Klio #12 (204) 2023


Okhlopkova V.A. (Moscow). Charity as an Item of Expenditure of the Patriarchal Residence in the second half of the XVII century: historiographical aspect

Postgraduate Student, Department of Source Studies, Faculty of History,
Lomonosov Moscow State University
119991, Russian Federation, Moscow, Leninskie Gory Street, 1
e-mail: sasha.the.second@gmail.com 


Postgraduate student of the Department of History of the Middle Ages
Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov
119192, Moscow, Lomonosovsky prospect, 27, building 4
e-mail: kr.vaniy@mail.ru

Abstract. The article analyzes Genoese sources dating back to the reign of the second Crimean Khan Mengli Giray (1466-1515) and directly or indirectly mentioning and characterizing this ruler. Sources of Western origin provide us with the most informative and accurate information about the political processes in the Crimean Khanate at the early stage of its political history. The close proximity, as well as the regular political and economic interaction of Crimea with the Genoese of Caffa, led to numerous references to details of Crimean history in sources of Genoese origin: instructions from the central authorities to the consuls of Caffa, reports of consuls, accounting books of the massaria of Caffa, diplomatic and personal letters, court documents, etc. This work compares the Tatar-Genoese relations of the Mengli Giray era with the previous period – the era of the reign of his father Hadji Giray, based on these materials. The role of the Genoese and their relationship to the dynastic unrest in the Crimean Khanate of 1466-1469 is considered. By analyzing most of the currently published sources, the attitude and goal-setting of the Genoese authorities towards the Crimean Khan, the goals and mechanism of relations with him are explored.

Keywords: Crimean Khanate, Genoese Republic, Caffa, Mengli Giray, Ottoman Empire

Abstract. The article is dedicated to the problem of the need for a source study of the expenditure books of the Patriarchal Prikazes as a source on the history of patriarchal charity. The expenditure books for the second half of the 17th century, related to the Prikaz of the Patriarchal Treasury Department are considered to be the most representative in relation to this topic. The problem posed is considered on the historiographical material, presented primarily by pre-revolutionary and post-Soviet studies. The analyzed works of historians were systematically systematized: in order to study the main approaches in historical science to this issue, the history of the study of patriarchal charity in the second half of the 17th century and the history of the use in research of expenditure books created in the same period in the Patriarchal Prikazes were sequentially considered. The main trends in the study of patriarchal charity based on clerical expenditure books are identified, and possible prospects for source studies of this source are indicated. It is concluded that to date, not a single special source study has been published on the materials of the record keeping of the Moscow Patriarchal House in the second half of the 17th century, despite their significant information richness on various specific historical issues.
Keywords: Russian Church, Patriarchal Prikaz, Patriarchal Residence, Patriarchal Treasury Prikaz, expenditure books, income and expenditure books, charity, alms-giving

Gitsevich E.S. (Omsk). “Philological Review”. On the history of scientific periodicals of pre-revolutionary Russia

post-graduate student of Omsk State University named after F.M. Dostoevsky
644099, Omsk, st. Mira 55
Ministry of Culture of the Omsk Region
644099, Omsk, Gagarin, str. 22
e-mail: mkultomskgic@yandex.ru

Аbstract. This article is devoted to an overview of the fate of the first specialized scientific journal on the ancient world of pre-revolutionary Russia. “Philological Survey”, created by the efforts of private individuals, the teacher of the 3rd Moscow grammar school A.V. Adolf and the teacher of the 1st Moscow grammar school V.G. Appelrot, interested in the development of science, was published from 1891 to 1902 for eleven years, during which 21 issues were published. In the second half of the 19th century, there was a long-standing need in the scientific community for such a printed organ, and its creation became an important and significant event for science. The leading domestic experts in ancient history and classical philology of that time published their works on its pages, discussions were held, translations and original texts of ancient authors were printed there. Moreover, many major antique scholars helped with the maintenance of certain subsections of the journal free of charge. From the very beginning of its work, the editorial staff experienced great financial difficulties, which mostly the staff took on itself. Financial reports show that already in the first years of the publication of the “Philological Survey”, there was a large budget deficit. The reason for this, we believe, is the highly specialized nature of the publication, devoted to scientists, teachers and teachers of ancient history and classical philology, which in this period of time in pre-revolutionary Russia were still not enough to provide the journal with a marketability that could cover the costs of the publication. The state provided the Philological Survey with financial support in the form of annual subsidies, since the Ministry of Public Education understood the importance of the edition for the development of science. Such an assessment, made by the scientific committee of the Ministry, was recorded in archival documents and is beyond doubt. However, this support was not enough. The budget deficit continued to increase steadily from year to year. For this reason, and due to the deteriorating health of both editors, the journal closed. Nevertheless, it played an important role in the development of Russian antiquities.
Keywords: ancient studies, classical philology, institutionalization, scientific magazine, periodicals, the organization of science, pre-revolutionary Russia

Strebkova L.I. (Uzlovaya). Commemoration of the Battle of Kulikovo in historiography of the early 20th – 21st centuries

guide of the State Museum-Reserve “Kulikovo Field”.
301607, Russia, Tula region, Uzlovaya, st. Magistralnaya, 49, apt. 41.
e-mail: Larisauzl@mail.ru

Abstract. The article provides a historiographical overview of the commemoration of the Battle of Kulikovo. The historiography of the period of the early XX – XXI centuries is divided into three stages, the main directions of research within each of them are considered, the features and characteristic features of the authors’ approach to the topic of preserving the historical memory of the Battle of Kulikovo are highlighted. As part of the first stage (late 20th – 80s of the 20th century), the main directions of research into the commemoration of the Battle of Kulikovo were laid out – the study of the monuments of the Kulikovo Field, the reflection of the Battle of Kulikovo in popular memory and folklore. The historiography of the second period (1980 – 2000) is characterized by the attention of researchers to the study of forms of preserving the memory of the Battle of Kulikovo in the folk and peasant environment. As part of the third stage (2000 – present), one of the main directions is the study of images of the Battle of Kulikovo. At the beginning of the 21st century, a number of studies first raised the question of the transformation of images of the Battle of Kulikovo. An analysis of the literature shows the great interest of modern researchers in the problems of the formation and transformation of commemorative practices in preserving the memory of the Battle of Kulikovo in 1380.
Keywords: Battle of Kulikovo, historiography, commemoration, commemorative practices, memorialization, historical memory.


Okonova L.V. (Elista). Materials of the All-Russian Census of 1897 as a source for studying the economic composition of the population of the Kalmyk steppe of the Astrakhan province

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Russian History, Documentation and Archival Science
Kalmyk State University named after B.B. Gorodovikov,
358000, Republic of Kalmykia, Elista, st. Pushkina, 11
e-mail: okonova.lv@gmail.com

Abstract. The relevance of the study is determined by the fact that the population census of 1897 made it possible to obtain information about the demographic composition of the population of the Russian Empire, on the basis of which researchers are still conducting a comparative analysis of its socio-economic state. In this article, the author aims to study the economic composition of the population using the example of the Kalmyk steppe of the Astrakhan province. The main source for writing the article was the published materials of the First General Census of the Astrakhan Province. The author came to the conclusion that at the end of the 19th century, the main type of activity in the Kalmyk steppe was private farming, but state-owned farms were also registered, which indicates the processes of change in the economy of the region and its involvement in the orbit of the all-Russian market.
Keywords: History of Russia, demography, population census, Astrakhan province, Kalmyk steppe, Kalmyks, historical sources, economic composition, source analysis
Acknowledgments: The research was carried out through the implementation of the Russian Science Foundation project No. 23-18-20019 “Between East and West: civilizational and cultural development of Kalmyk society in pre-revolutionary Russia” (https://grant.rscf.ru/project/23-18 -20019/).


Ahssan R. (Syrian Arab Republic), Kudryavtseva T.V. (St. Petersburg). The naval battle at Cape Artemisium as presented by ancient authors and modern discussions

(Syrian Arab Republic)
candidate for a degree,
Herzen State Pedagogical University;
48 Nab. r. Moiki, St.-Petersburg, 191186,
e-mail: rasha.ahssan1992@gmail.com 

Doctor in History, Professor,
Head of the Department of World History,
Herzen State Pedagogical University;
191186, St.-Petersburg, 48 Nab. r. Moiki,
e-mail: tvkudryavtseva@herzen.spb.ru 

Abstract. The article analyzes information from ancient Greek sources about the course of the naval battle at Cape Artemisium, which took place simultaneously with the Battle of Thermopylae; based on this information, the course of events is reconstructed. Discussions in historiography on problems related to this plot are also explored: the number of Persian and Greek fleets, the balance of forces; the chronology of the battle; the role of Themistocles and the reliability of the story of his bribery of Eurybiades and other commanders; tactics used by the Greeks and Persians; different opinions about the results of the Artemisium battle, which exist in the ancient tradition and among modern researchers. The conclusion is made about the success of the Greek tactics: to keep enemy ships at a distance not allowing them to get closer and conduct the usual boarding battle, while effectively using the ram of their triers. Although the Greeks were unable to win at Artemisium, the Persians were not victorious either. In this battle, the tactics of fighting in a narrow strait were also tested, depriving the Persian triremes of operational space, which was used by the Greeks in the next naval battle. We can say that the Artemisium was a dress rehearsal for the battle of Salamis Island.
Keywords: Greco-Persian Wars, fleet, battle, Artemisium, Herodotus, Themistocles

Kosheleva P.Yu. (Moscow). Thomas Scott’s “Vox populi” pamphlets as a means of anti-Spanish propaganda in England at the beginning of the XVII century

postgraduate student of the Department of History of the Middle Ages
Faculty of History, Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov,
119192, Moscow, Lomonosovsky Prospekt, 27, bldg. 4
e-mail: biyanova.polina@yandex.ru

Abstract. Anti-Spanish propaganda was widely spread in England at the beginning of the XVII century. Spain was perceived as a historical enemy. There were lots of works criticizing the peacemaking pro-Spanish policy of James I. Protestant preacher Thomas Scott published a series of pamphlets “Vox populi” (“The Voice of the People”), in which he posed the problem of the increasing influence of Spain in England and throughout Europe. This article analyzes the arguments, which support the main Scott´s thesis related to exposing the aspirations of the Spanish Habsburgs to create a universal monarchy. Through this article, the importance of these pamphlets in the development of anti-Spanish sentiments in England is revealed. Thomas Scott creates a sense of the reality with the help of imaginary dialogues between real personalities who are truly involved in the government of Spain. In the process of research, it becomes clear that because of an unusual way of presenting his thoughts in the form of “current news from Spain”, Thomas Scott managed to broadcast the anti-Spanish opinion of the British regarding the policy of James. The author drew the attention of the king to the discontent of society, strengthened anti-Spanish sentiments, explained the unsuccessful marriage of Prince Charles and Infanta Maria and made a great contribution to the formation of the “black legend” about the Spaniards.
Keywords: Thomas Scott, pamphlets, anti-Spanish propaganda, Gondomar, James I, Prince Charles, English Catholics, Universal monarchy.

Temchuk E.I. (St. Petersburg). Economic development of the «regions of Turkey occupied by the right of war» 1914-1916

Applicant for a candidate of an academic degree
Military University of the Ministry of Defense
e-mail: Evgeny.temchuk@yandex.ru

Abstract. The topic of the article touches upon a set of measures taken by the military-civil administration of the Russian Empire, within the framework of the policy of the tsarist government on the economic development and development of the Ottoman regions (vilayets) that were occupied by Russian troops during the fighting on the Caucasian Front of the First World War. In his research, the author aims to provide comprehensive coverage of the little-known economic aspect of Russian politics in the territory of Turkey conquered in 1914-1916. In particular, as examples, the publication examines such areas of activity of the occupation authorities as the development of natural resources of Eastern Anatolia, the creation of modern infrastructure facilities there, the establishment of trade relations of the province with its new metropolis and agricultural colonization of vacant land spaces, as well as an attempt to objectively assess the scale, the final results and the overall significance of this work for national the interests of our state in the Transcaucasian-Asian region from the Black Sea to the Persian border.
The material provided is based on quotations and normative legal acts of direct participants of the events with links to primary sources and representative research literature on the designated topic.
Keywords: The First World War, the Russian Empire, the general government of the regions of Turkey, the Caucasian Army, civil-military administration, colonization

Kiresheev N.I. (Moscow). Preparation of reserves for the Red Army in the All-Training (Vsevobuch) system in the Kyrgyz SSR during the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945)

of Research Institute (military history)
of the Military Academy of the General Staff.
Russia, 119330, Moscow, Universitetsky Prospect, 14.
е-mail: nisabekoff@yandex.com

Abstract. The first months of fierce fighting at the front between the Soviet Union and Germany shed light on the fact that the war would be long, harsh and would require a large number of experienced and combat-ready fighters. During the hardest trials of the Great Patriotic War, when the Soviet state was facing the question of life and death, the military and political leadership of the USSR decided to turn to its rich and proven experience in preparing massive military reserves during the civil war. One of the ways to strengthen the combat capability of the army was the introduction of compulsory universal military training (hereinafter Vsevobuch) for the population of the USSR. Vsevobuch played a huge role in strengthening the armed forces of the USSR and in the outcome of victory in the military struggle during the war.
This article examines the organizational measures carried out by the leadership of the Kyrgyz SSR during the Great Patriotic War, concerning the issues of military training of citizens of the republic within the framework of the All-Training. The quality of the e is analyzed.
Keywords: Universal military training, military affairs, military training, party organizations, military commissariats, military training centers

Pukhovskaya N.E. (Rostov-on-Don). Nazi concentration camps – a system of violence, terror and genocide

Candidate of History,
Associate Professor,
Southern Federal University,
St. Pushkinskaya 140
Rostov-on-Don, Russia,
e-mail: nepuhovskaya@sfedu.ru

Abstract. The article is based on declassified archival documents, which contain statistical information revealing the facts of the formation of the punitive system. Nazi Germany implemented an extensive network of concentration camp infrastructure, as well as methods of extermination on an unprecedented scale. Of particular research interest are the transcripts of the Nuremberg trials, as well as witness statements and memoirs of prisoners and eyewitnesses, which allow us to study the daily life of the concentration camp. The sources make it possible to imagine the life of the concentration camp without retouching, which, on the one hand, gives a shocking picture of Nazi atrocities, but on the other, allows us to impartially consider not only the facts of genocide, but also the sophistication of methods of detention and extermination of prisoners. The problem of genocide and violence in Nazi concentration camps remains relevant not only in the academic sphere, but also in socio-political discourse, since it allows us to recreate historical justice, debunk myths and stereotypes fabricated by apologists and popularizers of Nazism, based on falsification of history.
Keywords: concentration camp, SS, Third Reich, Auschwitz, Dachau, Buchenwald, Dora, Ravensbrück, prisoners, barracks, death, forced labor, medical experiments

Petrova S.I., Prilepsky V.V. (Krasnodar). Modernization as a feature of the modern political and historical process

Candidate of Cultural Studies, Associate Professor
Academy of Marketing and Social Information Technologies IMSIT
350010, Krasnodar, st. Zipovskaya, 5.
e-mail: Sofya8888@yandex.ru 

Candidate of Political Sciences, Associate Professor
Academy of Marketing and Social Information Technologies IMSIT
350010, Krasnodar, st. Zipovskaya, 5.
e-mail: v.prilepsky@yandex.ru

Abstract. Modernization is a long-term historical process of change that follows industrialized countries and extends to the semi-periphery of the world. In the modern historical period, there are special social systems in the social structure that are conductors of economic, political, social and cultural modernization. The article shows that political modernization is a long process and during this historical period society is in a special qualitative state of instability and crisis. The socio-historical consequences of the world’s modernization processes can be summarized as follows: each of them led to a strong and exponential increase in human productivity in a relatively short period of time (compared to previous periods of socio-historical development); the division of labor deepened significantly, many new modern professions appeared and, as a result, the population moved en masse from traditional industries to new branches of production; all this led to a noticeable increase in the material well-being of society; Thanks to technological innovation, many activities that were previously considered useless and wasteful have become more productive and meaningful; these modernization revolutions have significantly affected the way people live.
Keywords: modernization, process, sphere, history, politics, society, crisis

Khrishkevich T.G. (Pskov). The migration crisis of 2014-2016 in the European Union as an “existential” threat to the Baltic States

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor
Pskov State University,
senior researcher at the Center for Comprehensive
studying regional security problems
180006, Pskov, st. L. Pozemsky, 6
e-mail: faschoda@mail.ru

Abstract. The article is devoted to the analysis of the main reasons for the refusal of the Baltic states to implement the European program “Migration Agenda 2015” during the migration crisis of 2014-2015. The concerns of the Baltic States were caused by so-called “existential” reasons related to the problems of border security with the Russian Federation; insufficient internal funding and support from the European Union; infrastructural weakness; the distributed number of refugees according to the quota of the European Commission. As a result, it is concluded that the idea of the migration situation in the Baltic States in 2014-2015 as a crisis is incorrect. It has not created existential threats to the Baltic States. It did not lead to an increase in instability, did not contribute in the medium and long term to social division, national or confessional disharmony, did not cause a rapid growth of Euroscepticism. The refugees have not worsened the economic situation. The reasons for agreeing to implement the quota system were linked to the fear of loss of confidence on the part of the governing bodies of the European Union.
The threat of economic sanctions proposed by Italy against those countries that do not fulfill their obligations played a role.
Keywords: Migration crisis, migration, refugees, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Baltic countries, quotas.


Karimov R.T. (Kazan). Votchinnik of the village of Tlyakeevo and Gareyskaya land volost (first quarter of the 18th – mid 19th centuries)

applicant, head of the scientific and organizational department of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan
420111, Kazan, st. Bauman, 20
e-mail: ruzalkarimov@gmail.com

Abstract. The article examines the issue of the emergence and development of the village of Tlyakeevo, Garey land volost, Menzelinsky uyezd. This topic is relevant, first of all, due to the fact that in the same volost there was another village with a similar name (Telekeevo village, Birsky district) and when studying the sources of the 18th century. it is important to correctly determine their territorial affiliation. The anthroponymic origin of the name of the village is noted. Leasing fishing grounds to Russian peasants was one of the sources of income for the patrimonial people of both the village of Tlyakeevo and the Garey volost as a whole. The votchinniki of the Garey volost took part in the Polish campaign (1771–1773), we have established the names of 2 Tlyakeevites who took part in the campaign. In general, studying the history of the village allows us to touch on various issues of the Tatar land volost. Based on the materials of the revision tales of 1816 and 1834, information is provided on the number of votchinnik in the villages of 2 uyezds, now included in the Aktanysh raions of the RT, Ilishevsky and Krasnokamsk raions of the RB.
Keywords: votchinniki, Garey land volost, Polish campaign (1771–1773), tatars of the bashkir class, Tlyakeevo.

Sosin M.A. (Yakutsk). From communicative experience in the activities of bakery stores in the Olekminsky district of the Yakut region (early 19th century)

Institute for Humanitarian Studies and Problems of Small Populations
peoples of the North SB RAS, junior researcher, history department
677027, Russia, Yakutsk, st. Petrovsky, 1
е-mail: msosin87@mail.ru 

Abstract. This article examines the communicative aspects underlying the functioning of the system of spare bread stores in the Olekminsky district of the Yakut region in the first half of the 19th century. The focus is on the complex network of relationships between officials of various ranks, traders and local residents that were key to the successful operation of this early form of social entrepreneurship. The article highlights the historical context of food security problems in the Olekminsky district of the Yakut region and examines how the system of spare stores acted as a solution to these problems. Particular attention is paid to the role of officials in managing the system, the complex contractual relationships with traders, and the significant contribution of local residents through grain donations. The article emphasizes the importance of communication, demonstrating how contracts, delivery reports, and official correspondence contributed to the efficient functioning of the system. Analysis of these interactions reveals the system’s influence on social stability and intercultural relations in the region, providing valuable insights into early practices of community resource management and social responsibility.
Keywords: Yakut region, Olekminsky district, system of spare bread stores, communication practices, interaction, written communication, orders, information chain, food security

Zhilkibaeva R.R. (Yelabuga). Status symbols of the teacher profession in pre-revolutionary Russia

Ph.D. in History, Senior Lecturer, Department of General and Russian History, Yelabuga Institute of Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University
423600, Russian Federation, Yelabuga, Kazanskaya St., 89
e-mail: RRSajfullova@kpfu.ru

Abstract. This article examines the subjective characteristics of the socio-professional status of teachers, which include status symbols and elements of the status image, the prestige of the profession, and status self-identification. Status symbols are external insignia that allow one to distinguish between representatives of different statuses. Status symbols of teaching include appearance, including a particular dress, hairstyle, professional paraphernalia, etc. Thanks to status symbols, a status image, or image, is formed, which is a unique program of social behavior of people and their associations, enshrined in images, symbols and norms. In the course of analyzing various sources, the author comes to the conclusion that status symbols and the image of the pre-revolutionary teacher made it possible to distinguish teachers from representatives of other professions and occupations. Teachers were distinguished not only by their type of activity, but also by their external professional traits, social circle, book culture, social and cultural practices, and participation in various events, including professional ones.
Keywords: status symbol, status image, teacher, Russian Empire

Lavrenov S.Ya., Polyansky M.S., Okorokov A.V. (Moscow). The Battle of the Dnieper and its main military-political results

Leading Researcher
at the Scientific Research Center for Fundamental
Military-Historical Problems
Military University of the Ministry
Defense of the Russian Federation,
Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor,
Advisor to RARAN
125047, Moscow, Bolshaya Sadovaya str., 14.
e-mail: lavrs@yandex.ru

Chief Researcher
 Center for Fundamental Military Historical Research
Problems of the Military University of the Ministry
Defense of the Russian Federation,
Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences, Professor
125047, Moscow, Bolshaya Sadovaya str., 14.
e-mail: m-s-pol@yandex.ru

Deputy Director of the All-Russian Research Institute
Cultural and Natural Heritage Name
named after D.S. Likhachev for R&D
Doctor of Historical Sciences
129366, Moscow, Kosmonavtov Str., 2
e-mail: avokor@yandex.ru Ham

Abstract. In 1943, during the Battle of the Dnieper, a radical turning point in the course of the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945 and the Great Patriotic War as a whole was completed. 80 years ago, the largest battle in the war with Nazi Germany took place in terms of the number of combatants on both sides. The article discusses the peculiarities of the Red Army’s actions to liberate Donbass and Left-Bank Ukraine, which became possible after the defeat of the German troops at the Kursk salient. The achievements of the art of war, which allowed the Soviet troops to achieve success in fierce battles in the battle for the Dnieper, are shown. An attempt has been made to draw historical parallels between the events of the Great Patriotic War and the ongoing special military operation in Ukraine.
Keywords: Supreme Command Headquarters, Eastern Wall, Mius Offensive Operation, Izyum-Barvinkovo Offensive Operation, Strategic Offensive Operations, Dnieper and Kiev, Army Group South, Tehran Conference

Berednikova V.E. (St. Petersburg). “Let’s restore our homes!”: the state of Leningrad’s housing stock at the end of the Great Patriotic War

St. Petersburg State University, Associate Researcher
St. Petersburg Institute of History of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Junior Researcher
Russia, St. Petersburg, 7–9, Universitetskaya nab., 199034
Russia, St. Petersburg, 7, Petrozavodskaya str., 197110
e-mail: berednikova3@bk.ru

Abstract. The article is devoted to the study of the search for means of restoring the housing stock of Leningrad in 1946. Adoption for 1946-1950. The plan for the restoration and development of Leningrad as the most important industrial center set new tasks for the city leadership. To fully restore the work of industry in Leningrad, the speedy return of enterprise employees was required. The ongoing re-evacuation and opening of the city of Leningrad in the summer of 1946 significantly increased the influx of population in need of housing. The housing stock destroyed during the war and blockade could not be restored in a short time. The leadership of Leningrad applied and developed a number of unique practices – organizing the work of public commissions to promote the restoration and operation of households, created for the first time in the country in 1945, transferring residential buildings for restoration to industrial enterprises on a leasehold basis. The article analyzes the means, results and effectiveness of the policies pursued by the Leningrad authorities.
Keywords: Great Patriotic War, siege of Leningrad, housing, urban management, housing policy, housing restoration.

Shtatskaya A.M. (Pskov). Educational trajectories of the first post-war applicants to the Pskov State Pedagogical Institute (1945–1949)

First year graduate student,
Assistant of the Department of Russian and World History,
Junior research fellow,
Pskov State University
180000, Russian Federation, Pskov, Lenina sq., 2
e-mail: a.shtatskaya@pskgu.ru

Abstract. Based on materials from the personal files of the first post-war applicants to the Pskov State Pedagogical Institute in 1945–1949, the author of the article provides an overview of the educational trajectories of youth in the 1940s. and its motivations in the war and post-war situation, describes the conditions in which the educational process took place, as well as the scale of educational migration to the USSR in the post-war period. Documents from student personal files, which have not previously been introduced into scientific circulation, provide ample opportunities for studying these processes, including through the use of prosopographic research methods. These documents contain a large amount of socio-demographic data, biographical information about applicants, including information about the education received before entering the Pskov Pedagogical Institute, a description of the life circumstances accompanying the acquisition of education, and the motivations that brought applicants to the Pskov Pedagogical Institute. All this clearly characterizes the life of post-war youth and the activities of secondary and higher educational institutions during this difficult period.
Keywords: students’ personal files, post-war applicants, Pskov State Pedagogical Institute, history of education in the USSR, educational trajectories

Trukhin M.A. (Barnaul). Documentary audit as one of the forms of control over the financial activities of law enforcement agencies in Western Siberia in the 50s of the XX century

Director of the Altai Institute of Economics
St. Petersburg University of Technology Management and Economics Candidate of Law, Associate Professor
656011, Barnaul, 106e Lenin Ave., Russia
e-mail: trukhin1975@bk.ru

Abstract. Versatile control over the activities of law enforcement agencies in Russia began to be carried out in the pre-revolutionary period. A new impetus in the development of this area was received during the Soviet period, with the formation of the NKVD of the USSR in 1934, where regular documentary audits of monetary and material values began in 1936. One of the current forms of monitoring compliance with the rule of law in the financial sector was a documentary audit carried out in departments located in Western Siberia in the 50s of the 20th century. The auditors checked the staffing structure for its occupancy, the efficiency of the accounting department, the documented presence of material assets, payments and disbursements made, the degree of utilization of funds received, etc. A special place in the inspections was given to children’s organizations subordinate to the Ministry of Internal Affairs. Intradepartmental control was carried out both planned and unexpectedly. The main reasons for the violation of socialist legality in this area were the human factor, namely, insufficiently good personnel selection of workers who had access to material assets and the self-elimination of a number of heads of structural divisions. The identified shortcomings made it possible to reduce state damage, increase financial discipline and literacy among law enforcement officers.
Keywords: Documentary audit, control, law enforcement agencies, finance, shortcomings, Western Siberia

Koshkidko V.G., Livshin A.Ya., Soloviev K.A. (Moscow). The event as a structural element of the Russian policy of historical memory (1st half of the 20th century)

PhD, Professor, Head
Department of Regional and Municipal Administration
Faculty of Public Administration
Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov
119991, Moscow, Leninskie Gory, no. 1
e-mail: Koshkidko@spa.msu.ru

PhD, Professor of the Department of History
state and municipal administration
Faculty of Public Administration
Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov
119991, Moscow, Leninskie Gory, no. 1
e-mail: Livshin@spa.msu.ru

PhD, Professor of the Department of History
state and municipal administration
Faculty of Public Administration
Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov
119991, Moscow, Leninskie Gory, no. 1
e-mail: ksoloviov@spa.msu.ru

Abstract. The historical memory policy is one of the most effective ways to mobilize the society, creating the effect of unity within both specific ethnic groups and the entire “civil nation”. The research goal of this article is to identify individual strategies of historical memory that were used by the Russian state at different stages of its existence in the twentieth century. To reach this goal, a descriptive-typological method is used, within which a particular strategy of historical policy receives a description and interpretation based on the state paradigm in which it was developed and on how the interpretation of past and contemporary events is formed in it. The conclusions of this article present elements of the typology of the historical policy pursued by the Russian state, highlighting the “strategy of archaization”, “strategy of denial”, “strategy of revelation” and “strategy of rediscovery”.
Keywords: history of Russia, twentieth century, historical politics, historical memory, politics of memory, imperial manifestos, Nicholas II, NEP, mass events, political holidays

Kushkhov A.Kh. (Moscow). Transformation of the sociocultural characteristics of the top leadership of the CPSU during the period of “perestroika” (1985 – 1991)

graduate student of the chair of history of political parties and social movements
Faculty of History
Moscow State University
119234, Russia, Moscow, Leninskiye gory, corp. 1
e-mail: P602F@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article reviews the transformation process of sociocultural characteristics (age, background, education) of the highest leadership of the CPSU, represented by the Politburo and CK Secretariat. The complex of reasons that influenced radical change of sociocultural image of the highest political leadership of the CPSU, including change of social structure of the soviet society, the party’s objective need for the rejuvenation of its leaders and Gorbachev’s personal pursuit to form his own team. Due to the reconfiguration of power structures and diminution of the CPSU’s role in the political system in the Soviet Union, rotation of the highest leadership of the party turned into chaotic process that reflected disintegration of the party.
Keywords: CPSU, Perestroika, M. S. Gorbachev, highest leadership of the CPSU, 27th Congress of the CPSU, 28th Congress of the CPSU, The April plenary session 1985

Solomakha E.N., Starikova N.V., Shurshikova A.V. (Nizhny Novgorod). Formation of historical consciousness and patriotic education of youth

Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor of the Department of History of Russia and auxiliary historical disciplines Minin State Pedagogical University of Nizhny Novgorod
603005, Russia, Nizhny Novgorod, Minin Square, 7
e-mail: elenasolomakha@yandex.ru

Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Department of History of Russia and auxiliary historical disciplines Minin State Pedagogical University of Nizhny Novgorod
603005, Russia, Nizhny Novgorod, Minin Square, 7,
e-mail: ninast78@yandex.ru

Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Department of History of Russia and auxiliary historical disciplines Minin State Pedagogical University of Nizhny Novgorod
603005, Russia, Nizhny Novgorod, Minin Square, 7,
e-mail: @yandex.ru

Abstract. The article touches upon the problem of forming the historical consciousness of young people in modern social conditions, as well as the issue of transforming historical consciousness under the influence of modern social conditions and political factors. Definitions of the term “historical consciousness” are proposed, and emphasis is placed on the significance of the phenomenon itself – the formation of historical consciousness. The authors draw attention to the works available at the present stage devoted to the consideration of the term “historical consciousness”, the range of issues around it, i.e. offers some historiographical overview and analysis. The structure of historical consciousness and its features, the importance of historiography in the formation of historical consciousness are considered. In the article, the authors also draw attention to the undying interest in the subject of the Great Patriotic War. History is the public memory of humanity, its self-knowledge and self-awareness. The development of historical consciousness has led to the belief that the past gives birth to the present, and the present prepares the future. One of the most important and difficult tasks is the development of the historical consciousness of young people. The process of developing historical consciousness and nurturing patriotic feelings can best be carried out on the theme of the Great Patriotic War. The article also talks about the influence of such research on the formation of the historical consciousness of students, and the role of such topics in the patriotic education of youth.
Keywords: historical consciousness, historical truth, historical memory, the principle of historicism, historical myth, education system, teaching in higher education, history of the Great Patriotic War, patriotic education


Vyalykh P.V. (St. Petersburg). Ryangins – hereditary honorary citizens of St. Petersburg

candidate for the degree of candidate of historical sciences
St. Petersburg Bar Association “Triumph”
191186, St. Petersburg, st. Malaya Morskaya, 11
e-mail: Vyalder@gmail.com

Abstract. The article presents a historical excursion about the honorary citizens of St. Petersburg. The author applies a comparative analysis of the relationship between historical events and the processes of formation of professional self-determination of the Ryangins. An assessment of the specifics of the activities of honorary citizens as a privileged category of “urban inhabitants” is presented using the example of the Ryangin merchant family. The article provides the results of a comparative historical analysis of trends in the movement of class groups in the conditions of urban development at the end of the 19th century, identifying the relationship between charitable activities and the development of Russian genre painting. An analysis of the formation of the initial stage of formation of the category of “urban inhabitants” is presented in the context of methodological approaches to the history of everyday life. The materials were collected based on the results of the study of archival documents and domestic historiography. Most of the materials are part of the author’s archive, consistently collected over 8 years and presented on a personal blog.
Keywords: history of everyday life, methodology of everyday life, history of charity, Ryangins, “urban inhabitants”, classes, urban culture, St. Petersburg

Skurlov V.V. (St. Petersburg). Suppliers of His Majesty’s Court, jewelers father and son Kehli are contemporaries of Carl Faberge

doctor of art history, expert of the Ministry of culture of the Russian Federation, scientific Secretary of the Memorial Fund Faberge (Saint Petersburg). 199406 Russia, St. Petersburg, Nalichnaya street, 37-3-47
e-mail: valentinskurlov@mail.ru

Abstract. The article discusses and clarifies some aspects of the biography and interaction with the Cabinet of His Majesty the supplier of the Highest Court and appraiser of the Cabinet of St. Petersburg jewelers Friedrich Ivanovich Kehli (1838 – 1905) and his son and partner Friedrich Friedrichovich Kehli (1870 – 1911). In the literature, the surname is still spelled incorrectly as Kehli, but the correct use of it is as Kehli (Koechly). The main milestones of the biographies of the father and son of Kehli have been clarified, the dates of receipt by jewelers of honorary titles of Suppliers of the Imperial Court and Grand Ducal courts and the legality of using these titles in the company’s logo have been clarified. For the first time, information about the company’s deliveries to Empress Maria Feodorovna is given and a selection of the most important orders executed by the company for His Majesty’s Cabinet from 1890 to 1910 is made.
Keywords: Suppliers of the Highest Court, court jewelers, Friedrich Ivanovich and Theodor Friedrichovich Kehli, appraiser of His Majesty’s Cabinet

Sergeev A.V. (St. Petersburg). Testament of Prince Roman Gagarin

PhD in History, Institute of Industrial Safety, Labor Protection and Social Partnership, Head of Department,
190098, Russia, St. Petersburg, Konnogvardeisky Boulevard, 19,
e-mail: sergeev1967@inbox.ru

Abstract. The article provides biographical information about Prince Roman Ivanovich Gagarin, who left a testament (spiritual letter) that has survived to our time. This document was preserved in the Recorded Patrimony Book of the Pomestnyy prikaz and had not previously been published. The text of the manuscript is given in the appendix to the article. In addition to the biography of Prince Roman himself, the fate of his close relatives, the participation of the Gagarins in the political processes of the last decades of the 16th – the first third of the 17th centuries, and changes in the social status of this family are considered. In the testament of Prince R.I. Gagarin talks about the patrimonial estates that belonged to him, but the estates are not mentioned. This fact indicates a significant difference between the estate and patrimonial forms of land ownership, and also confirms the prevalence of the practice of one man owning both estates and patrimonial estates. The testament contains details of biographies unknown from other sources, information about the level of well-being of the Gagarin princes and princesses, and intra-family conflicts.

Keywords: testament, land ownership, princes, princesses, service, estate, patrimony.


Zotova A.V., Poltorak S.N. (St. Petersburg). Activities of customs and border services in the post-Soviet states

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the Faculty of International Relations,
St. Petersburg State University.
199034, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya nab., 7-9.
e-mail: anastasiyazotova@mail.ru

Dr. Sc. (Historical), Professor
Professor of Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University
195251, Russia, St. Petersburg, Politekhnicheskaya st., 29
е-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru

Abstract. Based on the analysis of modern documents, the article examines the state of customs interaction between states within the post-Soviet borderland. The dynamics of both bilateral and multilateral relations between states, former union republics of the USSR, and now independent state entities are traced. The process of formation of the customs structure in the post-Soviet space, the methods of their interaction and the frequency of mutual communication are examined in detail. In the article, the authors analyze the efficiency of the customs services of states in the post-Soviet space, the degree of mutual trust of these structures. Based on the presented statistical data, conclusions are drawn about the results of practical work. Information is provided that goes beyond the scope of purely working contacts: in particular, it reports on the training of future customs officers of a number of states at the Russian Customs Academy under the Federal Customs Service. The authors conclude that the borderlands reflect the true state of relations between states, warning the parties both about mistakes in interaction and about the correctness of the chosen path of bilateral relations. The first part of this article was published in Klio No. 9(201), 2023, pp. 193-206 under the title “Borders of the Post-Soviet Space: History and Current Problems of Management.”
Keywords: Post-Soviet space, border, bilateral relations, border management, customs.