Klio #11 (71) 2012


Diaries, memoirs

Chetverikov B.D. (Saint-Petersburg). «Stezhky-dorozhky» (The pathways) (continuation)………. 3

The autobiographical novel by B.D. Chetverikov tells us about the writer’s life that can be called «the outline» of the history of our country in the 20th century.

Hudyakova N.D. (Saint-Petersburg). From the memoirs………. 12

In the memories of well-known Petersburg historian, a major specialist in the history of the siege of Leningrad N.D. Hudyakova briefly describes her life. On the eve of her 100-anniversary the author recalls the darkest days of the siege and other important events, mentions her main scientific works, devoted to the nationwide helping to Leningrad during the Great Patriotic war.

The heroic and tragic in the years of the siege of Leningrad (on the diaries of an eyewitness of the events M.A. Ivanov). Publication, introduction and comments by I.I. Rogozin (Saint-Petersburg)………. 15

For the first time the diaries of the first rector of the Leningrad Institute of Soviet trade M.A. Ivanov, made in the period from June 1941 to March 1942, are published. Comments are given by Professor I.I. Rogozin, who have been working in this higher educational institution for many years.


The document is published for the first time

«Po delu o vnesenii general leytenanta Fyodora Andreevicha Kozena v dvoryanskuyu rodoslovnuyu knigu» (In the case of the introduction of General Lieutenant Fyodor Andreevich Kozen in the book of noble families). (The publication of I.Yu. Lapina). (Saint-Petersburg)………. 19

Presented archival materials about the introduction of the first Director of the School of Civil Engineers, the General-Lieutenant Fyodor Andreevich Kozen and his sons into the book of noble families of St. Petersburg Province.

Roshevskaya L.P. (Syktyvkar). Establishing contacts of Autonomous region Komi with the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1927–1930)………. 24

The documents, published for the first time, are highlighting the relations of the USSR Academy of Sciences, the regional authorities of Komi Republic and the regional experts during the organization of systematic comprehensive studies in Autonomous region of Komi in 1928–1930.



Aronov А.А. (Kursk). Leisure culture of Russian province in domestic historiography………. 36

The article gives the analysis of the historiography of Russian province leisure history. The peculiar attention is paid to the leisure culture of Kursk region.


General history

Pronina E.A. (Saint-Petersburg). The Early modern French and English Identities through the European history writing (A. Duchesne’s and W. Camden’s case)………. 40

The heritage of eminent Early modern historians A. Duchesne and W. Camden is analyzed here in the
context of the formation of European ethno-cultural identities. The article argues that in Early modern
times the emerging French identities were connected with social structure of French monarchy,
while the English identities were from the very beginning related to the territory of the British

Bugashev S.I. (Saint-Petersburg). The Irish national movement in the middle of XIX century………. 45

The article is devoted to the history of fenianism as to the brightest page of the Irish national movement
in the middle of the XIX century. Special attention is paid to the analysis of Irish nationalism and determination of the place fenianism in its structure. The author studies objectives, methods and characteristics of Irish and American branches of the Irish Revolutionary Brotherhood (IRB). It is noted that the movement continued the Irish liberation tradition and became in the XIX century the higher of its manifestations.


National history

Pilishvili G.D. (Kursk). Genesis and the combat activities of the people’s militia in Russia since the ancient times up to 1941………. 49

The article studies the organization and the combat activities of the people’s militia from the IX century up to 1941. The author made a conclusion and gave an assessment of the effectiveness of the use of the militias, which was held jointly with the personnel of military units and independently.

Logunova M.O. (Saint-Petersburg). Gender reading of coronation ceremony in Russian Empire of XVIII century………. 52

The article is devoted to determination of the ratio of sex of the ruler in Russian Empire with his (her) role in hosting one of the most important ceremonies of the monarchy – the coronation. The tradition dates back to the times of Ivan III and especially of Ivan IV. The coronation of the Russian rulers was held traditionally in the Dormition Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin and symbolized by expression of A.F. Tyutcheva «religious meaning, which the Church sanctifies the union between the monarch and the people». The coronation ceremony consisted of secular and ecclesiastical acts. Women – sole rulers were crowned according to the order of male rulers.

Simonyan R.Z. (Kursk). Procurator’s supervision in workflow management in Russia after reforms 1909–1917………. 56

in the article the author analyzes legislation concerning reformation of procurator’s supervision bodies from 1909 till 1917, conclusions and evaluation of the activity of public procurator’s office of workflow management were made.

Mityushin S.I. (Saint-Petersburg). Development of the checking-permit order of residing and moving within the territory of the USSR and abroad in the period of the developed socialism………. 59

The article deals with the activities of the USSR government in the period of the developed socialism aimed at strengthening legal routine of restrictions and prohibitions on the movement of our citizens and foreigners within the country and abroad.

Rizhkov T.V. (Krasnodar). The growth of the crisis in the Russian oil industry and its restructuring (1988–1997)………. 61

This article investigates the crisis in the Russian oil industry, 1988–1997. In the context of restructuring of the oil industry and the formation of a vertically integrated oil company is analyzed the problem of relation of the state and corporate initiatives.


The past of Russian regions

Kalyakina A.V. (Saratov). Dynamics of the number of prisoners during the First world war in Saratov province in 1914–1921………. 65

The article analyzes the changes in the number of prisoners of war in the Saratov province in 1914–1921. The author reveals the main processes (national and local level), resulting an increase or decrease in the number of prisoners of war. Special attention is given to the study of the content of the events of the war years, aimed at the maintenance of agriculture in the region. On the basis of statistical data the picture of prisoners employment in the province is recreated, as well as geographical distribution of the population by districts.

Konshin A.E., Deryabina N.N. (Kudymkar, Perm region). Formation of penitentiary system in Komi-Permyak Okrug………. 72

On the basis of the analysis of archival documents the history of creation and development of the «labour re-education» system of former kulaks in special camps was recovered.


Military history

Zolotarev V.A. (Moscow). The Patriotic war of 1812: its significance for Russia and Europe………. 74

V.A. Zolotarev, relying on his long-term researches, conducted a comparative analysis of the key political and military figures of the war, as well as the fighting, including plans of the parties, their power, the course of hostilities and the role of the partisan movement.

Grebenshikova G.A. (Saint-Petersburg). To the question about the beginning of the Crimean war. Documents from the Russian archives………. 78

In the article on the basis of archival documents, rare foreign and domestic historiography, as well as memoirs the events that are associated with the beginning of the Crimean war of 1853–1856 are analyzed. Publication of the documents of that time and the author’s comments allow to understand better the causes of the beginning of hostilities.

Bochinin D.A., Losik A.V. (Saint-Petersburg). About industrial production of aeroplanes in St. Petersburg-Petrograd in 1898–1917………. 85

The article considers the problem of formation of the first aircraft plants in Russia. Not unprofessional construction of prototypes, but namely factory, the serial production of the airplane began with the establishment in St. Petersburg in 1909 the first Russian Association of Aeronautics (FRAA) named after S.S. Shetinin with companions. Along with FRAA industrial release of hundreds of airplanes for the army and Navy in St. Petersburg engaged in such large enterprises as Russian-Baltic plant and the aviation plant named by V.A. Lebedev.

Chizhakovsky O.I. (Ulyanovsk). To the question about the improvement of the organizational structure of the party political work in the army of the Soviet fronts in the South of Russia (September 1918 – December 1920)………. 87

The article attempts to highlight briefly the activities of the organs of the Soviet power and of the
Bolshevik party to improve the organizational structure of party political work in the red army
units in the South of Russia in September 1918 – December 1920. In the author opinion in the
red army there was established organizational structure, which represents a rather harmonious


History of culture

Mahlina S.T. (Saint-Petersburg). A bedroom in a residential interior……….. 91

The article traces the historical dynamics of the bedrooms of different periods – from the Roman «domus» to modern, as people with high incomes, and not the rich. In addition, the main items of furniture, situated in such a room are pointed out.

Lapina I.A. (Saint-Petersburg). Proceedings of the proletarian theatre………. 94

On the basis of archival documents and the little-known materials of periodicals of the revolutionary era the history of the schism that occurred in 1919 in Petrograd «Proletkult» is presented as a result of the conflict between his Theatrical Department and the Presidium. It turns out the role of the people’s Commissariat for education in the conflict, the position of the Central Committee of the all-Russian Council of «Proletkult» and of its ideological leader A.A. Bogdanov in this question.


The characters of history

Maul V.Ya. (Nizhnevartovsk). Yemelyan Pugachev and his wives (to the question of gender Russian revolt)………. 99

In the article is undertaken an attempt to consider not studied pages of Pugachev´s revolt connected with the matrimonial biography of insurgent «emperor Peter III». Short studying of destiny of «harem» of E.I. Pugachev gives the chance to see Russian revolt through a gender prism and thus to expand our representations about one of the brightest events of national history.

Kesamanly F.P., Tagirdzhanova A.N. (Saint-Petersburg). Mirza Alexander Kazem-Bek – the first Dean of the faculty of Oriental languages of the Imperial Saint-Petersburg state University (to the 210-anniversary of the birth)………. 103

On the basis of archival documents and published sources is recreated historical portrait of a famous scientist and the first Dean of the faculty of Oriental languages of the Imperial St. Petersburg state University Alexander Kasimovich Kazem-Bek. The article tells about the life and activity of this outstanding Russian orientalist.

Sulaberidze Yu.S. (Tbilisi, Georgia). Evgeny Gustavovich Veydenbaum – «journey to the Georgian antiquities»………. 105

In the article the author studied the activities of the E.G. Veydenbaum, who successfully combined the official and scientist. He has made a significant contribution to the study of the problems of Caucasian studies, having been collected a vast material on various topics, that allows to call him «encyclopedist of the Caucasus».

Orlov A.S. (Orel). Black-and-white portrait of M.O. Menshikov………. 110

The article offers the analysis of characteristics of the famous publicist in the late 19th – early 20th century M.O. Menshikov, most part of which haven’t been yet discussed in Russian historiography. The article reveals the reasons for sharp polarization in assessment of Menshikov’s creative work given by his contemporaries and non-contemporary researchers. The author concludes that the extremes in assessment of Menshikov’s personality are caused by a number of objective circumstances as well as his own traits of character, which made him offer contradictory evaluations of events, phenomena and personalities.

Bekhtereva L.N. (Izhevsk) From the history of the one teachers’ dynasty………. 113

The Bekhterevs teachers’ dynasty is one of the largest in Udmurtia. The article deals with the biography of B.G. Bekhterev. His biography is considered on the basis of the state and family archives materials. B.G. Bekhterev’s childhood, years of studies at the worker’s faculty (rabfak) of Kazan University, his first professional steps as a young teacher, his relations with colleagues and pupils are shown on a wide background of historical events having been occurred in the country. The process of formation of pedagogical skill of B.G. Bekhterev, his versatile and effective activity in pedagogical technical school in the village Novy Multan is analyzed in the article.



Lebedeva V.G. (Saint-Petersburg). Overcoming of the «social anomalies» (Historical parallels. The abolition of slavery and serfdom: USA–Russia)………. 118

The author analyzes international context as a factor of acceleration of slavery abolition in US and serfdom call off in Russia. Comparison characteristics of these two reforms are offered in the article. The author pays a great attention to the State, Community and «new citizens» preparation of adaptation mechanism for «after slavery» life.


Reviews of scientific editions

Каn А. (Stockholm, Sweden). Russian-Swedish relationship in the conditions of the revolution and the Soviet totalitarianism………. 123

In the review is analyzed the content of the book, devoted to the memory of Zinaida Sulman – connecting link of Russian and Swedish parts of the family. The heroine of the publication took upon herself the burden of the wife of a foreign diplomat in the Soviet Union in the special conditions of the totalitarian Stalinist regime and the cold war.

Rozental I.S. (Моscow). Review for the monograph of A.P. Nenarokov «Right Menshevism: insight of the Russian social-democracy»………. 124

In the monograph of A.P. Nenarokov, which was the result of his long-term publishing and researching work, the origin of the right menshevism in the period from 1917 to the 1950’s is traced. The article analyzes the interpretation of the processes, taken place in Russia and in the USSR, by representatives of the currents and their forecasts.

Gogun A. (Berlin, Germany). Ukraine was breathing the war, 1939–1941………. 126

In the review analyzes the contents of the V. Grinevitch’s monograph, devoted to the study of the political sentiments of the population of Ukraine in 1939–1941. In the opinion of the reviewer, the work makes an important contribution to the understanding of the events of the Second world war, the history of the USSR and Ukraine.

Grinev A.V. (Saint-Petersburg). The history of Russian America on the pages of the new University textbooks………. 128

The article provides the analysis of the history of Russian America in twelve of the latest Russian textbooks for institutions of higher education. The author comes to the conclusion about the poor presentation of the last Russian colonies in Alaska in the modern educational literature.


Scientific life

Scientific conferences have passed

Pilipenko S.A. (Samara). Interuniversity scientific-practical student’s seminar «Religion and sects: problems of integration and transformation»………. 135

The publication tells about the last student seminar «Religion and sects: problems of integration and transformation», which took place in Samara legal Institution of the Federal penitentiary service of Russia. It is emphasized, that the high level of the event contributed to the participation of the teachers of the University.

Goldin V.I. (Arkhangelsk). The civil war in Russia 90 years later: the search for an objective reflection and understanding on the lessons………. 136

The publication summarizes the results of the work of the International scientific conference, held in October of this year in Arkhangelsk. In the work of the scientific forum, its participants have accepted the decision about creation the Association of researchers of the Civil war in Russia.

Lyubichankovsky S.V. (Orenburg). Discussion about the effectiveness of the regional administration in the Russian Empire………. 140

In the publications is reported about the holding in the city of Orenburg all-Russian scientific conference with international participation «Regional management and the problem of efficiency of power in Russia (XVIII – the beginning of XXI century)», which was devoted to the three remarkable and memorable dates: 1150-th anniversary of the Russian statehood, the memory of Professor A.V. Remnev (1955–2012) and 60-anniversary since the birthday of Professor A.I. Repinecky, who is a member of the editorial Board of the journal for scientists «Clio».


Defendings theses have passed………. 143



Alexander Ivanovich Repinecky – 60 years!………. 144