Klio #01 (205) 2024


Kravchenko I.V. (Moscow). “Dominus Menglicarei imperator tartarorum”: Crimean Khan Mengli Giray in Genoese sources

Postgraduate student of the Department of History of the Middle Ages
Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov
119192, Moscow, Lomonosovsky prospect, 27, building 4
e-mail: kr.vaniy@mail.ru

Abstract. The article analyzes Genoese sources dating back to the reign of the second Crimean Khan Mengli Giray (1466-1515) and directly or indirectly mentioning and characterizing this ruler. Sources of Western origin provide us with the most informative and accurate information about the political processes in the Crimean Khanate at the early stage of its political history. The close proximity, as well as the regular political and economic interaction of Crimea with the Genoese of Caffa, led to numerous references to details of Crimean history in sources of Genoese origin: instructions from the central authorities to the consuls of Caffa, reports of consuls, accounting books of the massaria of Caffa, diplomatic and personal letters, court documents, etc. This work compares the Tatar-Genoese relations of the Mengli Giray era with the previous period – the era of the reign of his father Hadji Giray, based on these materials. The role of the Genoese and their relationship to the dynastic unrest in the Crimean Khanate of 1466-1469 is considered. By analyzing most of the currently published sources, the attitude and goal-setting of the Genoese authorities towards the Crimean Khan, the goals and mechanism of relations with him are explored.
Keywords: Crimean Khanate, Genoese Republic, Caffa, Mengli Giray, Ottoman Empire

Kang Shixin (Moscow). The newspaper “Novyj Kraj” and the edge of empire Port Arthur

PhD student,
Department of the history of Russia of the 19th–early 20th centuries
Faculty of History
Lomonosov Moscow State University
119192, Russian Federation, Moscow, Lomonosovsky Prospekt, 27,
e-mail: lilililiang123@gmail

Abstract. The newspaper “Novyj Kraj” started to be published in Port Arthur in 1899 and was not only the first newspaper in the history of Liushun (Port Arthur) area, but also the first newspaper to appear in the now Chinese northeastern region. It has special and important significance for the research on the history of Port Arthur.

In the studies on Port Arthur in Russian historiography there is no lack of references to the existence of the “Novyj Kraj” newspaper, but few researchers have specifically studied the newspaper itself as a historical source. S.L. Gurinov published four extended studies on the city of Port Arthur based on the reports of the “Novyj Kraj”, focusing on the interpretation and investigation of the content of the newspaper’s coverage of Russian rule and administration of Port Arthur through 1904. At present, there are few studies in Chinese historiography that use the Russian-language newspaper Novyi Krai as a historical source; Chinese scholars such as Zhao Yonghua, Zhao Jianming, Yu Wenjun, and Zhang Gongchen have briefly introduced the newspaper in their studies and interpretations, including Yu Wenjun, who evaluated it from the perspective of journalistic history in light of the Russian Empire’s news control policy during the period of Port Arthur administration with a certain degree of specificity.
Keywords: Kwantung Oblast, Port Arthur, the newspaper “Novyj Kraj”, P.A. Artemyev, Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905

Podmoloda K.S. (Moscow). “Tsarsky vestnik” Newspaper between Germanophiles and Francophiles (Late 1920s – 1930s)

Postgraduate Student,
Department of Russian History of the
Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries,
Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University.
Russian Federation, 119234, Moscow,
Lomonosovsky Prospekt, 27-4.
E-mail: kirill2405p@mail.ru

Abstract. The article explores the ideological confrontation between supporters of the pro-French and pro-German political orientations in the 1920s and 1930s within the Russian Abroad, using the example of the publications in the right-wing monarchist newspaper “Tsarsky vestnik” (“Tsar’s Bulletin”). This newspaper was produced in Belgrade, where most of the Russian military emigration was concentrated. The article examines the theses and arguments of two main wings of the Russian Abroad, as well as the origins of these directions of thought in the foreign policy program of the Russian Abroad during the first wave. Similarly, the views of the authors published in the “Tsarsky vestnik” are analyzed. In addition, the transformation of the editorial line of the newspaper with respect to foreign policy orientation is considered. In the article the author shows how the change in the international situation influenced the views reflected in the newspaper as well. Furthermore, this material might be considered in the context of studying the general mindset of the Russian Abroad. The scientific novelty of the article consists in the analysis of the materials of the “Tsarsky vestnik” newspaper, thus providing new information about the views prevailing in the right wing of the Russian Abroad, which eventually led to the fact that a large number of its representatives agreed to cooperate with Nazi Germany. The results obtained by the author allow us to supplement the existing knowledge of historical science regarding the foreign policy orientation of the right-wing of Russian Abroad during the first wave. In the end, based on the conducted research, a conclusion is made about the further prospects of historical reconstruction considering the changing of public thought in a particular period, based on the analysis of materials of periodic press.
Keywords: “Tsarsky vestnik”, N. Rklitskiy, Germanophiles, Francophiles, Russian emigration, fascism, national-socialism, A. Kersnovskiy, A. Lanin, S. Shishko, A. Vonsyatskiy, the Soviet Union, France, Germany


Solomakha E.N., Shlyakhov M.Yu., Surovegina E.S. (Nizhny Novgorod). History of communist ideas in Russian journalism of the second half of the 19th century (using the example of A.K. Sheller-Mikhailov’s work “Revolutionary Anabaptism”)

Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor of the Department of History of Russia and auxiliary historical disciplines Minin State Pedagogical University of Nizhny Novgorod
603005, Russia, Nizhny Novgorod, Minin Square, 7
e-mail: elenasolomakha@yandex.ru

Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor of the Department of History of Russia and auxiliary historical disciplines Minin State Pedagogical University of Nizhny Novgorod
603005, Russia, Nizhny Novgorod, Minin Square, 7
e-mail: mik-shlyakhov@yandex.ru

Art. Lecturer at the Department of History of Russia and auxiliary historical disciplines Minin State Pedagogical University of Nizhny Novgorod
603005, Russia, Nizhny Novgorod, Minin Square, 7
e-mail: ekaterina.surovegina@mail.ru

Abstract. The formation and development of socialist ideas of the 19th century led to the search for ideas of proto-communism at all stages of human history. Of particular interest were the events of the Reformation, in which the most prominent representatives of European socialist thought saw the most important stage in the formation of revolutionary communist ideas. In the Russian Empire of the second half of the 19th century, against the backdrop of acute socio-political struggle and existing censorship, journalism became a place for the formation of scientific ideas about the history of revolutionary, communist ideas in Europe. The article analyzes the work “Revolutionary Anabaptism” by A.K. Sheller-Mikhailov, who played a significant role in the formation of these ideas. A historiographical review dedicated to the work of Sheller-Mikhailov is given. An analysis of the work “Revolutionary Anabaptism” leads the authors to the following conclusions: the study was written on rich factual material, using the latest scientific research of the time and imbued with sympathy for the representatives of the revolutionary religious movement in Germany. Describing the events of the 16th century, Sheller-Mikhailov introduced them into the general theory of the development of communist ideas in Europe and led readers to the problems acutely facing Russia at the end of the 19th century. An important conclusion of the author of the work was the pattern of the emergence of Anabaptism in Germany and at the same time its assessment as a utopian project, initially doomed to failure.
Keywords: A.K. Sheller-Mikhailov, historiographical source, historiographical fact, historiographical analysis, revolutionary Anabaptism, political utopia, development of communist ideas, Radical Reformation


Litvinov V.P. (Yelets). Religious police in the Islamic world: Central Asian khanates

candidate of historical sciences, independent
 the researcher.
399740, Russia, Yelets,
e-mail: litwinov.slav@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article is devoted to the activities of the religious police in the Muslim khanates of Central Asia. At the same time, it indicates that a similar institution existed in Christian countries, which is confirmed by references to the example of the cruelties of the Catholic Inquisition in Europe and the Calvinist supervision of believers in Protestant Geneva. It is mainly considered the largest Central Asian khanate – the Bukhara Emirate before and after its transformation into a Russian protectorate. The author notes that the establishment of the confessional Islamic police in Turkestan arose at the end of the XVIII century, whereas in most countries of the Islamic world there was no such institution. The decline in the level of religiosity among Muslims in the region prompted the Bukhara ruler Shah Murad to create a special police force to monitor the religious behavior of his subjects. Appropriate units were established, headed by the Rais (chairman). They were called “giryands” and daily monitored how Muslims fulfilled the provisions of Muslim law – Sharia and the commandments of the Prophet. In case of violations, the perpetrators were punished with special lashes, called “dorrs”. Police censors of religious morality were called “muhtasibs”. The author points out that in the Russian territories of Central Asia (Russian Turkestan), the tsarist government abolished the posts of rais and abolished the religious police, which contributed to the liberation of the Muslim population from the oppression of Sharia demands, but caused discontent among Islamic conservatives. However, in the Emirate of Bukhara, the Institute of religious police, the posts of Rais and Mukhtasib continued to function. Moreover, its analogue operated in the 1860s and 1970s in Kashgaria, in the state of Yakub beg. The author concludes that the religious police in the Central Asian khanates maintained the level of Islamic faith among the population, although often artificially. However, its abolition by the tsarist authorities led not only to the democratization of Muslim life, but also caused many problems in maintaining proper law and order among the indigenous society of Russian Turkestan.
Keywords: Central Asian khanates, Bukhara emirate, Russian Turkestan, religious police, raice, myhtasibe, giryanda, dorra

Yakovleva A.E. (Pskov). Problems of interaction between the CDU and CSU within the same faction after the end of World War II (1945-1950)

assistant, Institute of Humanities and Language Communications, Faculty of History, Department of Russian and General History, Pskov State University
180000, Russia, Pskov, pl. Lenina, 2
e-mail: pavlovaanna@mail.ru

Abstract. After the German occupation authorities lifted the “political quarantine,” political parties began to be formed and recreated. During this period, the ideology of Christian democracy again gained popularity, on the basis of which the Christian Democratic Union and the Christian Social Union were formed in Bavaria. Despite the common views, due to their national characteristics and historical past, the Bavarian representation of the ideology in question refused to fully integrate with the rapidly growing CDU. However, in order to prevail in the Reichstag, the parties needed to have a majority of votes, which forced them to work together.

The subject of the article is the interaction of the CDU and the CSU within the same faction at the initial stage of joint activities. The article analyzes the overall work within the framework of the Economic Council and the Parliamentary Council, which is the first attempt to achieve a positive result through common efforts for the benefit of the state.

Analyzing Russian and German literature, program documents, memoirs of participants in the events in question and contemporaries, periodicals, shorthand records of meetings, the author came to the conclusion that the joint work of the CDU and CSU within one faction at the initial stage underwent a number of problems, largely related to resistance to Christian -social party. However, the ability to come to an agreement and make concessions for the sake of achieving the common good within the state, the parties showed effective work, which in the future led to the formation of a significant political force in Germany, setting the direction of the country’s domestic and foreign policy.
Keywords: Christian Democratic Union, Christian Social Union, CDU, CSU, CDU/CSU, Economic Council of Germany, Parliamentary Council of Germany, Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany, party system of Germany

Kharlamova E.M., Barynkin A.V. (St. Petersburg). Volyn massacre in the political discourse of modern Poland

Master’s student at the Faculty of International Relations of St. Petersburg State University
199034, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya nab., 7-9.
e-mail: katya.harlamova00@yandex.ru

Candidate of Historical Sciences,
Associate Professor, Department of European Studies, Faculty of International Relations, St. Petersburg State University
199034, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya nab., 7-9.
e-mail: avbarinkin@yandex.ru

Abstract. The Volyn massacre remains important narrative in the context of Polish-Ukrainian relations. On the Polish side, it is being systematically updated, becoming an occasion for reviewing the events of the past and achieving the political goals facing the country’s leadership today. The article argues the main aspects of cooperation between Poland and Ukraine on the recognition of responsibility for the events of the Volyn massacre. The authors analyze the positions of governments on this issue and assessed the prospects for its resolution within the framework of the course of historical policy pursued by the authorities. In addition, the publication analyzes the speeches of representatives of the Polish authorities on the occasion of anniversaries and commemorations related to the Volyn massacre, policy documents and laws promoted by the Institute of National Remembrance, the activities of public organizations to commemorate the memory of the victims. The current factors are analyzed through the prism of historical retroperspective, taking into account the change of power and the transformation of the political course since 2008. The point of view is expressed, according to which the mention of the Volyn massacre and the actualization of this narrative coincide with the practical tasks of the Polish leadership. It is noted that the positions of different political parties on this issue differ, which means that we can talk about the prospects for changes in the context of the recent parliamentary elections and the change of the ruling coalition.
Keywords: Poland, Ukraine, Volyn massacre, memory studies, Ukrainian-Polish relations

Rutkovskaya T.V. (Moscow). Charter 77 and repressive policy in Czechoslovakia

graduate student of the Faculty of History
of Lomonosov Moscow State University
123022, Hodynskaya street, 10-1, 17, Moscow
e-mail: rutkovskaya.tanya@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article is devoted to the criminal prosecution of members of the Czechoslovak Charter 77. The repressions of the second half of the 20th century in communist Czechoslovakia are traditionally divided into two stages: the class-based repression of the 1950s and the struggle against ideas that began in the 1970s. As political charges prevailed during the first stage and illustrated the activity of the struggle against counter-revolutionary elements in the republic, their number sharply reduces at the second stage. Therefore, non-political charges come to the fore. The author of the article examines the reports of the Committee for the Protection of the Unfairly Persecuted and concludes that this situation is not typical for the members of Charter 77.
Keywords: Czechoslovakia, dissidents, Charter 77, trial, charges

Skosyrev V.A., Smirnov D.A. (Moscow). New approaches of the Chinese Communist Party to describing its history

Researcher at the Institute of China and Modern Asia,
117997, Moscow, Nakhimovsky ave, 32
e-mail: skosyrev@iccaras.ru

Senior Researcher at the Institute of China and Modern Asia,
117997, Moscow, Nakhimovsky ave, 32
e-mail:  smirnov@iccaras.ru

Abstract. In recent years, the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) has placed special emphasis on its historiography. During his reign (2012 – present), Xi Jinping introduced a number of new historical concepts. In 2021, the party issued a landmark “Resolution of the CPC Central Committee on the Major Achievements and Historical Experience of the Party over the Past Century”. At the same time, new party history textbooks were published. Analysis of these sources allows us to draw conclusions about the direction of transformation of party historiography and ideology of the People’s Republic of China. The purpose of the article is to outline new approaches of the Chinese Communist Party to describing its own history. The research method is qualitative content analysis and comparative analysis of the “historical resolution” of 2021, party history textbooks of 2010-2011 and 2021-2022. It is noted that the Communist Party is building a historical narrative around the mission of national revival. The relationship between new historiographical approaches and the internal policies of the CCP is highlighted. Authors conclude that the increased attention of the current Chinese leadership to historical interpretations is associated with an emphasis on ideological work against the backdrop of growing new systemic challenges and external threats.
Keywords: PRC, Xi Jinping, ideology, historiography, historical concept of the CPC, historical resolution, party history textbooks


Volkov I.V. (Moscow). Panislamism, authority and investigation in Imperial Russia: Turkestani azimuth

doctor of historical sciences, the candidate of political sciences, the Scientific secretary of the Society of studying of history of domestic special services.
101000, Russia, Moscow
e-mail: ivolga54@gmail.com 

Abstract. Clause is devoted to the attitude of imperial authority and political investigation of Russian empire to Panislamism in Central Asia. The author marks, that interest to a problem is caused by growth of value of the Muslim factor in world politics. It specifies, that in due time the big attention Panislamism in Turkestan has given Lenin, having connected it with the Russian Tatars got into this region. The Muslim press, especially the Turkish press, exerted a well-known pan-Islamic influence on the minds of the “natives” of Central Asia. The relevant forces in Afghanistan, the Emirate of Bukhara, Kashgaria, etc. played their role. The general and political police fought against them, but the main importance was the activity of the regional Security department. However, success in this field was limited. The Turkestan administration assessed the prospects of pan-Islamism in the region quite soberly, pointing out that the discontent of the indigenous population is growing primarily due to the mistakes of the authorities, especially in the resettlement policy. According to the author, it was this, and not pan-Islamic propaganda, that led to the uprising of the indigenous population of Central Asia in 1916. The author concludes that after the First World War, the ideology of pan-Islamism left the historical arena, unable to resist the influence of the West. In its place came weak interpretations of this ideology, which soon also dissolved into the so-called “political Islam”.
Keywords: Panislamism, turkish emissaries, Afghanistan, Bukhara, Turkestani security branch, Muslim press, a political islam

Karimov R.T. (Kazan). Non-votchinnik-“Bashkirs” of the village of Sultangulovo, Yeney land volost (second quarter of the 18th – mid 19th centuries)

applicant, head of the scientific and organizational department of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan
420111, Kazan, st. Bauman, 20
e-mail: ruzalkarimov@gmail.com

Abstract. The article examines the time and circumstances of the emergence of the village of Sultangulovo (now Old Sultangulovo, Aktanysh district of the Republic of Tatarstan) of the Yeneisk land volost of the Menzelinsky uezd, the population of which in the past were votchinniks of Baylyar land volost of the same county. The Sultangul people settled under the agreement of admission of 1730 from the Yeney votchinniki, and later claimed the right to be called votchinniki at their place of residence. In the past, this did not matter much, but in connection with the General land surveying it became important (votchinniki were entitled to more land than pripuschenniks). This is another aspect of the relevance of the topic, which allows us to consider the land relations of votchinniks and pripuschenniks using the example of one village. It is noted that the name of the village is associated with the name of Sultangul Syrmetev. A complete list of village residents is given according to information from 1811. A study of the formal list of canton officials in 1837 made it possible to identify 2 people who bore family surnames and turned out to be continuers of the family of one of the first settlers. Among the participants in the Polish campaign (1771-1773 there were 2 Sultangulovites. The results of the study may be of interest not only to local historians and historians, but also to compilers of encyclopedic articles on the history of settlements.
Keywords: votchinniki, single tatar ethnocultural space, Polish campaign (1771-1773), tatars of the Bashkir class, tatar land volosts

Pustovoit I.S. (St. Petersburg). Two reformers: on the similarity and difference of career trajectories and destinies of S. S. Uvarov and M. M. Speransky

2th postgraduate student, Department of history of Russia from ancient times to the beginning of the 19th century, St.-Petersburg State University, 199034,
Saint Petersburg, 7-9 Universitetskaya embankment,
e-mail: botanpustovoit@gmail.com

Abstract. S. S. Uvarov and M. M. Speransky are two reformers of the reign of Emperors Alexander I and Nicholas I, who personified the administrative and educational reforms of the late 1820s and the first half of the 1830s. There is an undeniable lot in common in the life and career trajectories of the two transformers, as well as in their views, as well as their friendly and ideological closeness, especially at the turn of the 1810s and 1820s. Having experienced the rise in the first half of the Alexander I’ reign, Uvarov and Speransky faced opposition to their reforms from conservative-minded circles, which predetermined first the exile of Speransky in 1812, and then the forced resignation of Uvarov from the post of trustee of the St.-Petersburg Educational District in 1821. However, this did not mean the end of their careers. On the contrary, under Nicholas I, Uvarov and Speransky received new elevations that allowed their talents to be revealed in various areas of government activity. Based on the analysis of unpublished and published sources: M. M. Speransky’s reform projects in the first years of the Alexander I’s reign, speeches, articles and embodied transformative plans of Uvarov during the guardianship, as well as their correspondence, the article provides a detailed comparative description of the ideological evolution and fate of both reformers. Special attention is paid to the consideration of the causes and driving forces of the intrigue against Speransky, which led to his exile in 1812, as well as the subversive activities of M. L. Magnitsky and D. P. Runich, opponents of Uvarov in the Ministry of Public Education, who achieved his resignation in 1821. It is shown how erroneous the condemnation of the ideas of the two reformers was, and how this marked the decisive departure of Emperor Alexander I from liberal transformations.
Keywords: S. S. Uvarov, M. M. Speransky, reforms in the beginning of Alexander I’s reign, resignation, enlightenment, reactionary turn

Mikhailov A.S. (Moscow). “Socialist Feudalism” and “Russian ‘Socialism’”: Aspects of the Polemics between K.N. Leont’ev and F.M. Dostoevsky

Postgraduate Student,
Department of Russian History of the
Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries,
Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University.
Russian Federation, 119234, Moscow,
Lomonosovsky Prospekt, 27-4.
e-mail: artem2010_1998@bk.ru

Abstract. The article highlights the polemic between K.N. Leont’ev and F.M. Dostoevsky around the “Pushkin Speech”, in which Leont’ev’s famous words about “pink Christianity” (branding F.M. Dostoevsky and L.N. Tolstoy) were heard, while attention is paid to the participation of Vl.S. Solovyov in this discussion on Dostoevsky’s side. The work revealed three key aspects of the controversy: different attitudes towards “harmony”, the Russian people and the Church. So, if for Leont’ev harmony was represented by the conjugation and struggle of antitheses, then for Dostoevsky it was universal Christian love (as he understood it), correlating with the harmony of the chiliastic kingdom. The attitude towards the people can be expressed by the maxim “the people are God-bearers” in Dostoevsky and “the people are God-fighters” (Leontiev’s expressions) in his opponent. The “Optina hermit” did not have high hopes for the people and believed that they should be constrained by the societal framework. Speaking about the Church, Leont’ev emphasized hierarchy and the concept of form in a broad sense, while Dostoevsky did not attach much importance to this.
Keywords: social thought, conservatism, K.N. Leont’ev, F.M. Dostoevsky, Dostoevsky’s “Pushkin’s Speech”, eschatology, chiliasm

Sotnikov V.E. (Moscow). The role of the First All-Army Officers’ Meeting on December 7–8, 1989 in the history of the USSR Armed Forces during the period of perestroika

postgraduate student of the Department of History of Russia in the XX-XXI centuries
Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov
119192, Moscow, Lomonosovsky prospect, 27, building 4
e-mail: ulsim96@mail.ru

Abstract. In the article, the author analyzes the role of the First All-Army Officers’ Meeting on December 7–8, 1989 in the history of the USSR Armed Forces during the period of perestroika. The recreated officers’ meetings served as an example of the process of democratization of the USSR Armed Forces, which allowed officers to speak out on topics of concern, voice problems in the army and propose solutions to these problems. The author emphasizes the lack of coverage of the topic raised. Using the memoirs of Soviet military leaders and periodical publications, the author presents the First All-Army Officers’ Meeting as a striking event during the period of perestroika in the Soviet Union, which demonstrated the active participation of the officer corps in the political life of the country. Much attention is paid to the proposals of officers, which suggested expanding their participation and influence on state policy. Approving the general idea of the policy of perestroika in the USSR, the officer corps spoke out sharply against unfounded criticism of the Armed Forces in the media and expressed dissatisfaction with the ignoring of the All-Army Officers’ Meeting by the Supreme Commander-in-Chief M.S. Gorbachev. The author comes to the conclusion that the First All-Army Officers’ Meeting could have played an important role in the history of the USSR Armed Forces, but most of the officers’ proposals were not implemented, officer meetings were vested with only advisory powers, and officers did not have the opportunity to influence state policy and defend their interests. As a result, these factors led to a decrease in the initiative of the officer corps, and the All-Army Officers’ Meeting of 1989 became the first and last in the history of the Soviet Union.
Keywords: officers’ meetings, D.T. Yazov, M.S. Gorbachev, perestroika, USSR Armed Forces, USSR Ministry of Defense, collapse of the USSR

Orlov A.S., Boryak A.O. (Orel). The national question in the Russian Empire of the XIX century based on the materials of the periodical press (to the history of the issue)

PhD in History,
Federal Guard Service Academy
302015, г. Орел, ул. Приборостроительная, 3.
e-mail: orlov-orl@mail.ru 

Federal Guard Service Academy
302015, г. Орел, ул. Приборостроительная, 35.
e–mail: lexaboryak979@gmail.com

Abstract. This paper examines the issue of the emergence and development of Russian nationalism, its key features and characteristic features, as well as the development of the periodical press, which influenced the national question. Russian Russian-Polish and Russian-Jewish relations in the period of the late 19th century, when mass printing takes on the broadest forms, are considered in the article. As the Russian triad “Orthodoxy. The autocracy. Nationality”, was the basis for the emergence of nationally oriented societies, which set the main goal of spreading the Orthodox and autocratic tradition in the territories that were part of the Russian Empire? The authors give an answer to the question of why the territories of the Kingdom of Poland resisted this and how they were convinced of the correctness of the Orthodox tradition. Russian nationalists’ favorite phrase “Russia for Russians” originates from where? The article will answer the question why a strong national idea could not resist the rapidly growing capital of Jewish cosmopolitans, and why Russian statehood could not satisfy the interests of all nations? Russian nationalism has failed to strengthen itself as an ideological foundation, as a result of internal contradictions related to a lack of understanding of Russian identity, the authors conclude.
Keywords: Russian Empire, nationalism, identity, Slavophilism, Russian people, Jews

Kislitsyn A.V. (St. Petersburg). Creation of turret mounts for 6-inch quick-fire guns of the Russian Navy at the turn of XXth century

PhD, senior lector of the University Chair of History and Philosophy of the Higher School of Technology and Energy (HSTE) of the Saint Petersburg State University of Industrial Technologies and Design (SPbSUITD)
Russia, 198095, Saint Petersburg, Ivana CHernyh Street, 4
e-mail: aleks.k.44-40@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article deals with the problem of the appearance of turret mounts for 152-mm quick-fire guns in the Russian fleet service at the turn of the XXth century. In the process of developing and manufacturing turrets for 152-mm guns of Russian battleships and protected cruisers, the peculiarities of the functioning of the Naval Ministry of the Russian Empire of this period clearly emerged and its interaction with naval arms produced industrial enterprises. The study of these peculiarities is necessary to create a complete picture of the development of the Russian Empire and the domestic navy on the cusp of the XIXth and XXth centuries. Based on the first introduced into scholarly discourse extensive archival material the activities of the Ministry of Navy and the largest Russian industrial enterprises in equipping ships of the Russian Navy with turret mounts for 152-mm guns, the problems and the results of the process were analyzed. Based on the material studied, the author concluded that the creation of turret mounts for 152-mm guns made it possible to gain valuable experience for the domestic military industry and create a greater variety of the Russian fleet arsenal. However, it was not worth the effort and money spent on due to mistakes made by the Ministry of Navy in organizing this process.
Keywords: the Russian Imperial Navy history, naval artillery, gun turrets, the Ministry of Navy of the Russian Empire, the Naval Technical Committee, the General Directorate of Shipbuilding and Supplies, military production

Aliyeva L.V., Frolov V.N. (Pskov). Dynamics of peasant uprisings in the Pskov province during the Peasant Revolution

Cand. Sc. in History, Associate Professor,
Department of Russian and World History,
Pskov State University.
180000, Russian Federation, Pskov, Lenin square, 2,
e-mail: zemkod1922@gmail.com

Postgraduate student of the Department of Russian and General History,
Faculty of History, Pskov State University,
180000, Russian Federation, Pskov, Lenin square, 2,
e-mail: frolo.vitalij2012@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article is devoted to the dynamics of peasant uprisings in the Pskov province during the Peasant Revolution. The identification of regional features of the process of peasant emancipation ensured the representativeness of the period 1902–1922. The peasantry made up the majority of the population in the Pskov province, and the stability of the region’s power depended on its public sentiments. Analysis of historical sources and literature allowed to draw conclusions about the situational nature of peasant uprisings in the Pskov province. Periods 1902–1904 and 1908–1917 passed quite quietly in the province. Russian revolutions of 1905–1907 and 1917 led to waves of peasant movement in the Pskov province. The peasantry of the Pskov province moved from fighting against landlordism to defending their economic rights in 1918, limited by the policies of «War communism». «Green» peasant detachments fought with the bolsheviks until 1920. The moderation of peasant demands was a distinctive feature of the Pskov region from the black earth or industrially developed provinces. The peasantry fought for economic interests, not for political power. This specificity may be associated with the late penetration of capitalist relations into the countryside, with the low degree of industrial development in the province.
Keywords: Peasant revolution, peasant movement, peasantry, The Russian Revolution of 1905, The Russian Revolution of 1917, anti-bolshevik peasant movement, regional aspect

Zhukova N.A., Tikhomirov A.V. (St. Petersburg). Grand opening of the Leningrad House of the Red Army and Navy (on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of its opening on April 8, 1924)

lecturer at the Department of Humanities and Socio-Economic Disciplines of the Military Academy of Communications
194064, St. Petersburg, Tikhoretsky Prospekt, 3
e-mail: vas@mil.ru 

Artyom Valdekovich Tikhomirov
Sc. (History), Assistant Professor, Professor of Humanitarian and Socio-Economic Disciplines Department of Military Academy of Communications
194064, St. Petersburg, Tikhoretsky Prospekt, 3
e-mail: at1782@mail.ru

Abstract. For the first time in historiography, the article provides information about the organization in the period from 1917 to 1924 of Soviet central educational institutions for residents of Petrograd (Leningrad) and military personnel of the Petrograd (Leningrad) Military District in the building of the former Officers’ Assembly of the Army and Navy on Liteiny Prospekt: the Workers’ and Peasants’ Club, the House of the Workers’ and Peasants’ Army and the Leningrad House of the Red Army and Navy. 

The authors make an overview of the regulatory framework, materials of the periodicals, individual events of lectures and concert activities, the peculiarities of the organization at the beginning of 1918 in the House of the Workers’ and Peasants’ Army of the point of enlistment in the ranks of the Workers’ and Peasants’ Red Army. The preparatory stage for the arrangement of the premises of the building and the course of the grand opening of the Leningrad House of the Red Army and Navy on April 8, 1924 are considered in detail: the decision of the general meeting of the commanding, political and administrative staff, Red Army soldiers and navy sailors on the election of members of the Board and honorary members of the Council, the content of speeches by officials of the Leningrad Military District, professional and party organizations, representatives of cultural patrons, the arrangement of the memorial “Lenin room” and more.

The article provides information on the election in 1918 of the first Chairman of the Council of the House of the Workers’ and Peasants’ Army A. A. Lunacharsky, the election in 1924 of the Chairman of the Board of the Leningrad House of the Red Army and Navy N. M. Voronin, the head of the Leningrad House of the Red Army and Navy (Secretary of the Board) P. V. Yakobson, and also considers the main provisions of the first legal document – “Temporary Instructions on the Work of the House of Red Army” Army and Navy”.
Keywords: Petrograd, Leningrad, Officers’ Assembly of the Army and Navy, House of the Workers’ and Peasants’ Army, Leningrad House of the Red Army and Navy, House of Officers

Vartanyan Yu.T. (St. Petersburg). «An extremely unfavorable situation has been created for planned work…» TsGAVMF USSR during the days of the Leningrad blockade (1941 – 1944)

chief specialist of the department of organizational and methodological work
Russian State Archive of the Navy
191186, Millionnaya st., 36, St. Petersburg
e-mail: mail@rgavmf.ru

Abstract. The article, written using documents from the RGAVMF and other sources, is devoted to the work of the Central State Archive of the USSR Navy during the siege of Leningrad (1941 – 1944). With the outbreak of hostilities, the archivists were divided: some remained in Leningrad, the other went for evacuation to Chkalov. Despite the most difficult living and working conditions, the employees of the USSR Central State Naval Forces managed to ensure that the most important evidence of the history of the fleet was “well preserveFile” This was facilitated by the strict organization of work and high requirements for its quality, strict discipline. And all this was combined with concern for personnel, a desire to help those employees who needed help. In addition, the reception of new documents from active units of the fleet continued, a reading room operated, new scientific topics were developed, advanced training courses were conducted, and requests from government bodies, enterprises, scientific institutions and organizations were fulfilleFile At the same time, the archive staff had to solve many other issues: engage in patronage work in the hospital, participate in the work of the city economy.
Keywords: Great Patriotic war, Leningrad blockade, TsGAVMF USSR, evacuation, Archival department of the NKVD LO

Zdanovich A.A. (St. Petersburg). Targeted strikes against saboteurs (UKR “SMERSH” of the 1st Belorussian Front against Abwehrgruppe-205)

Doctor of Historical Sciences,
full member of the Academy of Military Sciences.
195220, St. Petersburg, Grazhdanskiy pr., 11, office 1N, lit. A
e-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article, based on published and archival documents, analyzes the activities of SMERSH counterintelligence officers of the 1st Belorussian Front in 1943-1944. The author emphasizes that during the period of preparation and conduct of the Red Army offensive, the activities of Abwehr saboteurs in Belarus significantly intensified. Soviet counterintelligence officers resisted enemy agents at a high professional level and often converted enemy agents, creating conditions for them to work in the interests of the USSR. The article provides numerous examples of the successful activities of SMERSH employees both in various Abwehr special schools and with individual enemy saboteurs. The author comes to the conclusion that Soviet counterintelligence officers played a significant role in the preparation and implementation of the successful activities of the Red Army for the liberation of Soviet Belarus.
Keywords: Great Patriotic War, SMERSH, 1st Belorussian Front, Abwehrgruppe-205, saboteurs

Grishina A.S. (Voronezh). A year before the Victory: combat operations of the troops of the 2nd Ukrainian Front north of Yassy (May 30 – June 8, 1944)

Ph.D. in Historical Sciences,
Applicant of the Department of History of Russia,
Voronezh State Pedagogical University.
394043, Russian Federation, Voronezh, ul. Leninа, 86.
E-mail: vspihist@rambler.ru

Abstract. The article provides a historical reconstruction of defensive, counter-offensive and offensive combat operations of the troops of the 2nd Ukrainian Front in the area of the Romanian city of Iasi at the end of May – beginning of June 1944. During March 28 – May 6, 1942 during the Uman-Botoshan offensive operation Soviet troops captured part of Zaprutskaya Moldova, which marked the beginning not only of the liberation of Romania from fascism, but also of the liberation mission of the Red Army in Europe in general. After the opposing sides went on the defensive, the German-Romanian command prepared a counterattack with the aim of pushing back the formations of the 52nd and 27th armies from Romanian territory beyond the Zhizhia and Prut rivers. During the ten-day battles from May 30 to June 8, 1944, the Romanian-German strike force was unable to achieve its goal and, at the cost of heavy losses, only slightly penetrated the Soviet defense. Soviet soldiers and officers showed numerous examples of courage and heroism and demonstrated high combat skill, while the Romanian troops acted uncertainly and indecisively, their fighting qualities were low, and their morale was depressed. Thus, already a year before the Victory, the superiority of the Red Army over the Nazi troops became obvious.
Keywords: Great Patriotic War, Romania, 2nd Ukrainian Front, Yassy

Avliev V.N. (Elista). The situation of special settlers, including Kalmyks, in the first half of the 50s XX century in the Omsk region and their political socialization

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Department of IRDA, Faculty of Humanities,
Kalmyk State University named after B. B. Gorodovikova,
Russian Federation, Elista, Pushkin st., 11
e-mail: bartolomeod@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article discusses issues related to the situation of special settlers in the Omsk region, including those of Kalmyk nationality. The sources of the work were mainly archival documents of the State Historical Archive of the Omsk Region. The chronological scope of the work is limited to the first half of the last century. It was very appropriate to use retrospective and hermeneutic research methods in the work. In general, we can say that in the first half of the 50s of last century, the situation of special settlers improved compared to the first years of deportation. The special settlers were conscientious about their work and mastered new professions (mainly technical ones). Moreover, official sources have repeatedly mentioned the hard work of special settlers, including those of Kalmyk nationality. Among the incentives for special settlers were cash bonuses, gratitude from directors of state farms, “attachment” to the honor board, and mention in wall newspapers. Let us note that the special settlers subscribed to newspapers and magazines, their houses were radio-equipped, some had poultry and livestock on their farms. Some of the special settlers were Komsomol members, agitators (chosen from among the literate), many visited the library and cinema. Speaking about living conditions, we note that on average, a family member of a special settler had approximately 10 square meters of area. Conversations were held among the special settlers and lectures were given to them. Special settlers were also involved in amateur artistic performances. A very important change in the life of the special settlers was that a number of them, thanks to party membership, were promoted to leadership positions in the party.
Keywords: special settlers, Kalmyks, agitation, labor, gratitude, mass political work, lectures

Koshkidko V.G., Nikitina A.A. (Moscow). Territorial organization of local self-government in the Rostov region in the 1990s

doctor of Historical Sciences, professor and head of the Regional and Municipal Administration Program, Department of Public Administration,
Lomonosov Moscow State University,
GSP-1, Leninskie Gory, Moscow, Russian Federation, 119991
e-mail: koshkidko@spa.msu.ru

postgraduate student, Department of Public Administration,
Lomonosov Moscow State University,
GSP-1, Leninskie Gory, Moscow, Russian Federation, 119991
e-mail: annanikitina.78@mail.ru

Abstract. This article focuses on the experience of the territorial organization of local self-government in the Rostov region at the stage of formation in the 1990s. The territorial organization of local self-government is one of the key elements that influence the legal regulation and practice of local self-government in a separate subject of the Russian Federation. The Federal Law of August 28, 1995 «On the General Principles of the Organization of Local Self-Government in the Russian Federation» linked the territory of a municipality with the presence of the population, elected bodies of local government, municipal property and the local budget. The territory plays an integrating role, uniting individual elements of local government into a single system. The features of the built model of local self-government, the types of municipalities, the list of issues of local importance resolved within their boundaries, and the features of the formation of local self-government bodies directly depend on the characteristics of the territory. The relevance of the study lies in the determining role of local government in the socio-economic development of Russia and its regions at the present stage. The study of various aspects of the organization of local self-government allows us to identify characteristic of the Rostov region and contribute to the history of the formation of public government institutions in Russia and contribute to their further improvement.
Keywords: local government, municipality, territorial basis, legal regulation, Rostov region

Milovidov B.P. (St. Petersburg). The role of the Committee of Ministers in regulating the situation of prisoners of war of Napoleon’s army in Russia in 1812-1815

Junior researcher at the Department of Modern History of Russia of the St. Petersburg Institute of History of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
Chief Specialist, Russian State Historical Archive (St. Petersburg).
195112, St. Petersburg, Zanevsky pr-t., 36
e-mail: milbp@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article considers the role of the Committee of Ministers of the Russian Empire in the formation of legislation on the prisoners of war of Napoleon’s army who found themselves in Russia in 1812-1815. The situation of prisoners of war in Russia in 1812 was determined by imperial decrees, orders and circular regulations of the Ministry of Police. However, the role of the Committee of Ministers in the formation of legislation has not been specifically studied yet. Meanwhile, the Committee played an important role in the preparation of regulations in those cases when coordination between different departments (the Ministry of Police, the Ministry of War, the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Internal Affairs) was required. The analysis of the journals of the Committee of Ministers conducted in this article allows us to deepen and substantially refine our perception of the mechanisms of formation of legislation on prisoners of war, trace its origins, and sometimes see the discussions that took place in government circles. In particular, the Committee of Ministers determined the procedure for the use of prisoners of war for work, their admission to Russian citizenship, repatriation of certain groups of prisoners (including Poles), regulated issues related to the punishment of prisoners of war for escape and other crimes, the right to dispose of real estate, additional payments for the purchase of clothing, etc.
Keywords: the Patriotic War of 1812, foreign prisoners of war, the Committee of Ministers, legal status of prisoners of war, S. K. Wjazmitinov

Li Dongxin (Moscow). Gifts to Empress Dowager Cixi from the Russian Imperial House at the Turn of the 19th–20th Centuries

Postgraduate Student,
Department of Russian History of the
Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries,
Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University.
Russian Federation, 119234, Moscow,
Lomonosovsky Prospekt, 27-4.
E-mail: lidongxin6@gmail.com

Abstract. The preparation of congratulatory telegrams and gifts to Empress Dowager Cixi on the occasion of anniversaries by the Russian imperial house, as well as the exchange of gifts between courts, is considered based on archival diplomatic documents. Formally, Cixi was not the ruler of China, but her role in governing the empire was very prominent. Taking into account her unique position in the power hierarchy of the Celestial Empire, the Russian diplomatic department was attentive to the preparation of festive celebrations and receptions. Personal congratulations to the Dowager Empress and the preparation of expensive gifts testified to the desire to maintain close and friendly relations between the states.
Keywords: Emperor Nicholas II, Empress Dowager Cixi, Russian Empire, Chinese Empire, Qing Dynasty, P.M. Lessard.