article is devoted to the comparative analysis of the theoretical foundations of Polish security policy before and after accession to the EU with the aim of studying the influence of membership in this organization on the theoretical basis of the country’s security policy. The Republic of Poland’s National Security Strategy 2003 and 2007 are used as the sources. A detailed analysis of the two editions of this the most important document in the field of security and defence of Poland allowed to identify changes in its security policy after the accession to the EU. In 2003 Poland adopted a new National Security Strategy where for the first time national security issues were considered through an integrated approach that became an adequate response to changes of the international environment that occurred after the events of September 11, 2001. It also contained the goals of Polish security policy in the context of future EU full membership. Strategy 2007 reflected the new understanding of various aspects of security by the Polish political leaders from the position of EU full membership. Since Poland’s accession to the EU its security has become an integral part of security of the community. Strategy 2007 has clearly developed the formula for the external security of modern Poland that consists of three main complementary components: NATO and the EU membership and strategic cooperation with the United States.

Keywords: foreign policy, European integration, security, European Union (EU), NATO, the countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), Poland.


Minkova K.V., Selezneva E.I. (Saint .Petersburg). Russia-U.S. Trade Relations in 1991–2016…………………………..184

KRISTINA VLADIMIROVNA MINKOVA — Ph.D. in History, Senior Lecturer, St. Petersburg State University. 191060, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, ul. Smolnogo 1/3, entrance 8. E-mail: kristina_minkova@mail.ru;

ELIZAVETA IGOREVNA SELEZNEVA — Student, St. Petersburg State University. 191060, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, ul. Smolnogo 1/3, entrance 8. E-mail: elizabethsel2807@gmail.com

The article presents the analysis of the U.S.-Russian trade relations since the collapse of the USSR. The article covers the development of legislative framework of bilateral trade relations and analyses the influence of the arrangements reached on the dynamics and the structure of trade between Russia and the USA. The presented statistic data are based on the publications of the Russian Federal State Statistics Service, articles of the Ministry of Economical Development of the Russian Federation and self-made calculations. The particular attention is paid to the nature of the bilateral relations during the preparation of Russia’s integration to the World Trade Organization. In this regard, the repeal of the Jackson-Vanik amendment that was considered as the main obstacle for the successful trade cooperation is presented. Moreover, the assessment of the Russia’s implementation and enforcement of the WTO agreement and the Russia’s compliance with the requirement of the WTO is considered.

Keywords: Russia, USA, trade, trade relations, Jackson-Vanik amendment, WTO.





Panichkin A.P. (Saint Petersburg). Orthodoxy in Northern Russia in the areas conquered by Peter I during the Northern War…………………………………………………………………………………………………………196

ALEXANDER PHILIPPOVICH PANICHKIN — Candidate of Theology, Archpriest, Assistant Chief of Military Educational and Scientific Centre of the Navy «The Naval Academy named after Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union N.G. Kuznetsov», Senior priest of the St. Paul the Confessor and St. Righteous Warrior Feodor Ushakov Church in the Peter the Great Naval Corps (St. Petersburg). 192023, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, prospect Elizarova, 10, apt. 282. E-mail: alpriest13@yandex.ru

This article tells about the indigenous people of Northern Russia, the penetration of the Slavic tribes from the Ilmen region; Russian colonization of the local tribes, which proceeded peacefully and was mainly associated with the trade route «from the Varangians to the Greeks», along which appeared Slavic towns like Staraya Ladoga and others; considers the spreading of Christianity to the north of Novgorod; tells about the state of the Russian Orthodox population in the north of Russia under the Swedish government; about sacred gentile places that subsequently were replaced by Orthodox sacred places, including Valaam and Konevets. Before the transition of the Swedes to Lutheranism, Catholicism with the blessing of Pope Gregory IX carried out aggression, which was successfully countered by the Holy Prince Alexander Nevsky. Ever since Treaty of Stolbovo, under which Russia lost its possessions on the banks of the Neva and the Gulf of Finland, having thus lost the access to the Baltic Sea, the Russian Orthodox population that remained in the territory occupied by the Swedes was persecuted by the Swedish government and the Swedish Lutheran Church. Examples are provided of Swedish spiritual expansion towards the Russian population. The Swedes strived to compel Orthodox believers to renounce Christianity and accept Lutheranism. The article also names Orthodox parishes and monasteries, which passed under the authority of Swedes, and tells about the ancient wooden architecture monuments, of which very little remained because of the vulnerability of their building timber to the damp and cold climate of the region.

Keywords: Orthodoxy in Swedish lands, St. Petersburg Eparchy, Cardis Treaty, Treaty of Stolbovo, monasteries, parishes, Ladoga, Novgorod, Koporje, Izhora, Teutonic Order.


Skurlov V.V. (Saint Petersburg). Vassili Ivanovich Zuev — painter attached to the Fabergé firm and court miniaturist………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………201

VALENTIN VASIL’EVICH SKURLOV — Ph.D. in Art History, Expert of the Ministry of culture of the Russian Federation, Scientific Secretary of the Memorial Fund Faberge (Saint Petersburg). 199406, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Nalichnaya ul., 37–3–47. E-mail: valentinskurlov@mail.ru

The purpose of the present research is to analyze the number of miniature portraits executed by Vasilii Zuev for the Imperial Majesty’s Cabinet during the 1904–1917. The biography of Vasilii Zuev is analyzed, the circumstances of his cooperation with His Imperial Majesty’s Cabinet are specified. For the first time, information, and roles of Emperor Nicholas II and his wife Alexandra Feodorovna in granting court orders and releasing Zuev from military service are provided. Based on information from the Fund of His Imperial Majesty’s Cabinet of the Russian State Historical Archives, the article discusses the total number of portrait miniatures of the tsar performed by V.I. Zuev and included in breast and desk medallions, in badges of ladies-in-waiting and maids of honor and in snuffboxes. Prices, presentation dates, contractors, foreign and Russian recipients of Imperial gifts and awards are given. The article is intended for art critics studying the work of artists and masters of the Fabergé firm.

Keywords: Vasilii Zuev, Carl Fabergé, His Imperial Majesty’s Cabinet, Emperor Nicholas, Empress Alexandra Feodorovna, miniature painters, portrait miniatures, medallions, box, state ladies signs, higher gifts ― awards.


Olesich N.Y., Yakovleva M.G. (Saint Petersburg). The space of the Russian Public Library named after I.S. Turgenev and its role in preserving the Russian world in Paris…………………………………………210

NINEL YAKOVLEVNA OLESICH Doctor of History, Professor, Professor of St. Petersburg State University, President of the Cultural Foundation «Famous Graduates of St. Petersburg State University». 199034, Russian Federation, StPetersburg, Universitetskaya emb., 7–9. E-mail: assembly@mail.ru

MARIA GENNAD’EVNA YAKOVLEVA — Leading document manager, Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia. 191186, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Moika River emb., 48. E-mail: yakovlevamarie@gmail.com

The paper deals with an estimation of the contribution the Russian Public Library named after I.S. Turgenev has made in preserving the Russian language, culture and traditions under conditions of emigration. The paper reveals the historical role of the outstanding representative of the Russian culture, I.S. Turgenev and G.A. Lopatin, in the organizing the Library and the direction of its activities as the spiritual center of the Russian intelligentsia of Paris of the late years of the XIX century. Within the period of Russian emigration and until 1939, the Russian intelligentsia maintained its position as a Russian center, expanding the circle of readers. However, this stage of its history has not yet been fully explored and described by researchers.

The library throughout its existence sought to remain out of politics, combining all layers of the emigrant society environment. In its heyday, the library became an educational center for a younger generation of emigrants in order to transfer the traditional Russian spiritual values. The organization of charity evenings, holidays for children contributed to rallying of emigrant circles, facilitating the psychological state, made it possible to join in the Russian culture and traditions.

Keywords: Russian Abroad, emigration, Russian Public Library named after I.S. Turgenev, Russian children and young people studying history of emigration, Paris, Russian world.





Pilipenko S.A. (Samara). Balkan colony of Hitler (Review of the monograph A.Yu. Timofeev, “The Serbian allies of Hitler”, Moscow: Veche, 2011)……………………………………………………………………………217

STANISLAV ALEKSANDROVICH PILIPENKO — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor of Samara Technical University. 443100, Russian Federation, Samara, Molodogvardeiskaya ul., 244. E-mail: sa.pilipenko@gmail.com

In the review of the book acknowledges the work carried out by the author as an exploration of the tragic period in the history of the Serbian people. The author not only described the developments but also attempted to identify the main motivation of behavior of political leaders and populations of Yugoslavia during the Nazi occupation. The author writes that the German occupiers rude and not carefully tried to organize in Serbia «temporary local administration» for the normalization of the occupation under international law. In order to ensure their own interests, lies in pumping from Serbia resources and the release of the occupying German forces for an attack on the Soviet Union, the Germans switched to a serious organization of local authorities to stabilize society. Noteworthy is a detailed study of the organization and activities of the security agencies of the state of Serbia in 1941–1945.

Keywords: Balkans, World War II, D. Lotich, collaboration, Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Serbia, Serbian Volunteer Corps, M. Nedić.





Grinev A.V. (Saint Petersburg). Education reforms and their results in the field of historical knowledge (on the example of SPbPU students’s tests)…………………………………………………………………………………221

ANDREY VALTEROVICH GRINEV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (SPbPU). 195251, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Politekhnicheskaya ul., 29. E-mail: agrinev1960@mail.ru

The article is devoted to the critical analysis of results of the reforms conducted in Russia in the sphere of school and higher education on the example of estimation of the historical knowledge. Nine student groups of first course of the SPbPU (198 persons) participated in questioning. These groups received eight questions on World and Russian history. After the statistical processing of the obtained data, the right answers amounted about 22 % only. This testifies evidently about the crisis of education in modern Russia. The situation will become worse in case of the mass passing to the distance educating in Russian universities. No technical innovations and achievements, no «competences» and language skills, are able to replace the real knowledge on history and other humanitarian disciplines.

Keywords: reforms of education in Russia, historical knowledge, historical mythology, statistical analysis, distance education.