Klio #02 (206) 2024


Ilchenko M.A. (Samara). The materials on the interrogations of Admiral A.V. Kolchak by the Extraordinary Commission of Inquiry in the period from January 21 to February 6, 1920 are a unique historical source. From the history of the process of introducing it into scientific circulation (in lapidary lighting)

Assistant at the Department of Philosophy
The Volga State University of
Telecommunications and Informatics,
443010, Samara, L. Tolstoy, no. 23
e-mail strays885@yandex.ru

Abstract. This article lapidarily examines the history and course of the introduction into scientific circulation of such a well–known and unique historical source as materials on the interrogations by the Extraordinary Commission of Inquiry in early 1920 of a Russian military and political figure, the Supreme Ruler of Russia during the Civil War – Admiral A.V. Kolchak. During the interrogations, Alexander Vasilyevich described in detail the details of his biography and the facts about the historical events in which he was a participant. The complex of the Admiral’s testimony, recorded in transcripts and protocols, has been repeatedly published over the course of its century-long existence. The aim of the author was to summarize the characteristics and assessments of published copies of this historical and legal document. Special attention is paid to their archaeographic processing according to the standards of classical historical source studies.
Keywords: A.V. Kolchak, The Civil War in Russia, the investigative case of Admiral A.V. Kolchak, a historical source, The Extraordinary Commission of Inquiry, protocols and transcripts of interrogations, publication of materials

Seropegin A.M. (Moscow). Changes in the Management of the Russian Foreign Ministry in 1895: The Coverage in the Liberal and Conservative Press

Applicant for a Degree of Candidate of Historical Sciences,
Department of Russian History of the
Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries,
Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University.
27-4, Lomonosovsky Prospekt, Moscow,
Russian Federation, 119234.
E-mail: seropegin.msu@gmail.com

Abstract. The article deals with the information policy of the leading conservative and liberal periodicals on the coverage of the changes in the management of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Empire in 1895 (the death of N.K. Girs and the appointment of Prince A.B. Lobanov-Rostovsky). Historiography has not examined this story through the prism of journalism. The information policy of the leading periodicals on the coverage of the personnel decisions of Nicholas II in the initial years of his reign has not become an object of study. The strengthening of censorship in the 1880s–1890s had a negative impact on the opportunities of the press to freely cover internal political life. This led to an increased interest in events related to foreign policy and foreign news in general. When covering stories related to changes in the management of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, this tendency was most clearly manifested in conservative publications. It is worth noting that there were no serious contradictions between various periodicals on the direction of Russia’s foreign policy: the majority expressed support for the continued Russian-French rapprochement and a “peace-loving” foreign policy. The contradictions manifested themselves in private issues, emphases and interpretations.
Keywords: Russian Foreign Ministry, N.K. Girs, A.B. Lobanov-Rostovsky, “Moskovskie Vedomosti”, “Grazhdanin”, “Novoe Vremya”, “Birzhevye Vedomosti”, “Russkie Vedomosti”, “Vestnik Evropy”


Platonova N.M., Verikov V.V. (Khabarovsk). The National System of public Order protection bodies of the Far Eastern Territory: a historiographical review of the problem

Doctor of Historical Sciences,
Associate Professor, Professor of the Department
of Theory and History of State and Law of the
Far Eastern State University of Railway Engineering
Russian Federation, 680021, Khabarovsk
Serysheva, 47
e-mail: platonova_nonna@mail.ru

Candidate of the Department
of Theory and History of State and Law of the
Far Eastern State University of Railway Engineering
Russian Federation, 680021, Khabarovsk
Serysheva, 47
e-mail: verikov@mail.ru

Abstract. The article presents a historiographical overview of the problem associated with the formation and formation of the national system of public order protection bodies in the Far Eastern territory from 1922 to the 2000s. It is noted that at various stages the research interest of the scientific community in the topic was ambiguous, sometimes practically disappearing from the field of view of scientists, then resuming and being supplemented by new directions (the history of the judicial authorities of the Far Eastern region, the fight against criminal and transnational crime, drug trafficking, etc.). In many ways it depended on socio-economic and political conditions, peculiarities of the development of Soviet/Russian society and the state. The authors consistently and step-by-step reveal the subject of publications, taking into account the contribution and importance of regional historiography. It is emphasized that at the early Soviet stage in the legal sphere, the works of economists were predictive for the Far Eastern territory. Special mention is made of modern publications dedicated to the issues of countering the falsification of national history, revealing the activities of law enforcement agencies in the post-war reconstruction period. A review of scientific works of the Soviet and modern periods gives reason to summarize: Russian historiography has accumulated extensive experience in studying the national system of public order protection bodies in the Soviet/Russian Far East. Nevertheless, it must be stated that the topic still needs further development and study from new conceptual and methodological approaches, taking into account declassified archival documents and achievements of Russian and regional historiography.
Keywords: public order system, Far Eastern territory, police, antisocial crimes, criminal situation, national historiography


Mudrova N.P. (Maykop). Experience of using discourse analysis in work with oral (folklore) sources of the North Caucasian peoples

Candidate of Historical Sciences,
 Associate Professor of the National History,
Historiography, Theory and Methodology of History Department
FSBEI HE “Adyghe State University”
the Adyghe Republic, Maykop, Komsomolskaya Street, 228, Apartment 8.
the Adyghe Republic, Maykop, Pervomaiskaya Street, 208. 385000
e-mail: mudrowa-nataliya@mail.ru

Abstract. Nowadays constant changes in historical science, connected with new methodological techniques, are taking place while working with historical sources. The paper attempts to apply the interdisciplinary method of discourse analysis. It is connected with oral (folklore) sources of North Caucasian peoples until the 19th century. They preserved the memory of the past in a special codified form. The interdisciplinary method of discourse analysis, when working with oral (folklore) sources, allows us to consider them from a historical and linguistic point of view. This method has broader functionality. It allows determining the ideological component of the social reality of North Caucasian society in a certain historical period. Moreover, it lets to talk about the emergence of historical memory.
Keywords: oral (folklore) sources, North Caucasian peoples, discourse analysis, method, interdisciplinarity


Kozlov A.P. (St. Petersburg). The grain procurement policy of the Soviet government in Kazakhstan during the first five-year plan: its results and consequences (1928-1933)

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor,
Military-Political Work in the Armed Forces Department,
Military Institute of Physical Training
194044, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Bolshoy Sampsonievskiy
Prospect, 63.
Е-mail: petrovich138@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article is devoted to the grain procurement policy of the Soviet government in Kazakhstan during the first five-year plan. In modern Russian and foreign historiography, there is a direct relationship between the grain procurement crisis of 1927-1928 and the radical turn in the agrarian policy of the Soviet state that occurred at the turn of 1920-1930. Regional studies are of great importance for understanding this issue. Based on the studied documents, the author, using the example of Kazakhstan, which at that time was one of the most important grain regions of the USSR, proves the conditionality of collectivization by the grain procurement policy of the Soviet government, which sought at all costs to find funds for the needs of forced industrialization. In this situation, collective farms began to be perceived, first of all, as a convenient tool for solving the grain problem. The bet placed on collective farms has to some extent justified itself – the marketability of agriculture has increased. 

At the same time, an analysis of grain procurement campaigns during the first five-year plan, at least in Kazakhstan, shows that collective farms could not solve the problem of grain supplies. The volume of grain procurements not only did not increase, on the contrary, they only decreased from year to year. In addition, the increase in the marketability of agriculture, which was provided primarily through food restrictions, was given at a very high price. In the conditions of Kazakhstan, the direct consequences of grain procurement and collectivization were the famine of 1932-1933, which led to colossal human casualties, primarily among the indigenous population of the republic; mass migrations of the population; social cataclysms that reached up to armed protests against the Soviet government.
Keywords: Kazakhstan, grain procurement crisis, grain procurement policy, forced collectivization, collective farm, socialist reconstruction of agriculture

Akkuzinov A.K. (Moscow). Historiography of Victory in the Great Patriotic War in Kazakhstan and Russia (1941-1991)

Doctoral student at the Military History and Military Art Department of the Military Academy of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation
PhD in political science
100, Vernadsky Prospekt, Moscow, 119571, Russia
e-mail: altinay_akku@mail.ru

Abstract. The historiography of Kazakhstan during the Great Patriotic War was an integral part of the Soviet historical science. The purpose of the article is to study the works, authors and historians of the bygone years, the content and historicism of these invaluable materials, allows at the present stage to study the process of formation of historical science in the Soviet state and the heroic pages of the country of our fathers and grandfathers who gave their lives for our bright present and future. The chronological principle of classification of literature is defined, because the views of authors in different periods of historiography on the subject of Kazakhstan in the Great Patriotic War have their own peculiarities. The attention of researchers was directed to different aspects of the participation of Kazakhstanis in the Patriotic War, in this regard, the chronological stratum of publications, the author structured by the principle of problems, which allowed to identify the main themes of historiography (the role of the Communist Party during the war, labour in the name of victory, agitation and propaganda activities, the front press, national economy, national military units, etc.). Also, the achievements of the historical science of the Russian Federation on the participation of Kazakhstanis in the Great Patriotic War have been studied. The author used the method of scientific research to solve the scientific problem. The historiography of the problem “Kazakhstan during the Great Patriotic War” is a multifaceted research approach, which allows a more complete and in-depth study of Kazakhstan’s participation in this important historical period. This topic is important for the study of the history of Kazakhstan and its role in the Second World War. 

The division of historiography conventionally into three stages (within the framework of this article we will consider two stages) allowed us to establish the interest of researchers to this topic and formulate conclusions about the importance and relevance of further research of the selected topic. The information information within the framework of this article is a part of the complex work of the author, which sets a scientific task to show the contribution of Kazakhstan to the victory of the USSR in the Great Patriotic War and is dedicated to the 80th anniversary of the most important victory of the USSR in the Great Patriotic War. 80th anniversary of the most important Victory of mankind of the last century.
Keywords: Great Patriotic War, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Kazakh SSR, Kazakhstan, Russia, historiography

Tretyakov A.D. (Moscow). Analysis of the doctrine of George W. Bush from the point of view of the of Hegemony Stability Theory

graduate student of the Faculty of History
Department of Modern and Contemporary History of Europe and America
Lomonosov Moscow State University
119991, Moscow, Leninskie Gory, 1,
e-mail: wilhelm.meister@yandex.ru

Abstract. This article examines the ideological justification of the foreign policy of the United States during the presidency of George W. Bush, known as the Bush Doctrine. It is a collection of statements by the 43rd President of the United States and strategic documents of his administration. An analysis of the components of this doctrine is carried out from the perspective of the theory of hegemonic stability. This theory, postulating the constructive role of the dominant state in the issue of stability of the system of international relations. It was considered by a significant part of researchers as the ideological basis of the Bush Doctrine. In the article are studied positions of American experts who positively and negatively assess the role of the Bush Doctrine in ensuring global stability and supporting American hegemony. It is concluded that a significant part of American experts critically assessed the position and ideological components of the doctrine, pointing out the negative consequences of its implementation. As a result, it is noted that from the point of view of the theory of hegemonic stability, the Bush Doctrine represents a state of “hegemonic overconfidence”, when the dominant state undermines its leadership through unilateral actions. In addition, a thesis has been put forward according to which some provisions of this doctrine are still part of the foreign policy of the United States.
Keywords: USA, George W. Bush, Hegemony, Hegemonic Stability Theory, Preventive War, Neoconservatism, Democratization

Xueping Qu (Shenyang, China). “A look at China” in the works of an emigrant poetess A.P. Parkau 72

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor
Shenyang Ligong University, College of Foreign Languages,
China, Shenyang, 110159
e-mail: 114787580@qq.com

Abstract. The fate of A.P. Parkau was full of unexpected twists and turns. During her stay in China, the poetess preserved unique documents, including poetic manuscripts, diaries, letters, books, etc. These are witnesses of time, a precious literary heritage, an important contribution to Russian foreign and Chinese literature. In his works A.P. Parkau used women’s unique way of thinking and subtle nuances to depict the social scenes of China and Russia at the time, embracing environmental beauty, typical imagery, and a rich emotional consciousness. They are characterized by broad thinking and unrestricted language, which opens up a unique creative space for Russian emigrants.
Keywords: emigrants, Russians in China, Russian poetry, Russian poetesses, literary heritage, image of China


Gerasimov M.L. (Moscow). Features of Russian-Greek relations during the reign of Ioannis Kapodistrias

A third-year graduate student of Moscow City University
Moscow City University (MCU)
129226, 4 Vtoroy Selskohoziajstvenny proezd, Moscow
e-mail: gerasimo97v@mail.ru

Abstract. As a result of the Greek Revolution from 1821 to 1829 The Kingdom of Greece was formed, the first legal ruler of which was Ioannis Kapodistrias, a native of the Ionian Islands, Russian and Greek statesman, former Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Empire. During the years of his imperial service in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Empire, Ioannis Kapodistrias demonstrated high diplomatic skill, maintaining a balance between the interests of the Russian Empire in the Greek Revolution and his sincere desire to help the Greek revolutionaries in liberation from Ottoman dependence. However, in 1822, disagreements between Ioannis Kapodistrias and Emperor Alexander I over Russia’s position on the Greek issue reared their head and forced the emperor to remove Kapodistrias from service, which did not prevent the preservation of warm relations between them. In 1827, Kapodistrias was invited to become the ruler of the newly formed Greek state. Considering the imperial service of the newly elected ruler of Greece as Minister of Foreign Affairs, as well as the fact that the Russian Empire during this period acted as one of the guarantors of the security of the Kingdom of Greece, there is a special interest in the peculiarities of the formation and development of Russian-Greek relations, which gradually developed over time to cooling. Thus, the purpose of this study is to identify and determine the features of the formation and development of official Russian-Greek relations after the appointment of Ioannis Kapodistrias to the post of ruler of the newly formed Greek state. The main objective of the study, in turn, is to study the internal political and foreign policy context of Greece and establish the factors influencing Russian-Greek relations in this period. Based on the results of the work, it was revealed that Russian-Greek relations were dictated by inter-clan disagreements in Greece, as a result of which Ioannis Kapodistrias died, as well as by the foreign policy context of non-proliferation of influence created by the main guarantors of Greek security: the Russian, British and French empires.
Keywords: Ioannis Kapodistrias, Russian Empire, Greek state, Greek Revolution, Russian-Greek relations

Bakanov A.V. (Makhachkala). Bekization of the political system of Dagestan: history and modernity (Part 1: history)

Historian independent researcher
367030, Russia, Makhachkala,
e-mail: mr.bakanov85@mail.ru

Abstract. At the time of the beginning of the process of integration into the all-Russian space, Dagestan had stable and very original forms of socio-political organization that had been formed for more than one century. By the 19th century, the territorial and administrative mosaic of this region consisted of 10 feudal estates, where the power of their rulers was limited by the will of the people and 60 free societies that had a republican structure. The overwhelming majority of the population of Dagestan remained personally free, and the number of dependents was extremely small. However, as the study revealed, during the first half of the 19th century, significant changes occurred in the socio-political structure of this region. During this period of time, the Russian administration purposefully strengthened the power of the Dagestan rulers and their closest relatives – the beks – over the population subject to them. At the same time, let us indicate that, ultimately, this action of the authorities determined a whole series of destructions in Dagestan.
Keywords: Dagestan, Russian Empire, Caucasus, management system, state formations, integration, changes

Karimov R.T. (Kazan). Votchinniki of the village of Ilchibaevo of the Yanzigitovsky tyuba of the Garey land volost (XVII – mid-XIX centuries)

applicant, head of the Department for Coordination of Interaction in the Humanities of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan
420111, Kazan, st. Bauman, 20
e-mail: ruzalkarimov@gmail.com

Abstract. The article examines the time and circumstances of the emergence of the village of Ilchibaevo (now a village in the Aktanysh district of the Republic of Tatarstan), founded by the patrimonial people of the Yanzigitovskaya tyuba of the Garey land volost. The village under this name was mentioned in published sources in 1757 in connection with the participation of its resident in the campaign of the Russian army in Prussia. However, back in 1747, in the agreement of the Garey votchinnics, Ksyuk Ilchibaev was named, who, according to the study and analysis of unpublished sources and the family tamga, would turn out to be the youngest son of the founder of the village of Ilchibaevo. Materials from the formal list of canton officials in 1837 made it possible to identify the names of 2 people with a family surname and draw up their genealogical diagram to determine the approximate life time of the patrimonial landowner Ilchibay. Ilchibay could have been born in the middle of the 17th century. He founded the village of the same name, most likely, closer to the last quarter of the 17th century, having moved to a new place of residence from the village of Yanzigitovo. After the General Survey of 1801, the land issue of the Ilchibaevites arose and its solution dragged on for many years. The results of the study may be of interest not only to local historians and historians, but also to compilers of encyclopedic articles on the history of settlements.
Keywords: votchinniki, Garey land volost, single tatar ethnocultural space, Polish campaign (1771-1773), tatars of the bashkir class, tatar land volosts

Starikova E.V. (Moscow). Composition of participants in the Polish uprising of 1863–1864 through the eyes of Russian officers and officials

applicant for the Department of Russian History of the 19th – early 20th centuries, Faculty of History, Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov,
Assistant, Department of History, Institute of Fundamental Problems of Social Sciences and Humanities, National Research Nuclear University MEPhI
115409, Russia, Moscow, Kashirskoe highway, 31.
e-mail: e.starikova1403@list.ru

Abstract. The article is devoted to the study of the ideas of Russian military officers and officials about the participants in the Polish uprising of 1863–1864. The sources used were documents of personal origin of people who were direct witnesses of the uprising in the Kingdom of Poland and the Western Land, as well as the events that directly preceded the armed conflict. The work makes an attempt to answer the questions of who the authors saw as the instigators of the uprising, what role in the uprising was attributed to various population groups in the Kingdom of Poland and the Western Land and for what reasons.

Based on the sources, factors were identified that, from the authors’ point of view, influenced the population’s support for the uprising and participation in it, namely mass political agitation, the influence of the Catholic Church and terror. The article examines the authors’ perception of the following population groups: townspeople, peasants, clergy and nobility. It was concluded that the idea of a particular social group was formed on the basis of stereotypes that existed in society at that time, information that the author received from various sources, as well as personal experience of interaction with different groups of the population in the Kingdom of Poland and the Western Land.
Keywords: Polish uprising, image of a Pole, image of a rebel, Polish nobility, Western Land, Kingdom of Poland

Yurenkov A.K., Okroshidze L.G., Danilov D.M. (Moscow). From the “inventor of the restauratio in Russia” A.F. Mitrokhin to the restoration. From the history of the term

Artem Konstantinovich Yurenkov
Referent of the Secretariat of the Deputy Prime Minister of the Russian Federation – Chief of Staff of the Government Executive Office
103274, Moscow, Krasnopresnenskaya nab.2.
e-mail: Ak.gov@yandex.ru 

Liya Guramievna Okroshidze
Senior inspector, Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University
119234, Lomonosovsky pr-t, 27/4
e-mail: vaudetar@gmail.com 

Dmitry Mikhailovich Danilov
Head of the Department of the General Director’s Office,
LLC «Chernogorskaya GRK»
119002, Moscow, Vet., Khamovniki municipal district, Sivtsev Vrazhek Lane, 39
e-mail: info@chgrk.ru

Abstract. The issues of restoration and conservation of monuments are among the most important in the museum sphere. In the history of art, the value and cost of many artworks is often related to their condition. In this case, the preservation of cultural heritage is simply impossible without auxiliary methods that make it possible to prolong the life of a particular piece of art.

At the beginning of the 19th century, the term “restaurant” appeared in the Russian language, which was borrowed from European languages. It had several meanings and took root and developed in a bizarre way in the Russian language. The word had several meanings from the familiar designation of institution of haute cuisine to the restoration of the overthrown dynasty and the restoration of art monuments. It is obvious that the use of the term “restoration” in the meaning of the familiar concept of “recovery” is inextricably linked with the development of the art of renaissance and restoration of cultural heritage sites. 

In this article we will trace the fate of the term “restoration” in Russia both on the basis of historiographical data and published sources, and on the basis of previously unpublished archival documents, as well as in the context of the activities of the first Russian restorer Andrey Filippovich Mitrokhin.
Keywords: Restorer, restoration, painting, art, Andrey Mitrokhin

Alexeev A.N. (St. Petersburg). Student Awards of the Institute of Civil Engineers

Candidate of Historical Sciences,
Associate Professor of the Department of History and Philosophy
St. Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering,
190005, 2nd Krasnoarmeyskaya st., 4, St. Petersburg

Abstract. Based on historiographical information and documents stored in the funds of the Russian State Historical Archive, the article examines the history of the formation of the award system at the St. Petersburg Institute of Civil Engineers. The article tells about the famous graduates of this educational institution – professors of this famous institution Nikolai Alexandrovich Bezpalov, Rudolf Bogdanovich Bernhardt, Ernest Ivanovich Gibert. In memory of these outstanding people and their selfless work, gold and silver medals were established at this educational institution in different years, which were awarded annually to the best graduates of the institute. The experience of preserving the memory of outstanding graduates and teachers, stimulating the best students, is still relevant in our time, when there is an active search for effective incentives for training engineering personnel for the Russian Federation.
Keywords: student, Institute of Civil Engineers, Main Directorate of Communications, award, St. Petersburg

Sokirkin D.N. (St. Petersburg). Russian constitutional projects of the XIX century

Associate Professor of the Department of History and Philosophy of SPbGASU,
Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor
St. Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SPbGASU),
190005, 2nd Krasnoarmeyskaya street., 4, St. Petersburg
e-mail: sokirkin1976@mail.ru

Abstract. This paper examines one of the main stages of the constitutional development of Russia. The period under study preceded the First Russian Revolution of 1905 – 1907 and was associated with the development of a national constitutional doctrine. The article examines the influence that political ideas formulated in Europe, as well as revolutionary events in Western countries, had on Russian liberal statesmen-reformers and revolutionary thinkers of the first quarter of the XIX century. The different origins of the Russian constitutional projects are emphasized, some of which were of an official and others of an unofficial nature. The points of view related to such important political issues as the choice of the form of government and the implementation of the theory of separation of powers are studied. Two approaches to the process of implementing socio-political transformations are compared: moderate-liberal and radical-revolutionary. It is emphasized that there are two views on the constitutional development of representatives of the enlightened part of Russian society: liberal and conservative. The connection between constitutional projects and the nature of domestic policy at certain stages of national history is traced. The article examines the features of constitutional ideas formulated in the second half of the XIX century, in the context of changes that took place in the life of Russian society during the era of “Great Reforms”. The further dynamics of the development of constitutional ideas in the late XIX and early XX centuries is presented.
Keywords: Russia, constitutional projects, forms of government, theory of separation of powers, XIX century

Karapetyan L.A., Merinov M.A. (Krasnodar). From the experience of relations between the state and scientific societies on the preservation and popularization of cultural heritage in the Russian Empire during the formation of the constitutional monarch

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Professor
 Departments of History, Cultural Studies and Museum Studies
 Krasnodar State Institute of Culture
 350072, Russia, Krasnodar, st. 40th anniversary of theVictory, 33
e-mail: leva.karapetyan.53@mail.ru 

Postgraduate student of the Department of History,
 Cultural Studies and Museum Studies
 Krasnodar State Institute of Culture
 350072, Russia, Krasnodar, st. 40th anniversary
 of the Victory, 33
e-mail:  montalbo@ mail.ru

Abstract.The implementation of the provisions of the Manifesto of October 17, 1905 led in 1906 to the inclusion of a parliament with limited capabilities in the state mechanism of Russia. However, he reduced the king’s legislative powers. The Manifesto of October 19, 1905 changed the status of the Council of Ministers, turning it into a collegial executive body of power. The provided system of civil and political freedoms also intensified the research activities of citizens, primarily the scientific intelligentsia, through the creation of all-Russian and regional scientific societies of general historical and specialized profiles as subjects of monument protection. In the field of cultural heritage protection, the relationships between scientific societies, the expert community, the State Duma and the government, primarily represented by the Ministry of Internal Affairs (Ministry of Internal Affairs) and the MNP (Ministry of Public Education), developed differently. They interacted effectively in resolving issues of additional annual and one-time funding for this area. However, budget financing has not changed fundamentally compared to the pre-Duma period. Significant disagreements occurred during the formation of material norms during the discussion in the State Duma of the Ministry of Internal Affairs bill “On the Protection of Antiquities,” which was never adopted.
Keywords: cultural heritage, preservation and popularization, scientific society, State Duma, government

Ozadovskiiy V.E. (Moscow). The Ukrainian organizations in the Russian social-political life in the years of Russian revolution of 1905

Postgraduate student
Department of the History of Russia in the XIX-XX centuries,
Faculty of History,
Moscow State University
named after M.V. Lomonosov,
 Russian Federation, Moscow, 119192,
Lomonosovsky prospect, 27, building 4,
e-mail: OzadovskiyVE@yandex.ru

Abstract. This article is devoted to the problem of the Ukrainian nationalism formation on the territory of the Russian empire at the period of the Russian Revolution of 1905. Based on official documentary materials, archival materials of the Police Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Empire, materials from journalism and periodicals, and memoirs, the author analyzes the activities of the first Ukrainian political parties during the revolutionary years. The question is raised about the origin of the ideology and activity of the Ukrainian nationalists. The article also focused on such questions as construction of the Ukrainian literature language by the representatives of Ukrainian organizations, social-political, scientific and educational activity of Mikhail Hrushevsky in the context of his contribution to the Ukrainian movement in the period of Russian Revolution of 1905. The article is also devoted to the question of the means, methods and results of the Ukrainian organizations social-political work with the local groups of peasant and urban population on the territory of the Little Russians Governorates and the question of making use the Galicia region by the Ukrainian organizations to the aim of strengthening their resources in the Russian social-political life. The author seeks to understand the role of Ukrainian organizations in the Russian social-political life and their attitude to Russia.
Keywords: Russian Empire, social-political life, Russian Revolution of 1905, Mikhail Hrushevsky, Ukrainian organizations, Ukrainian parties, ukrainophiles, Revolutionary Ukrainian party

Rodionov A.N. (Moscow). Preparation of pre-conscription youth for military service in the Armed Forces in the documents of the highest state authorities in 1917-1936

PHD student of the Military University
Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation,
125047, Moscow, Bolshaya Sadovaya str., 14
e-mail: rodionov_aleksandr91@mail.ru

Abstract. The article analyzes the activities of the supreme bodies of state power in the formation of the regulatory and legal framework in the field of preparation of pre-conscription youth for military service in the Armed Forces in the period from 1917 to 1936. The author shows the role of representative bodies of power in the preparation of pre-conscription youth for possible military conflicts, traces the sequence of changes in the system of conscription, requirements for reserve training and the structure of military training, considers the measures taken by the state to adapt the training to new realities and threats. As a result of the study, a number of peculiarities have been established that allow a deeper understanding of the evolution of approaches to the training of pre-conscription youth under the conditions of geopolitical changes in the first half of the XX century. For the first time archival materials are introduced into the scientific turnover, which allow to reveal various aspects of the training of pre-conscription youth in military service.
Keywords: pre-conscription training, youth, military training, Armed Forces, documents, reserve training, conscription system, military training structure, defense mass work, OSОAVIAKHIM

Sipeykin A.V. (Moscow). Intellectual on service of Godless State: declassified documents OGPU about activity of P. V. Gidulyanov

Ph.D., associate professor of Moscow University of Industry and Finance “Synergy”
129090, Moscow, Mesсhanskaya street, 9/14, 1.
e-mail: sipeykin@yandex.ru

Abstract. This article is devoted to the destiny of the soviet lawyer and specialist in the history of the church law professor P. V. Gidulyanov. As the main historical source author uses official reports, reflecting relations between P. V. Gidulyanov and Soviet power. There were some serious differences between the Soviet power and P.V. Gidulyanov in their attitudes towards question of the church-state relations. Professor regarded the Soviet police towards the Church as too harsh. According to the report of OGPU, P. V. Gidulyanov even assisted churchmen in their struggle for defending their rights. He in a sense personified the human rights-based approach towards religious organisations. This led him into conflict with OGPU, which regarded the Church as a counter-revolutionary organisation. On the one hand, this conflict can be described as the conflict between harsher approach towards religious organisations used by OGPU, and a little more lenient approach of the organs of Soviet Justice. On the other hand, the main cause of repressions against P. V. Gidulyanov can be explained by his personal attitudes, which couldn’t be tolerated by the Godless Soviet power.
Keywords: Soviet antireligious policy, Soviet antichurch policy, P. V. Gidulyanov, soviet legislations on religious organizations, secularization

Kashevarov A.N. (St. Petersburg). Acts of Soviet power to implrment the decree on the separation of church and state in the perception of the higher church administration

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor,
Honored Worker of Higher School of the Russian Federation,
Professor Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University,
Russia, 195251, St. Petersburg, Polytechnicheskaya Str., 29.
E-mail: kashevar12@mail.ru

Abstract. The main purpose of the article is to make a complete picture of the perception of the Supreme Church power – the local Council, the Patriarch and the Holy Synod – of the main acts of the Soviet power to implement the decree on the separation of the Church from the state and school from the Church – the instructions of the People’s Commissariat of justice of August 30, 1918, as well as the circular of the same Department of February 3, 1919, and thus to trace the evolution of the official position of the Orthodox Church in relation to the religious policy of the new state. Until the issuance of the instruction of August 30, 1918, the appeals and petitions of the Supreme Church power to the Soviet leadership were mainly reduced to proposals to abandon the implementation of the decree on the separation of the Church from the state and to reconsider its religious policy. At the same time, the higher Church leadership called on the clergy and believers to boycott the activities of the new government in the religious sphere. On the basis of archival materials, first of all, documents of the local Council and the office of Patriarch Tikhon, the article shows that after the publication of the instruction of August 30, 1918, a gradual departure of these Church circles from the boycott of the religious policy of the Soviet state began. This departure was especially intensified after the adoption of the circular of February 5, 1919 by the People’s Commissariat of justice, which revived in the Church leadership, which was convinced of the failure of the boycott, which was causing more and more victims on the part of the clergy and believers, of the hope for achieving a mutually acceptable compromise in Church-state relations. The higher ecclesiastical administration recommended the clergy how best to defend the interests of the Church on the basis of the emerging Soviet legislation and obliged them to obey the relevant orders of the Soviet power. This evolution prepared the final and definite expression by Patriarch Tikhon on 8 October (25) September 1919 of the official position of the civil loyalty of the Orthodox Church towards the Soviet state. In addition to the above archival materials in the article used 14 research papers.
Keywords: decree on the separation of Church and state, instruction of the people’s Commissariat of justice of August 24, 1918, circular of the people’s Commissariat of justice of February 5, 1919, Soviet state, Soviet religious policy, higher Church administration, local Council, Patriarch Tikhon, Holy Synod

Hieromonk Lavr (Arkhipov M.I.) (Moscow). Forms of opposition of monastic communities to the closure of monasteries during the Khrushchev persecution in the second half of the 1950s

post-graduate Student of the Department of Church History, Faculty of
History, Lomonosov Moscow State University
119991, Moscow, Lomonosovsky prospect, 27, bldg. 4
e-mail: maksim-arxipov@mail.ru

Abstract. The article examines the period of renewed persecution of the Russian Orthodox Church under N. S. Khrushchev in the second half of the 1950s, which was aimed at suppressing religion in the Soviet Union. This period is characterized by giving the campaign the appearance of legality: the formation of a regulatory framework, anti-religious propaganda, economic measures to undermine the economic life of monasteries and their closure, the use of administrative resources. All financial and economic activities of the monasteries were subject to severe restrictions and exorbitant taxes. The monastic communities were forced to counteract this campaign in various ways. For example, in the Lithuanian SSR, the monastic community was formed as an agricultural artel headed by a veteran of the Great Patriotic War. The monks also used private farms and vegetable gardens to provide food. To provide financial support for the monasteries, “going to the people” was practiced to collect donations.
Keywords: Khrushchev’s persecution, the closure of monasteries, the opposition of hierarchs and monastics

Kalashnkova E.B., Sapunov A.S. (Samara). Aspects of the economic and political cooperation of the Soviet Union with the countries of the Arab world at the turn of the 1950s-1970s

кандидат исторических наук, доцент кафедры теории права и философии, федеральное государственное автономное образовательное учреждение высшего образования «Самарский государственный экономический университет».
443090, Российская Федерация, город Самара, улица Советской Армии, 141,
e-mail: Kalashnikova-helen @yandex.ru

Graduate student
Samara state University of Economics
443090, Russian Federation, Samara, Sovetskoy Armii Street, 141
e-mail: sas-91@list.ru 

Abstract. The article is devoted to the analysis of the trade and economic cooperation of the Soviet Union with Arab countries in the period of the 1950s – 1970s. The main focus of the work is aimed at developing economic, scientific and technical cooperation with the countries of Egypt, Syria, Iraq, Algeria and others. Thanks to the work done, the peculiarities of cooperation during the formation of the integrity and independence of the Arab countries are revealed. The relevance of the article is determined by the importance of studying the interaction, forms and features of Soviet specialists with the Middle East. The aspects of cooperation and their impact in the modern world are analyzed. The novelty of the work is determined by a wide range of unpublished documents and facts of cooperation introduced into scientific circulation. The methods of traditional analysis and content analysis of documents are used. The article takes a particularly close look at the relationship between Syria and the Soviet Union regarding the construction of energy facilities, the exchange of experience, as well as the influence of the 1950s-1970s on modern history.
Keywords: history, energy facilities, Syria, Euphrates HPP, trade with the Arab world, economic infrastructure, international experience

Dyakov S.I., Dyakov I.S. (St. Petersburg). Training of officers at Kolomensky artillery school from 1960 to 1967

Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences, Associate Professor,
head of the faculty of the Mikhailovsky Military Artillery Academy,
195009, Russia, St. Petersburg, Komsomol, 22,
E-mail: serDyakoff@yandex.ru

cadet of the Mikhailovsky Military Artillery Academy,
195009, Russia, St. Petersburg, Komsomol, 22,
E-mail: gamehipster98@gmail.com

Abstract. The article analyzes the activities of the military leadership of the Ground Forces of the Armed Forces of the USSR, the Commander of the Missile Forces and Artillery (RV and A) of the Ground Forces of the USSR Armed Forces from January 1, 1961 (until January 1, 1961, the Commander of the Red Army Artillery) and the command of the Kolomna Artillery School on the progress of training rocket officers there in the period from 1960-1967. (an analysis was carried out of organizational and staffing changes, issues of improving educational processes, the educational and material base of the school during the educational process for training officers in a new specialty). Previously unpublished and little-studied archival sources of the Central Archive of the Ministry of Defense (TsAMO) have been introduced into scientific circulation (information from the historical records of the school, orders, directives of the leadership of the USSR Armed Forces, the Commander of the Russian Army and Army of the USSR Armed Forces, the Commander of the Moscow Military District and the Kolomna Artillery School), also The research of scientists [1-7], as well as an electronic resource on the Internet [8], were studied. During the study, the following applied methods were used: historical-systemic and historical-comparative. The use of these methods will allow the study to more objectively evaluate the school’s contribution to the training of officers for missile formations of the missile forces and artillery (RV and A) of the Ground Forces (SV) of the Armed Forces (AF) of the USSR. They show that, in general, the activities of the school during the period under consideration in different years were assessed positively by senior superiors and commanders; the process of training officers always kept pace with the times. The authors come to the conclusion that the need to retrain the school to train officers in a new specialty was determined by: the military-political situation; the emphasis of the state leadership on the development of ballistic missiles (BMs) and missile systems for the Ground Forces; deployment of new military units; the need to train a large number of missile officers.
Keywords: Kolomna Artillery School, artillery, missile officer, missile system, tactical exercise, military training, quantitative and qualitative characteristics of graduates, patronage

Alekhin A.V. (Khabarovsk). The ideological aspect of social management (on the example of enterprises of the timber industry complex of the South of the Far East of the USSR: late 1960s – early 1970s

Postgraduate student of the Department “Theory and History
of State and Law” of the Far Eastern State University
of Railways
Far Eastern State University of Railways
Russia, Khabarovsk, Serysheva 47
e-mail: Historic888@gmail.com

Abstract. The article examines the processes of social management at the enterprises of the timber industry complex of the Far East in the 1960s – 1970s. The main directions of studying the problem in modern research are outlined. The types and methods of social management at the enterprises of the timber industry complex of the south of the Far East of the USSR are presented. The key directions of agitation are analyzed. The article contains information about the role of the Soviet society “Knowledge” in the ideological control over employees of enterprises of the forest industry. The analysis of the role of cinema in social management is given. Legislative acts emphasizing the importance of mobilizing labor resources of the timber industry are highlighted. The article also presents the Resolutions of the Council of Ministers of the USSR, which directly or indirectly regulated the ideological control of the party over society. The foreign policy aspects of Soviet propaganda are analyzed on the example of speakers’ speeches at the Amur Pulp and Cardboard Plant, where employees were informed in order to criticize the military coup in Chile and the coming to power of Captain General A. Pinochet instead of socialist S. Allende.

Ideological, political, and cultural-mass work were mandatory and integral components of the industrial sphere and the daily life of the Far Eastern society. The forest industry, as the basic branch of the economy of the Far Eastern region, experienced the same socio-economic problems as other resource-producing industries.
Keywords: Far East of the USSR, political information, agitation, propaganda, ideology, social management, timber industry

Kokorev M.A. (Moscow). Social movement of international warriors – veterans of the war in Afghanistan: social and political conditions of the movement’s emergence

Postgraduate student of the History Faculty of M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University.
119234, Russian Federation, Moscow, Leninsky Gory ter, 1.
E-mail: kokorevma@my.msu.ru

Abstract. The article is devoted to the analysis of the role of the social movement of soldiers-internationalists – veterans of the war in Afghanistan (1985 – 1989). The scientific article reveals the socio-political and social context of the emergence of the Afghan war veteran’s movement, features and key tendencies of the origin and development of the first local, regional and general union associations of international warriors. The groups of research sources (in particular, archival sources of RGANI, RGASPI and GARF, archives of veteran organizations of warriors-internationalists) have been allocated and systematized and the analysis of historiography of the war in Afghanistan has been presented, one of the most important gaps in which is insufficient study of the post-war fate of war veterans in Afghanistan, the activities of public associations «shuravi». To fill this gap in the study of the events of the war in Afghanistan, the scientific article introduces previously unknown and unpublished sources of personal origin, collected and studied in the course of scientific research.
Keywords: War in Afghanistan, soldiers-internationalists, «shuravi», public associations, USSR

Oreshin S.A. (Moscow). Socio-political development of the Chechen-Ingush ASSR in mid-1989 – mid-1991

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Researcher at the Caucasus Department of the Miklukho-Maklay Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology of the Russian Academy of Sciences
32A Leninsky Prospekt, Moscow, 119334, Russian Federation
e-mail: Oreshin12345@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article deals with the analysis of the socio-political situation in Chechen-Ingushetia during D.G. Zavgaev’s tenure in power. The author analyzes the policy of the republican authorities, pays attention to the development of the ethnopolitical movement in the region and identifies the peculiarities of the relationship between the government and the opposition. Initially, Zavgaev, who had a reputation as a moderate reformer, enjoyed considerable support among the population and in elite circles, and hopes were pinned on him for the implementation of overdue reforms. However, his goal was to strengthen his own position in the authorities of the republic. In March 1990, Zavgaev united the highest party and state posts in his hands and tried to place his supporters in all nomenclature positions. Democratization was superficial and did not affect the foundations of the authoritarian regime. Faced with the intensification of the radical opposition, Zavgaev acted inconsistently, tried to partially use its slogans, which manifested itself in the adoption of the Declaration on State Sovereignty. The attempt to balance between the Soviet and Russian leadership ultimately did not help strengthen the position of the Chechen leader. He failed to weaken the nationalist opposition and consolidate various nomenklatura groups around his figure. The disappointment of broad groups of the population with the policy of the official authorities, the emerging split of the republican elites, and the lack of support from the Russian leadership led to a decline in Zavgaev’s popularity, which manifested itself in the events of August-September 1991 in Chechen-Ingushetia.
Keywords: USSR; perestroika; Chechen-Ingush ASSR; ethnopolitical movements; state sovereignty; D.G. Zavgaev

Orlov S.V. (Moscow). On the Issue of the Main Approaches to Studying the Formation of the Information Society in Russia

Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor,
Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of History,
Department of the History of Russian Social Movements
and Political Parties, Head of the Department.
Russia, 119234, Moscow,
Lomonosovsky Prospekt, 27,
building 4, office E-416.
E-mail: s712000@mail.ru

Abstract. The article systematizes and analyzes the research of Russian and foreign authors on the issues of the formation of the information society, historical prerequisites and features of this process in contemporary Russia. Attention is drawn to the thematic continuity of domestic works in relation to the works of the founders of the theory of informatization and information society. Various aspects of informatization in contemporary Russia are examined. Attention is focused on the Moscow experience of informatization as a model for the rest of the country. Conclusions are drawn about the results of studying the country’s informatization in the post-Soviet period, gaps that still remain in understanding this topic are indicated, and promising directions for its further coverage are indicated.
Keywords: information society, post-industrial society, automation, computerization, informatization, information and communication technologies.


Zotova A.V., Poltorak S.N. (St. Petersburg). International organizations and their influence on border management of post-Soviet states

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the Faculty of International Relations,
St. Petersburg State University.
199034, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya nab., 7-9.
e-mail: anastasiyazotova@mail.ru

Dr. Sc. (Historical), Professor
Professor of Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University
195251, Russia, St. Petersburg, Politekhnicheskaya st., 29
е-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru

Abstract. Every year, the customs and border systems of post-Soviet countries are changing under the influence of international organizations. Managing the borders of the states of the former Soviet Union is a sphere of interest not only for these countries, but also for the USA, EU, Japan and a number of other states. To this end, various programs are being created to strengthen control over the foreign economic activities of the republics of the former Soviet Union: impressive funding is being provided, its own electronic customs system is being introduced, specialists from customs and border services of post-Soviet republics are invited to study at EU institutions. American and European specialists also come to the post-Soviet states in order to introduce the “right” border management experience. In addition, international organizations carry out state reforms and influence the legislation of the republics. In the article, the authors analyze various aspects of relations between international organizations and the leadership of the republics of the former Soviet Union in the field of border management. The advantages and disadvantages of the results of the work carried out are noted. It is concluded that border management is a very significant tool for preserving and developing the sovereignty of any country. Solving financial difficulties by accepting a lot of money and allowing representatives of foreign international organizations to manage their borders can influence political decisions and ultimately lead to the loss of state sovereignty. The article is the end of the authors’ research. The beginning and continuation were published in 2023 in the journal Klio No. 9 (201) pp. 193-206 and No. 12 (204) pp. 177-196.
Keywords: post-Soviet space, border management, state border, international organizations, sovereignty


Kuzenkova M.V., Shchemeleva E.G. (St. Petersburg). The university course “History” in the system of modern Russian education: problematic aspects

PhD in History, Associate Professor of the department of social sciences Saint Petersburg State University of Economics
191186, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Canal Griboedova Emb., 30/32
e-mail: marinahistory@yandex.ru

PhD in History, Associate Professor
Saint Petersburg State University of Economics
191186, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Canal Griboedova Emb., 30/32
e-mail: shchemeleva.l@yandex.ru

Abstract. Modern challenges of social development actualize the problem of youth value orientations, the role of the national idea for the cohesion of Russian society, the formation of the civic position of the younger generation.

In this regard, the article raises the question of the importance of historical education in the modern realities of the development of Russian society, touches on topical issues of teaching history at the university, the development of the modern educational process. The authors pay special attention to the problem of increasing motivation to obtain higher education. The emphasis is placed on the fundamental differences between the Russian education system and the Western model.

The article discusses such controversial issues of the educational sphere as the attitude to education as a service, the introduction of online lectures, digitalization.

Special attention is paid to the role of historical knowledge in the patriotic education of young people.
Keywords: education, higher education, university, service, online courses, digitalization, patriotic education, history, historian, historical education, teacher

Baltovsky L.V. (St. Petersburg). Theoretical and methodological aspects of the functioning of political communication in the educational process

Dr. of Polit. Sci., Associate Professor
Architecture and Civil Ingineering (SPbGASU),
190005, 2nd Krasnoarmeyskaya stree t, 4, St. Petersburg
e-mail: leonid.baltovsky@gmail.com

Abstract. In the article, the author analyzes the history of the development of political communication, considers the means of political mass communication in accordance with the needs of society at one time or another. According to the author, political communication is necessary not only to ensure sustainable development processes of society, but also contributes to its self-preservation. Attention is also paid to the rapidly developing means of mass communication, which are a tool for the formation and functioning of political consciousness. Historical experience shows that political actors have always taken the most active measures to exercise control over the media. Control and dissemination of political information is an important element in determining political culture, the type of political systems: democratic or authoritarian. It is noted that one of the most important agendas of political communication is ideology. Analysis of the theoretical aspects of the functioning of political communication seems important for the development of the modern educational process, in particular, for the preparation of lectures on the sections “Russian worldview and values of Russian civilization” and “Political structure in Russia” of the discipline “Fundamentals of Russian Statehood”, classes in which are held in all universities in our country. The semantic guidelines of this discipline note the importance of communication practices and government decisions in the field of worldview, the need to convey to students not only information about political communication, but also the presentation of semantic distortions. In this regard, the theoretical and methodological understanding of the functioning of political communication, presented in this study, is an important aspect in the educational process in Russia.
Keywords: education, political communication, media