Klio #03 (207) 2024


Solnyshkin A.A. (St. Petersburg). Petrograd (Leningrad) University in Soviet periodicals of 1922–1929

2nd year postgraduate student,
Institute of History, St. Petersburg State University
199034, Russia, St. Petersburg, Mendeleevskaya line, 5.
e-mail: st055579@student.spbu.ru

Abstract. In 2024, St. Petersburg University celebrates its 300th anniversary. In this regard, the history of the university is given increased attention in Russian society, especially the recent relative historical events of the XX century. Among the preserved corpus of sources devoted to the history of Petrograd (Leningrad) University in the 1920s, the periodicals of this era, which is an important slice of the life of the university, are of the greatest interest to modern researchers. There are no studies in modern historiography that would analyze the Soviet periodicals of the 1922 – 1929s devoted to the university. At the same time, this type of source is very valuable for anyone who studies or is interested in the life of the university during this period. For example, it is thanks to this type of source that a researcher can reconstruct the everyday life of the Petrograd/Leningrad university students of the 1920s, which cannot be done only based on the analysis of the preserved official university documentation. In this article, based on the analysis of the Soviet periodicals of 1922-1929, observations are made regarding various aspects of the life of the Petrograd (Leningrad) University of this period. Among them are the history of the appearance of the university press, the analysis of university memorials, the image of a new («Soviet») student and professor of the university on the pages of Petrograd (Leningrad) periodicals of 1922 –1929.

Keywords: Petrograd University, Leningrad University, St Petersburg University, history of universities, students, magazines and newspapers of Soviet Russia, commemorations, professors


Massov A.Ya. (St. Petersburg). Contribution of Vladimir V. Noskov and Boris N. Komissarov in the study of the South Pacific countries’ history

PhD, Professor, The History and Cultural Studies Department
St Petersburg State Marine Technical University,
190121, St. Petersburg, Lotsmanskaya st., 3
e-mail: amassov@gmail.com

Abstract. The increased interest in the South Seas region and the increase in its role in international relations puts on the agenda the intensification of the study of the history of the South Pacific countries, as well as the analysis of the current state of domestic historiography of this region’s states. The article is devoted to the contribution to the study of the South Pacific countries’ history by two outstanding historians, representatives of the St Petersburg historical school, Doctors of Historical Sciences Vladimir V. Noskov (1953–2021) and Boris N. Komissarov (1939–2021). Noskov is known as a specialist in US history, Komissarov – as one of the largest domestic Latin America’s researchers. However, the interests of these two scientists also included the history of Oceania countries.

The article analyzes the works of Noskov on the history of Tonga and Samoa, the problems of the colonial division of the Pacific islands and the cruising war in the vast Pacific Ocean. He introduced into scientific circulation a large amount of documentary materials of the Russian Navy on the history of Oceania. V.V. Noskov is also the author of substantive reviews of publications by domestic experts on the history of Australia.

Komissarov studied the biography of the outstanding Russian scientist and humanist, researcher of the peoples of Oceania Nikolay N. Miklouho-Maclay, took an active part in the discussion on the assessment of his scientific activities and the significance of Miklouho-Maclay’s research for modern science. Komissarov also played an outstanding role in training domestic personnel on the history of Australia and the countries of the South Seas, and repeatedly acted as a responsible and scientific editor for the publication of monographs and collections of articles on the history of Oceania. 

Noskov’s and Komissarov’s contribution to the study of the history of the South Pacific countries retains its scientific relevance today; it should definitely be taken into account when assessing their scientific heritage. 

Keywords: Vladimir V. Noskov, Boris N. Komissarov, Russian historiography of Australia and Oceania


Likhenko A.V. (Moscow). To the question of dating the 13th century frescoes in the Church of St. John the Evangelist in Veria

Keeper of Collection of the Department of Ancient Rus’ Art
State Tretyakov Gallery
10 Lavrushinsky Lane, 119017, Moscow
Postgraduate student of the Department of General History of Art, Faculty of History
Lomonosov Moscow State University. M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University
Lomonosovsky Prospekt, 27/4, 119192, Moscow
e-mail: a.likhenko@gmail.com

Abstract. The frescoes of the Church of St. John the Evangelist in Veria are one of the most important ensembles of the 13th century in northern Greece. Until recently, this painting was dated to the first half of the century based on its stylistic features, and a particularly significant argument for researchers was the use by the masters of this ensemble of a number of features typical of Middle Byzantine monumental painting. Thus, this monument was included in the generally accepted line of development of first-class Byzantine art, formulated by O. Demus on the basis of primarily Serbian material: from Studenica monastery to Mileševo and Sopočani, from one monument to another, Demus showed the development of classicizing art, appreciating complex spatial effects, volumetric faces and draperies approaching realistic ones. In recent decades, however, a number of monuments of monumental painting of the 13th century have been identified in Byzantine regions that do not fit into this concept of the development of classicizing art. Such ensembles are very often characterized by conscious archaization, reliance on the influential and recognized local art of previous decades, and this cultural situation was consolidated by the absence of a unified center after the fall of Constantinople in 1204. In a recent article, L. Fundić proposed a new dating of the frescoes of the Church of St. John the Evangelist in Veria – not the first half of the 13th century, but the 1270s. As her arguments, she first of all pointed to a number of iconographic features possible precisely at the beginning of the reign of Andronicus II Paleologos. However, no attempt has yet been made to establish the stylistic range of this painting and the artistic context of its origin. Accepting Fundić’s dating, the author proposes to consider the frescoes of the Church of St. John the Theologian in the same row with the paintings of the artels of Epirus artists (frescoes of the katholikon of the monastery of Panagia Blachernitissa in Arta, the Church of St. George in Omorfokklisia in Kastoria, St. John the Theologian Kaneo in Ohrid, St. Nicholas the Wonderworker in Manastir).

Keywords: Byzantium, Art of the Balkans, Veria, Painting of the 13th century, Greek Ar

Zhirkov F.R. (Amga village, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)). Mongols in the campaign and everyday life (according to the “Notes” of Carpini and Rubruk)

M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University,
Master’s student in the Global Processes Faculty
678600, Russia, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Amga village, Partizanskaya str.
e-mail: zhirkov.99@list.ru

Abstract. The medieval Mongols were great warriors, but more importantly they were nomads. The Mongols moved their houses (yurts) and livestock to seasonal pastures year after year, which gave them a great advantage over other peoples – extreme mobility of living resources. However, since the end of the XIII century, the daily life of the Mongols began to undergo gradual changes. The purpose of this article is to identify the peculiarities of Mongolian life in the Middle Ages. To achieve the goal, the following tasks are formulated: 1) to analyze the sources devoted to this period of world history; 2) to determine the conditions and factors of development of the Mongolian people; 3) to identify trends in the daily life of the Mongols; 4) to identify key aspects of the military sphere. The author used general scientific, philosophical theoretical and methodological foundations of the study, retrospective and comparative research methods. The Mongol conquests of the XIII century can be called one of the turning points in the history of mankind. Before that, the world had not faced such terrible disasters that destroyed the usual way of life of many peoples. Mongols in terms of outlook were far from Europeans, they saw the world in a completely different way. They had a strong notion of respect for elders, spirits and Genghis Khan. Their nomadic way of life was their strength, but also their weakness. Freedom of religion was a striking difference between the Mongols and the Europeans. In this regard, the influence of the conquered peoples on the Mongols was also significant. This problem is still not fully explored. The availability of not so extensive choice of sources with reliable information about the daily life of medieval Mongols complicates the work of historians on this page of world history. Therefore, this problem has not lost its relevance at the moment, attracting the attention of many historians.

Keywords: Carpini, Rubruk, Franciscans, Mongols, Genghis Khan, khan

Volodina O.V., Zemlyanitsin V.A. (St. Petersburg). Flemish Campaign of Louis X

Master’s student of the Department of World History
Herzen State Pedagogical University
48 Moika Embankment, St. Petersburg, 191186, Russia
E-mail: olesya517@yandex.ru

Ph. D. in History, Associate professor of the Department of World History
Herzen State Pedagogical University
48 Moika Embankment, St. Petersburg, 191186, Russia
E-mail: zemlyanitsin79@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article attempts to reconstruct and analyze the events of the military campaign of the French king Louis X in Flanders in 1315. Using a wide source base, the authors examine such issues as diplomatic preparations for the invasion of Flanders, the sentencing of the Count of Flanders Robert of Béthune, and also the events of the military expedition itself and its consequences for France and Flanders. The analysis of the text of the sentence passed by the court of peers allows us to identify the main charges against the Count of Flanders and, accordingly, the reasons for the military campaign, which have not been previously reflected in either Russian or foreign historiography. As a result, the authors conclude that from the very beginning the French king did not seriously consider the possibility of a diplomatic settlement of the Franco-Flemish controversies, on which the Flemish policy of France in 1312–1314 was based. Louis X, on the contrary, was actively preparing for a military invasion of the county, formally observing all legal procedures. Thus, the thesis put forward earlier that the vector of the Flemish policy of France changed under Louis X is confirmed. At the same time, the military expedition of 1315 did not bring the expected clarity to the Franco-Flemish relations, only complicating the already challenging situation.

Keywords: France, Flanders, Louis X of France, Robert III of Béthune, Muddy army

Arbekov A.B. (Tula). “An Avowed Enemy of England”. The Eastern Question in Russian-British relations through the lens of the image of General A.N. Kuropatkin in the British press

Cand. Sc. in History,
Researcher, Tula State Museum of Weapons
300002, Russian Federation, Tula, October st., 2,
Senior lecturer of Department of History and Archeology
Tula State Lev Tolstoy Pedagogical University
300026, Russian Federation, Tula, Lenin Avenue, 125.
E-mail: arbekoff-alex@ya.ru

Abstract. The article examines the process of formation of the image of General Alexei Nikolaevich Kuropatkin on the pages of the British press as a reflection of Russian-British contradictions on the Eastern question at the turn of the XIX – XX centuries. The study of the problem through the prism of the system of British perceptions of Russia and its statesmen allows a deeper analysis of the views of the public of the United Kingdom on the key directions of foreign policy of the Russian Empire in a particular historical period. At the same time, the chosen research optics makes it possible to compare the image of Russia formed in the British press and its personification in the person of General A.N. Kuropatkin with the actual position of the Russian authorities on the problem of rivalry with Great Britain for the partition of spheres of influence in the East. The source base of the present study is the materials of the British press of the last third of the XIX – early XX centuries, as well as unpublished documents from Russian and British archives. Based on the results of the study, it is concluded that in the context of the Eastern question, the image of General A.N. Kuropatkin on the pages of British periodicals was formed under the influence of the national stereotypes of Russia as a backward country with a despotic form of government, whose interests were traditionally at odds with the goals of the British Empire in the East. The negative image of General A.N. Kuropatkin allowed to present the steps of the Russian foreign policy exclusively in a negative light. Thus, the British press substantiated the legitimacy of the actions of its own government in the context of the rivalry between London and St. Petersburg on the Eastern Question.

Keywords: A.N. Kuropatkin, the image of the “enemy”, the British press, the Eastern Question, the Great Game, the British Empire, the Russian Empire

Pavlova O.K., Kurenkov M.M. (St. Petersburg). Evolution and ideological guidelines of the Pan-German movement

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor
Graduate School of International Relations
Institute of Humanities
Peter the Great Saint-Petersburg Polytechnic University.
195251, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg, Polytechnitcheskaya st., 29,
 e-mail: pavlovaok55@mail.ru

1st year Master student,
Graduate School of International Relations
Institute of Humanities
Peter the Great Saint-Petersburg Polytechnic University.
195251, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg, Polytechnitcheskaya st., 29,
e-mail: maximkurenkov22@gmail.com

Abstract. This paper is devoted to the study of such ideological and political phenomenon as Pan-Germanism. Historical backgrounds to formation, periods of development, features and ideological guidelines of this movement are considered in the frames of the research. Every evolution stage of this ideology is under specific consideration and analysis. The relevance of the study stems from the fact that there is the increasing of right sentiments and right-wing parties have strong positions in parliaments recent years in Germany and Austria (Alternative for Germany and Freedom party of Austria, accordingly), the states for which the topic of nationalism is deep historical trauma and stigma. That encourages to go back to the origins of the nationalism problem in the history of German-language region. The theoretical significance of this work is based on the need to make a complex and structured study of the Pan-German nationalism phenomenon as one of the main factors of the existence of German society, German politics and international relations in the XIX – beginning of the XX century. As a result of the study, the author came to the conclusion that Pan-Germanism formed on the base of German national-political myths, emerged on the foundation of the bifurcations points (the turning and the most dramatic moment of German history): heroic plots about the struggle of free people under command of the legendary ruler against more powerful enemy in the face of Latin-Romanesque civilization. The Pan-German movement which went a long way in its development, transforming from people’s, progressive and democratic idea of the time of German disunity into nationalistic, chauvinistic, militaristic and expansionist doctrine, achieved its radical zenith in the years of National Socialist dictatorship during 1933–1945, emerged on this ground.

Keywords: Germany, Austria, national myth, nationalism, Pan-Germanism

Vartanyan E.G. (Krasnodar). The influence of revolutionary events in Transcaucasia at the beginning of the twentieth century on the bourgeois revolution of 1905–1911 in Iran

professor, doctor of historical sciences, professor of the Kuban State University.
Krasnodar, 350040, st. Stavropolskaya, 149. Kuban State University.
е-mail: vartaneg@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article is devoted to the influence of revolutionary events in the Russian Transcaucasus at the beginning of the twentieth century to Iran. It is shown that the First Russian Revolution had a great influence on Iranian society, which at the beginning of the twentieth century stood on the threshold of a revolutionary explosion. The feudal exploitation of peasants and the theft of national wealth by hundreds of foreign companies caused growing discontent in different layers of Iranian society, and the anti-feudal movement also acquired an anti-foreign character. The great influence on the development of revolutionary events in Iran by Iranian workers who went to work in Transcaucasia, primarily in Baku, is considered. They became conductors of revolutionary events in Persia. Most often these were Iranian Azerbaijanis who knew the language and easily adapted among the Azerbaijanis of Transcaucasia. Iranian otkhodniks who found work in the Caucasus began to become acquainted with revolutionary ideas and became involved in Bolshevik organizations. It is emphasized that under the influence of the Bolsheviks, spontaneous popular discontent in Iran began to acquire organized forms. It is concluded that Iranian workers, who went through the school of proletarian struggle in the Caucasus, subsequently in their homeland were in the vanguard of the democratic movement directed against the Shah’s power and foreign capital. It was they who led the Iranian bourgeois revolution of 1905–1911 movement in Iran, the culmination of which was the Tabriz uprising. The article is based on the general scientific principles of historical knowledge – historicism and objectivity, as well as on the combination of the following general historical research methods: historical-chronological, historical-typological, historical-genetic.

Keywords: ranscaucasia, Iran, Azerbaijan, otkhodniks, revolution, Bolsheviks, social democracy

Khavkin B.L. (Moscow). The Germans who saved the Jews

Doctor of Historical Sciences,
Professor of the Historical and Archival Institute
Russian State Humanitarian University
125047, Moscow, Miusskaya square, 6
e-mail: novistor@mail.ru

Abstract. The social role and motivation for the actions of participants in the German anti-Nazi Resistance was much broader and more diverse than previously thought in historiography. The article, based on German and Russian sources and literature, tells about a little-known page in the history of the German anti-Hitler Resistance – the Germans’ rescue of Jews from the “general and final” solution to the Jewish question (i.e. the expulsion of all Jews from Germany and their complete destruction), which was carried out by Nazi regime. There were quite a few rescuers of Jews in Germany. They belonged to different social groups, religions, ages and professions. Among them were workers, peasants, landowners, employees, officials, people of liberal professions – lawyers, university professors and school teachers, priests, monks, doctors, writers, artists, actors, housewives, people without certain occupations, even military men, policemen and gendarmes. The rescuers rejected Nazism and anti-Semitism and, by helping Jews, opposed the Hitler regime. The activities of the rescuers were a manifestation of the “rebellion of conscience” – the moral rejection of Hitlerism by part of the German people. This is proven by the stories given in the article of the Germans saving Jews from the Holocaust.

Keywords: Third Reich, Holocaust, anti-Hitler Resistance, German rescuers, Righteous Among the Nations

Akkuzinov A.K. (Moscow). Historiography of Victory in the Great Patriotic War in Kazakhstan and Russia (1991–2023)

Doctoral student at the Military History and Military Art Department of the Military Academy of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation
PhD in political science
100, Vernadsky Prospekt, Moscow, 119571, Russia
e-mail: altinay_akku@mail.ru

Abstract. The historiography of Kazakhstan during the Great Patriotic War was an integral part of the Soviet historical science. The purpose of the article is to study the works, authors and historians of the bygone years, the content and historicism of these invaluable materials, allows at the present stage to study the process of formation of historical science in the Soviet state and the heroic pages of the country of our fathers and grandfathers who gave their lives for our bright present and future. The chronological principle of classification of literature is defined, because the views of authors in different periods of historiography on the subject of Kazakhstan in the Great Patriotic War have their own peculiarities. The attention of researchers was directed to different aspects of the participation of Kazakhstanis in the Patriotic War, in this regard, the chronological stratum of publications, the author structured by the principle of problems, which allowed to identify the main themes of historiography (the role of the Communist Party during the war, labour in the name of victory, agitation and propaganda activities, the front press, national economy, national military units, etc.). Also, the achievements of the historical science of the Russian Federation on the participation of Kazakhstanis in the Great Patriotic War have been studied. The author used the method of scientific research to solve the scientific problem. The historiography of the problem “Kazakhstan during the Great Patriotic War” is a multifaceted research approach, which allows a more complete and in-depth study of Kazakhstan’s participation in this important historical period. This topic is important for the study of the history of Kazakhstan and its role in the Second World War. 

The division of historiography conventionally into three stages (for the purposes of this article, we will consider the third stage) allowed us to establish the interest of researchers to this topic and formulate conclusions about the importance and relevance of further research of the selected topic. The information within the framework of this article is a part of the complex work of the author, which sets a scientific task to show the contribution of Kazakhstan to the victory of the USSR in the Great Patriotic War and is dedicated to the 80th anniversary of the most important victory of the USSR in the Great Patriotic War.

Keywords: Great Patriotic War, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Kazakh SSR, Kazakhstan, Russia, historiography


Litvinov V.P., Alontseva D.V. (Yelets). The formation of the administrative boundaries of the Turkestan general government and the organization of regional administration

Associate Professor of the Department of History and Historical and Cultural Heritage Bunin Yelets State University, doctor of Historical Sciences
Bunin Yelets State University
 Senior Researcher Institute of Strategic Analysis and Forecast KRSU named after. B.N. Yeltsin.
399770, st. Kommunarov, 28, Yelets, Lipetsk region
e-mail: vladlenli@yandex.ru 

Head of Department of the Department of Jurisprudence named after V.G. Ermakov of Bunin Yelets State University, doctor of law, docent
Bunin Yelets State University
399770, st. Kommunarov, 28, Yelets, Lipetsk region
e-mail: dina.alontseva@mail.ru

Abstract. The article discusses the problematic aspects of the formation of the administrative boundaries of the Turkestan governor-General and the organization of regional administration. The annexation of the vast expanses of Central Asia in the second half of the nineteenth century posed a difficult task of integrating territories and populations into the Empire. The authors give a normative and legal characteristic of the administrative policy of Russia in Central Asia. At the same time, the annexation of Central Asia had its own peculiarities related to the fact that the region had its own centuries-old civilization and statehood, it was inhabited by peoples of different cultural and economic types. The settled part of the population was engaged in agriculture, the nomadic population was engaged in cattle breeding. All this had to be taken into account during administrative activities. According to the authors, despite all the difficulties, the tsarist government has undertaken the tactic of “nonviolent inclusion” of Muslim peoples in the Russian statehood. The article focuses on certain aspects of the administrative system in the Turkestan region, reveals the semantic meaning of the norms of imperial law and determines the effectiveness in terms of their practical application in the management of the Turkestan region. 

The authors conclude that by the end of the XIX century, a rather difficult situation had developed in the Turkestan region, in which ministries tried in every possible way to increase their importance in the region, while forgetting about the general tasks of managing the region, which did not contribute to the authority of the Russian authorities and strengthening the socio-political situation in the region.

Keywords: Russian Turkestan, administrative borders, organization of regional administration, administrative policy of Russia

Karimov T.T. (Kazan). Votchinnik Isergap Soltanaev – founder of the village of Isergapovo, Kyr-Elan land volost

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Senior Researcher
Institute of History. Sh. Marjani of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic
420111, Tatarstan, Kazan, st. Baturina, 7A
e-mail: tkarimov@bk.ru

Abstract. The village of Isergapovo (now a village in the Bavlinsky district of the Republic of Tatarstan) was founded on the land by votchinnikov of the Kyr-Elan land volost. It received its name from Isergap Soltanaev, an active votchinnikis mentioned in numerous sources. Under him, the class structure of the village began to take shape, which included, in addition to votchinnikis, tatars of different classes. The time, features and conditions of the appearance of representatives of different classes in the village of Isergapovo reflect the agreements of the votchinnikis concluded with them in the 18th century. The first part of the article is devoted to the analysis of documents in which Isergap Soltanaev is mentioned. Next, the agreements of votchinnikis on the admission of tatars of different classes are analyzed, and the number and composition of the population are also considered based on materials from revision tales. Among the votchinnikis there were a large number of representatives of the Isergap Soltanaev family, as evidenced by the ancestral tamgas, which became the object of close attention. This genus is not limited to the village of Isergapovo; some of its representatives were discovered, for example, in the village of Abdulovo (now Ermekeevsky district of the Republic of Bashkortostan). 

Keywords: votchinniki, Kyr-Elan volost, unified tatar ethnocultural space, tatars of the bashkir class, tatar land volosts

Karimov R.T. (Kazan). Population of the village of Baltachevo of the Garey land volost (second half of the XVII – mid-XIX centuries)

applicant, head of the Department for Coordination of Interaction in the Humanities of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan
420111, Kazan, st. Bauman, 20
e-mail: ruzalkarimov@gmail.com

Abstract. The article, based on published and unpublished sources, examines the issue of the formation of the Baltachevo village population (now Staroye Baltachevo, Aktanysh district of the Republic of Tatarstan) of the Garey land volost. The only possible founder of the village, the patrimonial owner Baltach Isenev, was mentioned in 1712, based on this we can talk about its emergence in the second half of the 17th – early 18th centuries. Known from the agreements of the Gareans in 1738, 1744, 1754, the patrimonial owners of the village of Baltachevo actively participated in leasing their common fishing grounds with other Gareans to Russian peasants, showing the entrepreneurial spirit inherent in the Tatars. Military service in the irregular army was the responsibility of patrimonial owners. For this reason, among the participants in the Polish campaign of 1771-1773, the statement dated December 25, 1771 mentions Araslan Burangulov from the team of foreman Adnagul Temirov. Already at an early stage of its existence, the village had a two-class population structure, but in the middle of the 19th century it again became single-class due to the resettlement of the Tatars of the Teptyar class to the 25th canton. At the beginning of the 19th century, in connection with the General Land Survey, part of the “Bashkirs” who experienced land shortages moved to the founded village of Novoye Baltachevo, where they became part of the Taktalachukovskaya Tube.

Keywords: votchinniki, Garey land volost, single Tatar ethnocultural space, Polish campaign (1771-1773), Tatars of the Bashkir class, Tatar land volosts, Tatar entrepreneurship

Okroshidze L.G., Yurenkov A.K. (Moscow). New facts about the life of the first Russian restorer Andrey Filippovich Mitrokhin (1765-1845). Part II

Referent of the Secretariat of the Deputy Prime Minister of the Russian Federation – Chief of Staff of the Government Executive Office
103274, Moscow, Krasnopresnenskaya nab.2.
e-mail: Ak.gov@yandex.ru 

Senior inspector, Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University
119234, Lomonosovsky pr-t, 27/4
e-mail: vaudetar@gmail.com 

Abstract. Andrey Mitrokhin is a significant figure in the history of Russian restoration. He can certainly be considered the first Russian restorer, as he devoted his efforts for about half a century to preserving the collection of the Hermitage Museum. In addition to his mechanical restoration work, Mitrokhin also developed new techniques for preserving paintings. These included transferring them from wooden panels onto canvas. Andrey Filippovich founded the first restoration school and taught a new generation of young restorers. The contributions of Mitrokhin and Filippovich to this cause cannot be overstated. However, he has been forgotten quickly, and many details of his personal live have simply disappeared. This article continues a comprehensive investigation, during which previously unknown facts and documents about his personal life are being uncovered.

Keywords: Andrey Mitrokhin, restoration, archival documents, biography, Hermitage, painting, restoration of painting

Kondakov YU.E. (St. Petersburg). Palestine Committee (1859–1864)

doctor of historical sciences, associate professor, professor of the department of history of the institute of history and social sciences Russian State Pedagogical University A.I. Herzen,
St. Petersburg, Moika river embankment, 48, 191186,
e-mail: yukondakov@herzen.spb.ru

Abstract. On March 23, 1859, Emperor Alexander II established the Palestine Committee. It included representatives of the Maritime Ministry, the Ministry of Finance, the Holy Synod and the Russian Society of Shipping and Trade. The task of the new body was to build infrastructure for Russian pilgrims in Palestine. The Emperor’s brother, Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolaevich, was appointed head of the Committee. The initiator of the creation of the committee was an official of the Maritime Ministry B.P. Mansurov, who committed in 1856-1858. several trips to Palestine. The committee was supposed to consolidate the efforts of various institutions in helping pilgrims and stop interdepartmental struggle, distribute and control financial flows. In 1859-1860 The committee held four meetings. The result of the work was the registration of land in Palestine as Russian property and the drawing up of plans for future construction. In the context of the Great Reforms, Eastern policy was not a priority for the emperor. Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolaevich received a new appointment as governor of Poland. The head of the Palestinian Committee was the Minister of Public Education A.V. Golovnin. He was burdened by the functions of caring for pilgrims, which were not typical for the ministry. In 1864, in agreement with Vice-Chancellor A.M. Gorchakov closed the Palestinian Committee, and the affairs of caring for the pilgrims were transferred to the Palestinian Commission of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The liquidation of the Palestinian Committee was motivated by the fact that the construction of infrastructure for pilgrims had already been completed. B.P. Mansurov became a member of the Palestinian Commission and continued his activities in the east.

Keywords: Palestinian Committee, Palestinian Commission, Jerusalem, Holy Synod, Russian Society of Shipping and Trade, Naval Ministry, Emperor, Grand Duke

Grytsenko A.I. (Moscow). Living conditions of Moscow University state-paid students in the mid XIXth century reflected in administrative documents

Candidate for a degree of the Department of History of Russia
in XIX – early XX century,
Moscow State University
119991, Russian Federation, Moscow, Leninskie Gory, 1
E-mail: svjatoslav11@bk.ru

Abstract. The article examines the “material world” of the Imperial Moscow University state-owned students in the 1830s-1850s. The author shows how, through the efforts of university authorities and despite rather limited funding, the whole system was gradually developing to provide state-paid students with everything necessary for life at the university – food, clothing, shoes, furniture (including its current repair), writing materials, etc. It is especially noted that the University administration took care of hygiene and psychological well-being of the students with hiring for their needs a bathhouse in the city and a country cottage for relaxation during the summer holidays. The article concludes that the level of provision for state-paid students in that era was quite highly assessed both by the state-paid students of the University themselves and their self-paid comrades, as well as by superiors – from the student superintendent to the minister and the Emperor. At the same time, the reverse side of the administration’s scrupulous satisfaction of student needs was the establishment of minute control, complete regulation of state students’ life within the University, which they reluctantly agreed to, because due to financial circumstances they could not afford to move to city apartments even with a scholarship.

Keywords: Imperial Moscow University, state-paid students, student superintendent, P.S. Nakhimov, S.S. Uvarov

Mikheyeva G.V. (St. Petersburg). Contribution of the Imperial Public Library to strengthening the foundations of Russian statehood

Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences, Professor,
Leading Researcher of Library History Department,
National Library of Russia (St. Petersburg),
Honored Worker of Culture of the Russian Federation
191023, Russia, Saint Petersburg, Sadovaya ul., 18.
e-mail: mikheeva@nlr.ru

Abstract. The article substantiates the contribution of national libraries as guardians of the national memory and intellectual wealth of the peoples living in the state in the creation of the intellectual basis of the country’s statehood. The special mission of the Imperial Public Library (IPB) in strengthening the foundations of statehood of the Russian Empire is highlighted, distinguishing it from libraries of this type in other states. Particular attention is paid to determining the status characteristics of the IPB and its contribution to preventing the spread of anti-state and anti-government sentiments in society. n this regard, the activities of the directors and employees of the Library and their participation in the work of censorship bodies are analyzed. The history and reasons for the creation of “special storage facilities” in the IPB and the contribution of employees, primarily V.V. Stasov, to their replenishment are revealed. Legislative and statutory restrictions on the issuance of literature to readers from these departments have been identified.

Keywords: Imperial Public Library, Russian National Library, history of libraries, special storage, A.N. Olenin, D.P. Buturlin, M.A. Korf, I.D.  Delyanov, V.V  Stasov

Pankrashin S.A. (Moscow). Morganatic marriage in the House of Romanovs in 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries: from emergency to crisis

Postgraduate student of Department of History of Moscow State University
119992, Lomonosovsky avenue, 27, b. 4, Moscow
e-mail: sergejpankrasin1@gmail.com  

Abstract. The present article is devoted to the issue of the morganatic marriages in Romanov’s dynasty, descendants of Emperor Paul I of Russia (1796 – 1801), and also to the influences of these marriages on the order of succession in the Russian Empire of the 19th century. This interprets the legal nature of the morganatic marriage’s institute and their origins in the historical dynastic context of Romanov’s bloodline, tracing, as much as possible in the restricted framework of the article, the evolution of the institute during the hundred years which it existed. Eventually, we have come to conclusions about the particular influence of the morganatic marriages and non-marriage links of the royal members on the dynastic crisis and, in fact, the dividing of the ruling family at the beginning of the 20th century. 

Keywords: Romanov’s dynasty, morganatic marriage, order of succession, monarchy, the royal family of Russia, the political history of Russian Empire

Yakhimovich S.Yu. (Khabarovsk). Professional associations of Russian emigrants in Manchuria on the example of commercial and industrial employees and motorists (1935–1945)

Ph. D in History, Associate Professor,
Professor of the Department of social and humanitarian and economic disciplines
Far Eastern law Institute of the Ministry of interior Affairs of Russia.
680020, Russia, Khabarovsk, 15 Kazarmenny Lane
e-mail: sergyahim-69@yandex.ru 

Abstract. The article is devoted to the disclosure of issues related to the emergence and activity within the framework of the Russian colony in Manchuria of two of the largest professional associations of emigrants – the Union of Employees of Trade and Industrial Enterprises and the society of motorists “Russian Transport”. These associations functioned in 1935-1945, when the puppet pro–Japanese state of Manchukuo existed in the northeast of China. The supervisory and highest authority for the industrial unions of Russian emigration in Manchuria was the Bureau for Russian Emigrants (Bureau), created by the efforts of the Japanese Military Mission. It supervised the activities of all emigrant associations, including those of a professional nature. The trade unions themselves were based on the principles set out by the ideologists of Russian fascism, whose supporters were almost all the employees of the Bureau. Based on the dominance of Japanese military interests in Manchukuo, both the Bureau and the leadership of professional associations of emigrants did not so much defend the labor interests of employees and motorists, as they engaged in ideological agitation and control of political trustworthiness towards Japan among the members of these organizations. It is concluded that over time, the Bureaus and boards of associations of employees and employees of motor transport periodically tried to alleviate the economic situation of members of professional organizations and improve their legal protection in the field of labor protection. However, these measures were clearly insufficient for the full functioning of the union of employees and the society of motorists as professional associations.

Keywords: Manchuria, trade union, society, emigration, Bureau for Russian Emigrants, employees, motorists

Dyakov S.I. (St. Petersburg). On the history of the Kazan Higher Artillery Command School (military institute) named after Marshal of Artillery M.N. Chistyakov (1940–1959)

Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences, Associate Professor,
head of the faculty of the Mikhailovsky Military Artillery Academy,
195009, Russia, St. Petersburg, Komsomol, 22,
e-mail: serDyakoff@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article analyzes the training of officers of technical specialties for aviation in a military educational institution from the Chelyabinsk Military Aviation School of Aircraft Mechanics to the Kazan Military Aviation Technical School, which on September 16, 1959 was reorganized into the Kazan Artillery Technical School (reassigned from system of the Air Force (Air Force) into the Strategic Missile Forces (Strategic Missile Forces). An analysis of organizational and personnel changes was carried out, and a quantitative and qualitative characteristic of various categories of graduates studying in training specialties for the interests of aviation was presented. Previously unpublished and little-studied archival sources from the Central Archive of the Ministry of Defense (TsAMO) have been introduced into scientific circulation (information from the school’s historical record, orders, directives at various levels, as well as electronic resources on the Internet. During the study, the following applied methods were used: historical-analytical and historical-systemic methods. The use of these methods allowed the study to be more objective evaluate the school’s contribution to the training of technical officers for aviation. Results show that, in general, the activities of the military educational institution during the period under review, according to the results of state examination graduation commissions in different years, were assessed mainly on the positive side. The author comes to the conclusion that the need to retrain the school to train officers for missile specialties from aviation specialties was determined by: the military-political situation; the activities of the leadership of the state and army for the development of weapons, especially the Strategic Missile Forces due to competition with the United States in the nuclear missile field; a large number of missile formations being formed; the need to train a large number of officers servicing ballistic missiles and missile systems and performing practical missile launches.

Keywords: Officer, Chelyabinsk military aviation school of aircraft mechanics, Chelyabinsk Aviation Technical School of Long-Range Aviation, Kazan Military Aviation Technical School, Kazan Artillery Technical School, Air Force (Air Force)

Orlov V.V. (Moscow). Industrial management of the USSR in 1957-1964: historical experience, features, results

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor
Private institution of higher education “Institute of Public Administration”
119261, Moscow, Leninsky Prospekt, 80
e-mail: orlov.stolica@mail.ru

Abstract. The article examines the historical experience of industrial management in 1957-1964 through the national economic councils. The processes of decentralization of industrial and construction management and their contradictory results are shown, which led to the restoration of the sectoral management system and industrial ministries in subsequent years. The purpose of the study is to study the experience, features and results of industrial management in the USSR in 1957–1964. The research methodology is based on the use of a systematic approach to the formation of the Soviet model of economic management, the formation of a territorial system of industrial and construction management. The methodological basis of the article consists of descriptive and comparative methods of analysis and statistical data. The study made it possible to show the ambiguous nature of the reforms carried out during the leadership of N.S. Khrushchev in the field of industrial management. On the one hand, the reforms revealed the potential of decentralized management; on the other hand, they showed that within the framework of a centralized management model, the positive effect of the reforms was only temporary. The determining trend in the development of the management system continued to be the tendency towards centralization. The transformations revealed the importance of achieving a compromise between all-Union and regional interests, ensuring economic efficiency and social guarantees of the state.

Keywords: historical experience, management reform, national economy, decentralization, union republics, economic councils

Kokorev M.A. (Moscow). Social movement of international war veterans in Afghanistan: 1985–1989

Postgraduate student of the History Faculty of M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University.
119234, Russian Federation, Moscow, Leninsky Gory ter, 1.
e-mail: kokorevma@my.msu.ru

Abstract. The article is a continuation of the article «Social movement of warriors-internationalists – veterans of the war in Afghanistan: social and political conditions of the movement’s emergence», published in the previous issue of the scientific journal. The article is devoted to the analysis of the role of the social movement of soldiers-internationalists – veterans of the war in Afghanistan (1985 – 1989). The scientific article reveals socio-political and social features, key tendencies of origin and development of the first local, regional and general union associations of warriors-internationalists in 1985-1989. on the example of: Togliatti City Association of Internationalist Warriors; Perovsky Club of Disabled and Veterans of War in Afghanistan «Debt»; All-Union Association of Councils of Reserve and International Warriors, Defense and Patriotic Associations (attached to the Central Committee of the VLKSM). In the article have been allocated the main directions of public-patriotic activity of «shuravi». Periodization of social movement of warriors-internationalists is presented, main directions and significance of public-patriotic activity of «shuravi» are allocated in the article. The scientific article introduces previously unknown and unpublished sources of personal origin, collected and studied in the course of scientific research.

Keywords: War in Afghanistan, soldiers-internationalists, «shuravi», public associations, USSR

Smirnov A.V. (Krasnodar). Features of the representation of the relationship between Russian lands and the Golden Horde in Soviet cinema

Postgraduate student of the Department of Russian History
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Kuban State University»,
350040, Krasnodar, Stavropolskaya st., 149
e-mail: alexdf247@mail.ru

Abstract. The article examines the features of cinema as a mass historical source that has a great influence on the formation of people’s and society’s ideas about past events. Attention is paid to methods of working with film as a technogenic source of information, the main one being structural and systemic. By analyzing the plot, individual frames and technical techniques used by the filmmakers, an attempt is made to reconstruct the historical narratives embedded in the film. The author of the article studies how the theme of the Mongol invasion of Rus and subsequent Russian-Horde relations was covered in Soviet cinema. The image of the Horde in films of the 1930s–1980s didn`t remain unchanged and depended on the tasks facing the individual creative team. In «Alexander Nevsky» S.M. Eisenstein’s goal was to show the great danger for Rus in the 13th century from the West, so dependence on the Mongols looks softer than the expansion of the crusader knights. For the creators of «Andrei Rublev», the Horde problem becomes part of the internal issues of Russian statehood and culture. Films shot at Ukrainian film studios emphasize the need to fight the yoke, but at the level of individual lands and principalities. «The Life of Alexander Nevsky» G.M. Kuznetsova opens up a new view for Russian cinema on the Golden Horde as a possible ally and mentor of Rus. The features of each film are related to the current sociocultural processes of the time of its creation.

Keywords: Soviet cinema, historical identity, historical narrative, mass consciousness, artistic image, Russian-Horde relations, S.M. Eisenstein, A.A. Tarkovsky

Dorzheeva V.V., Sleptsova O.Yu. (Magadan). National policy towards northern peoples in the post-Soviet period. Regulatory aspect

Doctor of Historical Sciences
head Department of Jurisprudence
The North-Eastern State University
13 Portovaia St. Magadan 685000, Russian Federation.
e-mail: dorvic68@mail.ru

Candidate of Historical Sciences
Senior Lecturer at the Department of Jurisprudence
The North-Eastern State University
13 Portovaia St., Magadan 685000, Russian Federation
e-mail: garrisoly@gmail.com

Abstract. The Arctic agenda of modern Russia actualizes the search for adequate forms of interaction between the state and indigenous peoples. The object of this study is the regulatory aspect of state national policy since the 1990s. until the 2020s. The subject is federal and regional programs for the socio-economic and cultural development of indigenous peoples. The authors, based on an analysis of regulations, trace the development of state ethnic policy in the post-Soviet period. The forms of legal regulation, the basic principles of the formation of state national policy, and the sources of financing for measures for its implementation have been studied. It is noted that the complex nature of the problems of development of indigenous peoples has necessitated the development of comprehensive measures aimed at protecting their interests. The program-target principle of activity of state authorities and local self-government bodies made it possible to determine priority development tasks for the medium term, formulate an appropriate regulatory framework and plan financing. The relationship of goals, objectives, target indicators of development programs with the level of stabilization of the socio-economic situation in the country, with strategic vectors and state interests at different stages of development is indicated. The features and priorities of regional models of national policy, as well as the problems of their implementation, are considered. State national policy in this period is characterized by a gradual departure from state paternalism, a combination of this principle with the principle of partnership, a search for models in the context of the transition to a market, new challenges and a change of ideology. The authors note the productivity of the combination of paternalism and partnership in relations between the state and indigenous peoples. Without paternalism, many issues cannot be resolved financially and organizationally, and indigenous peoples are the object of state national policy. Partnership presupposes the subjectivity of indigenous ethnic groups and equality in the processes of shaping the political agenda.

Keywords: state national policy, state program of the Russian Federation, state program of a subject of the Russian Federation, federal target program, subprogram, indigenous peoples of the north

Erеmin S.V. (Nizhnevartovsk). The image of the First World War in the historical memory of the Post-Soviet society in 1992-2022

Candidate of Historical Sciences,
Associate Professor of the Department of Russian History and Documentation
Nizhnevartovsk State University,
628600, Russia, Nizhnevartovsk, Mira str., 3 B
e-mail: serjomin@mail.ru

Abstract. In the post-Soviet years, especially after the centenary in 2014, the memory of the First World War, which received little attention in Soviet times and was overshadowed by the events of the revolution and the Civil War, is being actively revived in Russia. Society, the state, and the scientific world of the country participate in this process. Scientific and popular science works are being published, feature films are being made, the memory of heroes and exploits is being revived, monuments are being erected, etc. At the same time, it seems that not enough attention is paid in scientific research, in public memory, in state policy to the reason for the unsuccessful end of the war for Russia. To explain everything only by the “treason” of the Bolsheviks, liberals or some other forces, regardless of whether there was such treason or not, seems at least a simplification, because no “treason” can destroy a healthy and not seriously flawed system, as well as because in 1917 society as a whole or at least a significant part of it did not want to fight further. The explanation of why this happened should be sought in the unjustified delay by Tsarism of overdue and overripe reforms in the late XIX – early XX centuries.

Keywords: Russia, World War I, memory, history lessons


Sychev N.F. (Moscow). Explanations of the Minister of Internal Affairs A.A. Makarov on inquiries about the Lena events in public opinion (April 1912)

postgraduate student of the Department of Russian History of the XIX century – early XX century, Faculty of History,
Lomonosov Moscow State University
119991, Russian Federation, Moscow, Leninskie Gory, 1
e-mail: n.sichev@yandex.ru

Abstract. In April 1912, a great public outcry in Russia was caused by the events related to the shooting of a demonstration of workers at the Lena gold mines. The resolution of such incidents was under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, which required from the acting Minister A.A. Makarov not only firm will and consistent actions, but also a certain political dexterity. The article attempts to assess the degree of influence of the Lena events on the reputation of the minister in socio-political circles, as well as on his relationship with the head of government V.N. Kokovtsov. The Minister’s task was significantly complicated by the request submitted to the State Duma on April 9 by representatives of a number of opposition factions. Two days later, at an evening meeting in the Tauride Palace, Makarov made a lengthy speech in which he outlined in detail the government’s position on the Lena incident, in general, justifying the actions of troops under the command of Captain Treshchenkov to suppress rebellious protests. The minister drew special attention to the propaganda work of the opposition in the gold mines, calling it one of the main causes of the tragedy. At the same time, Makarov practically did not mention the role of the administration of the mines in the emergence of a rebellious situation. As expected, the minister’s speech provoked an ambiguous reaction from his contemporaries, not satisfying a significant part of the socio-political circles that turned Makarov into an object of serious criticism. In the end, Prime Minister V.N. Kokovtsov had to intervene in the case, which complicated his relationship with Makarov and led to the latter’s early resignation in December 1912.

Keywords: A.A. Makarov, Minister of Internal Affairs, Lena events, public opinion, periodical press


Lapina I.Yu., Kargapoltsev S.Yu. (St. Petersburg). Civilization challenges and systemic problems of domestic sociogenesis. Part 1

Head of the Department of History and Philosophy of SPbGASU,
Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor St. Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Ingineering (SPbGASU),
190005, 2nd Krasnoarmeyskaya stree t, 4, St. Petersburg
e-mail: clio@spbgasu.ru

Associate Professor of the Department of History and Philosophy of SPbGASU,
Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor St. Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Ingineering (SPbGASU),
190005, 2nd Krasnoarmeyskaya street, 4, St. Petersburg
e-mail: clio@spbgasu.ru

Abstract. This article opens a series of publications by the authors in the Klio journal, dedicated to understanding the process of Russia’s confrontation with civilizational challenges based on an analysis of the historical experience of the development of our state. Conventionally dividing them into external and internal, the authors come to the conclusion that both of them at different stages of the development of Russian statehood threaten its existence. It is necessary to know the lessons of history so as not to repeat past mistakes. Assessing the current state of Russian society, the authors agree with V.V. Putin, who claims that at present our country, having gone through the deception of the collective West, is becoming more self-sufficient, more sovereign, more confident in its own abilities. Agreeing with the opinion of the outstanding scientist A.Ya. Danilevsky, the authors of the article express confidence that Western civilization has always been hostile towards Russia, and also that the ideas of Pan-Slavism are shaking the foundations of the existence of our fatherland.

Keywords: Civilization challenges, Rus, Russia, Marxism, Pan-Slavism