Klio #2 (110) 2016

Actual Interview 

Interview of A.S. Gogun  (Berlin, Germany) with Professor Gregory Freeze (Brandeis University, USA) «Religion and Church in Russia today and yesterday» ………. 9

ALEXANDER SERGEEVICH GOGUN – Candidate of Historical Sciences, Doctoral student at the Free University of Berlin,  Friedrich Meneke Institute, Germany. Koserstr. 20, 14195  Berlin, Germany.

e-mail: a.gogun@fu-berlin.de

An interview with one of the leading Western experts on the history of the Russian Orthodox Church, Gregory Freeze, discussed the clergy in the XVII–XIX centuries. In the XVII parish priests were open class, in the XVIII–IXX centuries they became closed, but the educated class. After the Great reforms began the degradation of parish priests’ class – reducing the level of education and authority of the Church as an institution. Gregory Freeze considers trends in Western historiography in studying the Soviet Union, and says that at the moment considerable attention is given by researchers to the studying the history of minorities both Russia and the Soviet Union. Herewith if the domestic policy of the Soviet government had been reevaluated, and the western academic world as a whole had recognized the destructive nature of the collapsing system, the recognition of the foreign policy of the USSR as an insidious one is not finished yet.

Keywords: USSR, Russia, orthodoxy, autocracy, people, clergy, religious unit, class, revolutions, religiosity.

Interview of R.I. Shchuka (Saint Petersburg) with Professor Detlef Pollack (University of Munster, Germany) «Is Germany a leader of European Islamophobia?» ………. 15

ROMAN IOSIFOVICH SHCHUKA – Candidate of Historical Sciences, Researcher. 195220, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Grazhdanskiyj pr.,11.

e-mail: clioscience@gmail.com

An interview with Professor Detlef Pollack (University of Mьnster) discussed extremely high level of dislike by the Germans towards the Muslims. If the majority of the French, Danes and Dutch has a positive attitude to the Mohammedans, the majority of population in the Federal Republic of Germany has a negative attitude towards the Muslims. The author connects it with too small a number of contacts with the Muslims in everyday life, as well as the fact that the problems with the integration of the Muslims, living in Germany, have began to be discussed later than in other European countries. The third reason for the high German Islamophobia Detlef Pollack sees a feature of German Muslims, most of them came from the poor and less educated stratum of the traditional rural society. In the Mьnster professor’s opinion, increasing the number of the Muslims in Germany in the future can generate rejection and a variety of conflicts connected with the integration of the Muslims in Germany.

Keywords: Islamophobia, Germany, prejudice, racism, chauvinism, Muslims, integration, conflicts.


Source Studies 

S.V. Medvedev (Moscow). Problems of railway transport through the central soviet newspapers in 1931–1932 ……….. 19

SERGEY VLADIMIROVICH MEDVEDEV – Candidate of Historical Sciences, Senior Lecturer of Department of Political Sciences, History and Social Technologies, Humanitarian Institute, Moscow State University of Railway Engineering (MIIT). 127994, Russian Federation, Moscow, Novosuschevskaya ul. 22.

e-mail: speransky1809@yandex.ru

The article is devoted to the history of rail transport when the People’s Commissariat of Railways was managed by M.L. Rukhimovich and A.A. Andreev. Based on the information, got from the central soviet press, the author analyzes the problems of the railway transport, the evolution of initiatives of People’s Commissars and the reaction of journalists to the indiscipline of members of the departments of Railways and ordinary railwaymen. The article discusses the reports of the inspection visits made by the member of the Board NKPS, later the participant of the Commission of Soviet Control R.S. Zemlyachka, the correspondence got from car-repair plants and reports about «narrow places» of the railway industry. The author comes to the conclusion that the Soviet press participated in the campaign of the upcoming resignation of M.L. Rukhimovich. Change of the People’s Commissars did not lead to a radical improvement of statistical indicators of efficiency of railway transport.

Keywords: newspapers, railway transport, M.L. Rukhimovich, A.A. Andreev, R.S. Zemlyachka, engineers, railway carriage repairs, tandem drive, locomotive park, transportation.



E.V. Burlutskaya (Bannikova) (Orenburg), S.V. Filatova (Penza) Sin or nature? Drunkenness and card games in the daily life of the provincial merchants in the late XVIII–early XX centuries (on materials of the Volga-Ural region provinces) ………. 27

ELENA VADIMOVNA BURLUTSKAYA (BANNIKOVA) – Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Professor of Department of Russian history, Orenburg State Pedagogical University. 460014, Russian Federation, Orenburg, Sovietskaya ul., 19.

e-mail: ida777@yandex.ru.

SVETLANA VLADIMIROVNA FILATOVA – Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Philosophy, Penza State Tehnological University. 440039, Russian Federation, Penza, Baydukova pr. /ul. Gagarina 1а, #11.

Article is devoted to deviations in the daily leisure practice of the provincial merchant class in the late XVIII–early XX centuries. The authors reveal reasons and variants of deviant behavior of entrepreneurs, pay attention at the attitude of the society to such practices. Particular attention is drawn to the merchants’ predilection to alcohol and gambling. The article presents facts about the merchants of the Volga-Ural region. The authors conclude that alcoholism among the merchants was a frequent occurrence. The difficult conditions of professional activity, problems in family life and low level of general culture were the cause of painful predilection of merchants to alcohol. This deviation, due to its wide distribution in the Volga-Ural region, was perceived by society as a norm and not be criticized by people.

Keywords: merchant class, province, daily life, leisure, deviation, drunkenness, card games.

I.V. Belousov  (Moscow). Russian historians about Cossacks in the late XIX–early XX centuries (attempts of comprehending the changes in a social structure of Cossack regions in the Russian Empire) ………. 34

IGOR VIKTOROVICH BELOUSOV – Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Department of History, Institute of Social and Humanitarian education, Moscow State Pedagogical University. 119571, Russian Federation, Moscow, pr. Vernadskogo, 88.

E-mail: ivbelousov@mail.ru

The article deals with the attempts made by the historians of the XIX–XX centuries to analyze the past of Cossacks for understanding basic principles of self-identification of one of the most interesting social groups of the Russian Empire population. On the one hand, there are shown relevant attempts of a certain part of the scientific society and some other representatives of humanitarian sphere to ground the necessity of the conservative social structure in the Cossack community, which, in their opinion, is connected with stability of the state and political system of the country. On the other hand, there is revealed the tendency among a certain group of historians and other representatives of intelligentsia, solving the problems in other ways, who interpret the well-known historical facts in a different way. It is interesting that the discussion was held in peaceful time and it often had an abstract character but got tension and completion in the years of great shocks for people of the Russian Empire, revolutions, the First World and Civil Wars. Moreover, at present the problems, discussed at the beginning of the XX century, are becoming quite actual again.

Keywords: Cossacks, historiography, ethnos, modernization, reforms, nationalism, self-consciousness, ideology, society.

History of Russia 

D.A. Gromova (Moscow). Social status and living standards of people’s teachers according to the materials of teachers’ congresses (the end of the XIX–beginning of the XX) ………. 40

DARYA ANDREEVNA GROMOVA – Postgraduate student, Department of the History of Russia of the XIX–early XX century, Faculty of History, Moscow State University. 119234, Russian Federation, Moscow, Leninskie Gory 1, build. B, 819L.

e-mail: dkardail@yandex.ru

The article is devoted to the actual problems of teachers’ daily life in primary public schools, the discussion and solution of these problems during the teachers’ congresses – the first professional associations of people’s teachers. In particularly, the author focuses on the attitude of teachers to the peculiarities of their legal and domestic positions, which was expressed by general dissatisfaction with their status and searching joint ways to improve working and living condition. Thereby the emphasis is placed on the analysis of the proceedings of the 1st and the 2nd All-Russian mutual-aid societies congresses, which had been focused on discussion of investigated problems. The study of teachers’ needs and demands and attempts of solving these problems at the congresses allow to judge about the degree of maturity of the teachers’ corporate culture.

Keywords: teachers, primary school, district schools, mutual-aid societies, teachers’ congresses, social status, official position, financial status.

V.Y. Gessen  (Saint Petersburg). History of Palace Museums in Petrograd (1918–1925): Sheremetev, Shuvalov and StroganovPalaceMuseums ………. 47

VALERIY YUL’EVICH GESSEN — Candidate of Economic Sciences, independent researcher. 196233, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Zvezdnaya ul. 11/ 2, #140.

E-mail: gessen27@mail.ru

This article is a continuation of publishing the archival materials related to the history of creation of Palace Museums in Petrograd in the first post-revolutionary years, their activities and the liquidation process by 1925. If previous articles had considered YusupovPalace on the MoikaRiver, so this article deals with other major Palace Museums: Sheremetev, Shuvalov and StroganovPalaceMuseums. There were revealed circumstances of seizure conducted by Bolshevik authorities of property, located in these museums especially that had museum values, as well as «obihodnij» (things of everyday meaning). This property was for the realization. There were shown efforts of curators of Palace Museums in those difficult conditions in ensuring the safety of museum valuable things, their descriptions, possibility of preparing these things for review.

Keywords: Sheremetev, Shuvalova, Stroganov, Petrograd, palace, museum, seizure, inventory.

A.V. Luchnikov , V.V. Khasin  (Saratov). World of rational illusions in transition (rationalism and mysticism of the Soviet society of the late 1980’s) ……… 61

ANTON VIKTOROVICH LUCHNIKOV – Candidate of Historical Sciences, Department of Domestic history and historiography, Institute of History and International Relations, Saratov State University. 410012, Russian Federation, Saratov, Astrahanskaya ul.  83.

e-mail: aluchnikov@mail.ru

VLADIMIR VIKTOROVICH KHASIN – Candidate of Historical Sciences, Department of National history and historiography, Institute of History and International Relations, Saratov State University. 410012, Russian Federation, Saratov, Astrahanskaya ul. 83.

e-mail: hasinvv@gmail.com

The article considers the development of the Soviet ideology which was based on the traditional consciousness of the archaic agrarian population, on the specifics of perception of the social and cultural aspects. It included elements of mysticism and belief in the supernatural, especially these features were characterized in the Perestroika era. Perception of communication and spatial structures in Soviet society was changed. Social and cultural space of the Soviet man was ambivalent and included both objective reality and imaginary elements, made by society and authorities. One of the aspects of differences of two cognitive vectors became positivism or rather its social reception, which caused a kind of «crisis of faith» in a rational and an appearance of pseudo rationalism. The society verified the transcendent and supernatural phenomena using familiar Soviet positivist methodology. Objective social processes (urbanization, development of the consumer society, individualism, etc.) intensified the destruction of the traditional worldview in collectivist society. Epistemological vacuum was filled with mysticism and irrationalism.

Keywords: Perestroika, mysticism, social stereotypes, Soviet society, sacralization, desacralization, rationalism, Marxism.

History of Russian regions 

O.V. Severtseva  (Vyborg). Diseases, mutilations and compensation at their receiving by female workers at factories and plants of St. Petersburg in the second half of the XIX–beginning of the XX centuries ………. 66

OLGA VALENTINOVNA SEVERTSEVA – Postgraduate student, Department of History and Social Science, Pushkin Leningrad State University. 188800, Russian Federation, Vyborg, ul. Gagarina 10, #27.

e-mail: oseverseva@mail.ru

The article tells about insanitary working conditions of workers at factories and plants of St. Petersburg in the second half of the XIX–beginning of the XX centuries. Poor factory environment, designed by industrial entrepreneurs, destructively affected on women’s health and also contributed to a significant number of accidents. The payment in case of partial or total disability depended only on the honesty of entrepreneurs. The law, which was released in 1912, «On ensuring the workers in case of illness», opened up the possibility to control the cost and quality of medical service. But the workers saw in it only fact that the law would reduce their earnings because health insurance companies would have to function at the expense of the interest payments from the wages of employees.

Keywords: women, St. Petersburg, industrial enterprises, second half of the XIX–beginning of the XX centuries, diseases, mutilations, grants, health insurance.

I.Y. Yurganova (Yakutsk, Republic of Sakha (Yakutiya), Orthodoxy in the Soviet Yakutia: temple destruction (unknown facts and events) ………. 71

INNA IGOREVNA YURGANOVA – Candidate of Historical Sciences, Senior Researcher, Institute for Humanities, Research and Indigenous Studies of the North, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 677009, Republic of Sakha (Yakutiya), Yakutsk, Petrovskaya ul. 1.

e-mail: inna.yurganova@mail

The article based on the historical sources considers the brief history of closing of churches in Yakutia in 1920–1940, related with a state policy of the Soviet authorities concerning Russian Orthodox Church. It shows data on dynamics of church constructing in the pre-revolutionary Yakutia, first actions of the Soviet authorities regarding religion, number of churches on the area in the beginning of 1920s. The article reveals the information about their funds and mechanism of withdrawal of temples and temple property. There is shown activity of groups of believers in the city and districts, attempts to organize parish life and resistance within the current legislation against withdrawal of parish temples. The author concludes that the destruction of religion which was one of the problems of creation of communistic society included in particular destruction of the Orthodox churches which were playing the role of the information cultural centers uniting believers and that was especially important in faraway districts of the large Yakutia territory.

Keywords: Yakutia, temple, groups of believers, Russian Orthodox Church, fight against religion, diocese, clergy, religious values.

A.V. Shekh  (Murmansk). The development of political and social activity in Murmansk region in the period of Perestroika in the USSR, 1985–1991 ………. 77

ALEXANDER VLADIMIROVICH SHEKH – Postgraduate Student, Department of History and Law, Murmansk Arctic  State University. 183025, Russian Federation, Murmansk, ul. Trudovye rezervy 13, #64.

e-mail: Sheh28@yandex.ru

Perestroika in the Soviet Union (1985–1991) is one of the most complex and controversial periods in modern Russian history. The implementation of Perestroika policy has shown that abrupt and deep changes in political and public life of the country, initiated by Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee M.S. Gorbachev, mediated by a number of factors, among which an important role is played by the regional ones. In conditions of political pluralism in historical science new approaches let consider from different angles ongoing reforms at that time. The article gives analysis of political reforms in Murmansk region, in result of these appeared new and having had different ideological bases and directions of activities public and political associations as public organizations, democratic platforms, alliances and popular fronts.

Keywords: perestroika, parties, democracy, transparency, informal organizations, socialism, freedom, meetings, informals, popular front.

N.A. Lobinchev  (p. Svoboda, Kursk Region, Zolotuhinsky district). The history of the ecological situation on the territory of Kursk region in 1991–2014 ………. 86

NIKOLAY ALEKSANDROVICH LOBINCHEV – Postgraduate student, Department of Russian History, Kursk State University. 306050, Russian Federation, Kursk Region, Zolotuhinsky district, p. Svoboda, Elektricheskaya ul., 16.

e-mail: pilishvili.georg@yandex.ru.

This article based on historical sources and data analyzes the ecological situation on the territory of Kursk region in 1991–2014. The author studies in details the basic directions of nature protection work oriented to struggle against airspace, water pollution, land pollution and considers the system of utilization of municipal and industrial waste. The article tells that in the beginning of 1990s the ecological situation of Kursk region was complicated and could be characterized with multivariable pollution, which was based on two parameters – stationary and movable sources of pollution. In spite of the fact, that the statistics of that time registered the decrease of industrial and agricultural production in several times, which logically could lead to the releasing the pressure on the surrounding environment, but it didn’t happen because of the finance problems, which led to the reduction of programs, connected with greening of the production. In the beginning of 2000s the stabilization process was started in the economical sphere both in Russia and in Kursk region, which led to the increment of financing support for not only organizations of nature protection facilities, but also preventive measures which had been conducted by ecological services of Kursk region, and improvement of ecological situation in a whole.

Keywords: ecology, ecological policy, nature protection policy, Kursk region, contaminants, protection of ecological environment.

History of International Relations 

D.Y. Zhelobov (Yekaterinburg). Buddhist Turks in the eyes of Muslim Turkics: Gaochang Uighurs in Divan Lugat al-Turk by Mahmud al-Kashgari ………. 92

DMITRIY YEVGENYEVICH ZHELOBOV – Postgraduate student, Department of Oriental Studies, Institute of Social and Political Sciences, B.N. Yeltsin Ural Federal University. 620098, Russian Federation, Yekaterinburg, Chernoyarskaya ul., 51.


The article considers information of Gaochang Uighurs reported by Mahmud al-Kashgari in his famous dictionary of Turkic language «Divan Lugat al-Turk». The perception of Gaochang Uighurs by Turkic elite of Karahanid Khanate as Buddhists of different faith is analyzed in«Divan Lugat al-Turk». Also this perception was based on the «tat-tafgach» dichotomy. Based on the material of «Divan Lugat al-Turk» political and religious specificity of conflict between Gaochang Uighur state and Karahanid Khanate is studied in the article. A comparison of data from the «Divan Lugat al-Turk» and the Chinese official history «Song Shi» allows to make a suggestion about autonomous or even independent status of the territory of the Kucha oasis within Gaochang Uighur state, where in the period of confrontation between Karakhanid Khanate and Gaochang Uighur state, reflected in «Divan Lugat al-Turk», Buddhism was still the dominating religion.

Keywords: Karakhanid Khanate, Gaochang, Kucha, Turks, Uighurs, Islam, Buddhism, Mahmud al-Kashgari.

A.Y. Massov  (Saint Petersburg), S.N. Sinegubov  (Ishim, Tumen reg.). Problems of strengthening defenсe capability of the Commonwealth of Australia in reports of the Russian Consul General in Melbourne M. Hedenstrom ………. 97

ALEXANDR YAKOVLEVICH MASSOV – Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Head of Department of History and Culture, St. Petersburg State Marine Technical University; Professor of Department of American Studies,  St. Petersburg State University. 190008, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Lotsmanskaya ul. 3.

E-mail: amassov@gmail.com

STANISLAV NIKOLAEVICH SINEGUBOV – Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Professor of Department of History, Economics and Social Disciplines, P.P.Yershov Ishim State Teacher Training College. 627750, Russian Federation, Ishim, ul. Lenina 1.

E-mail: globus_75@inbox.ru

The article analyses reports of the Russian Consul General in Melbourne in 1908–1910 Matvey Hedenstrom in which he informed in detail the Russian Foreign Ministry about the Australia’s defence capability, formation its defence policy and first attempts of Australia to create its own Navy. After the defeat of Russia in the Russian-Japanese War the tsarist government had sought to clarify the new alignment of forces in the Pacific ocean and so it was interested in receiving the most complete and accurate information about the attitude to new Pacific realities of main participants of the foreign policy in Oceania. Russian Consul General was able to accurately describe the internal and foreign policy aspects of the formation of Australian defence policy and presciently saw that Australian efforts to create its own national Navy were a new step of the Commonwealth on the path of emancipation from the British mother country to the full sovereignty. However, estimates of the possible results of Australian efforts in the defence area were mediated by Hedenstrom’s personal views and convictions and didn’t fully correspond with reality. His pessimistic view of the perspectives of creating effective Australian Navy, the opportunities of Australia to protect itself and help to mother country was erroneous.

Keywords: Russian consuls in Australia, Matvey Hedenstrom, Royal Australian Navy, defence of Australia, British-German Naval rivalry.

N.B. Ryazantseva  (Saint Petersburg). From the integration to the uniting of society based on the example of the LatvianRepublic ………. 107

NATALYA BORISOVNA RYAZANTSEVA – Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, School of International Relations, Saint Petersburg State University. 191060, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, ul. Smolnogo 1/3, entrance 8.

e-mail: rnb@mail.sir.edu

The article discusses the problems of the integration processes in the LatvianRepublic. Particular attention is paid to the basic factor that determined intensifying of integration processes of national cultures at the present stage. The author analyses complex dynamics in state, social and national relations between the Latvian and Russian speaking population of Latvia after the Renewal of Independence when actually the state remained bilingual. The major factor of intensifying of integration processes was the historical memory of the Latvian population, based on the concept of particularism, the so-called practice of cultural apartness. Other factors were results of further struggle for the civil rights of the Russian-speaking population of Latvia: process of naturalization, reform of school education, approval for Russian the status of the second official language. The author paid special attention to the analysis of failure to create several projects of the government program on the search of compromise in the Latvian society. At the present stage a new idea of «Uniting of society» has substituted the idea of integration. However, the basic factor, in the author’s opinion, plays a decisive role (inconsistencies of creation of a single conception), offered on the basis of forming the national identity that is given as a political nation, but hereunder understood as a monoethnic one. In the course of the study, the author comes to the conclusion, that integration processes, undoubtedly, will remain as an important constituent for the Latvian population in the part of joint maintenance of traditional cultural values on a political basis.

Keywords: Russia, Baltic Sea Region, Latvia, information war, mass media, integration, politics of particularism, Russian-speaking population of Latvia, uniting society.

A.O. Koretsky  (Penza). Specifics of political activity of the Latvian Socialistic Party after the entry into the EU ………. 115

ARTYOM OLEGOVICH KORETSKY – Postgraduate student, Department of Theory and History of International Relations, Saint Petersburg State University. 440061, Russian Federation, Penza, ul. Tolstogo 5, #191.

e-mail: iskander2rogiy@yandex.ru

The article focuses on the activity of the Socialistic Party of Latvia after the entry of country into the EU. It analyzes the internal and foreign political activity taking into account the prospects that the joining the EU opened for this Party. For example, participation in European Left Associations and in activities of the fraction GUE/NGL in the European Parliament. The practical significance of the article lies in the possibility of using the results of research to study the political system of Latvia, because it considers a little-studied aspect in modern historiography like parties of the Radical Left Wing. The scientific significance of the article consists of a comprehensive analysis of activity of Socialistic Party of Latvia and using a wide range of sources. The article does an overall analysis of achievements of the Socialist parties and shows the importance of achievements of the Socialist Party of Latvia.

Keywords: Latvia, SPL, EU, Sejm, European Parliament, GUE/NGL.

R.V. Kostyuk (Saint Petersburg), A.O. Koretsky (Penza). Attitude of the European Radical Left to US foreign policy and NATO’s activities in the beginning of the XXI century ………. 124

RUSLAN VASILIEVICH KOSTYUK – Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Professor of Department of Theory and History of International Relations, Saint Petersburg State University. 198330, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, pr. Marshala Zakharova 60, #21.

e-mail: rouslan_k@mail ru

ARTYOM OLEGOVICH KORETSKY – Postgraduate student, Department of Theory and History of International Relations, Saint Petersburg State University. 440061, Russian Federation, Penza, ul. Tolstogo 5, #191.

e-mail: iskander2rogiy@yandex.ru

The article focuses on attitude of Anti-liberal Left forces of Europe to foreign policy of the USA and activity of the military and political pact NATO after the end of the «Cold War», first of all in the beginning of the XXI century. This scientific article based on the sources (software-political documents of transnational Left organizations and national Radical Left parties, statements of leading agencies, appearances and interviews of leaders, materials of the party’s press and etc.) of the Radical Left parties of Europe. European Radical Left retained after the «Cold war» period anti-Atlanticism and anti-American positions. After the end of the «Cold War» the most of Communistic and Left-Socialistic parties in Europe acted with a consistent and reasoned criticism about foreign policy conducted by the USA as in regard to European countries and regions, so and other territory parts of planet, especially in the Middle East. Radical Left critically evaluates a real policy of their own countries in relation to the USA, judges an «alignment» of the European Union related to the United States in the military-political sphere. Also the majority of the Radical Left parties are critical of the various aspects of NATO activity after the end of «Cold War». In the beginning of the XXI century Radical Left parties firmly opposed against the expansion of Atlantic Alliance to the East, were extremely disagree with the perspective of connecting to the NATO countries, which preserve the neutrality. Many Left parties in Europe entirely opposed and oppose now against maintaining the NATO as a military and political alliance. The article also presents that Radical Left negatively perceived and perceive now the policy of the USA and NATO activity on the former Soviet Union territory, in particular, the fact that was connected with appearing of the current crisis in Ukraine. The Radical Left does not consider that the US and NATO member states political course in relation to the Russian Federation is a constructive course.

Keywords: Radical Left, NATO, USA, imperialism, policy.

Vlasov N.A. (Saint Petersburg). From «unlimited solidarity» to decisive denial Germany and the operations in Afghanistan and Iraq ………. 135

NIKOLAY ANATOLYEVICH VLASOV – Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Theory and History of International Relations, Saint Petersburg State University. 191060, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, ul. Smolnogo 1/3, entrance 8.

e-mail: ovb1@yandex.ru

The article considers German foreign policy in 2001–2003 and especially position of the FRG towards the operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. The aim of the study is a question: why the German government supported the coalition leaded by the USA in one case and didn’t in the other one. The author analyses the issue in the context of German security policy. There’re considered different factors, which influenced on the decision-making process in both cases and within the security policy in general. In the author’s opinion, reasons behind the actions of the Schroeder government were complex and couldn’t be considered as a one factor. Nevertheless we can claim that in both cases the domestic political considerations played a crucial role.

Keywords: Germany, FRG foreign policy, USA, Afghanistan, Iraq, Bundeswehr.

M. S. Chakmak  (Adana, Turkey). Turkish and Russian Mass Media in conditions of radical change in the geo-strategic situation ………. 143

MAHMUT SEZER CHAKMAK – Postgraduate Student, Saint Petersburg State University of Economics. 70001, Turkey, Adana, Seyhan, Yesilyurt mah., sok. Evren sitesi F/4blok, no. 28.

e-mail: sezercakmak@hotmail.com

The article analyses geopolitical situation, which has been formed within the frameworks of the bilateral relations between Turkey and Russia during the 2014–2015 years. It also compares the positions of Russian and Turkish mass media in that period. The author emphasizes that the Russian mass media analyzed all the foreign political processes through the prism of the Ukrainian events. This approach disables the mass media to give an objective assessment to the world problems and events. The Turkish mass media put more emphasis on economic problematic. It also reflects the ambiguity of the Turkish position in foreign politics – the permanent balance between the Western and the Eastern directions. The media also reflected the definite change of the foreign policy line after the economic sanctions against Russian were imposed. The reorientation of Russian gas deliveries to the Eastern direction took place in that period. The Turkish mass media widely broadcasted the closure of the South Stream pipeline construction and the beginning of the Turkish stream construction. In the conclusion of the article the author summarizes that during the 2014–2015 years the relations between Russia and Turkey had been developing in the direction of the strategic partnership. This situation was widely reflected in the mass media of the both countries. The countries were developing energetic, economic, political and cultural cooperation. However the events of the November 2015, when the Russian bombardment aircraft was shot down, changed drastically the political situation and led to the sharp deterioration of the bilateral relations.

Keywords: Turkey, Russia, mass media, «The Turkish stream», EU, geopolitics, foreign policy, energetic resources, gas, oil.

B.A. Shiryaev  (Saint Petersburg). West – Russia. The state of perpetual alienation ………. 148

BORIS ANATOLYEVICH SHIRYAEV – Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Head of Department of American studies, School of International Relations, Saint Petersburg State University. 191060, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, ul. Smolnogo 1/3, entrance 8.

e-mail: shiraev@mail.sir.edu

The article focuses on some issues of the problem, which is a subject of interest for many decades. The author considers some reasons of negative perception of Russia in Europe, and consequences of distorted image of Russia for Europe. He believes that Russia and Europe are two great branches of one Christian civilization. Such cooperation is badly needed in the situation of the contemporary global crises. But in reality such cooperation has a minimum chance to be successful. The main reason of that is unfair demonization image of Russia in Europe, which has deep historical roots.

Keywords: Russia, Europe, Christian civilization, cooperation, confrontation.


Military History

V.A. Zolotarev (Moscow). The 75th Anniversary of the Great Patriotic War ………. 162

VLADIMIR ANTONOVICH ZOLOTAREV – Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, President of the international Academy of Historical and Social Sciences, Acting State Counselor of the Russian Federation of I class. 119330, Russian Federation, Moscow, Universitetskii pr. 14.

e-mail: zolotarev.va@yandex.ru

The author in his article dedicated to the 75th Anniversary of the Great Patriotic War, using the archival documents, draws attention to invasive plans of Hitler Germany towards the USSR. It analyses the situation in Europe and the whole world which was typical in 1930s, shows the role of the greatest world states in the development of political processes. Special attention was paid to the restructuring process of the Soviet institutions of government administration from the peaceful positions to military. It’s noted the role of the State Defense Committee and Supreme High Command General Headquarters in dealing with problems of enemy resistance. The author shows many facts connected with activities of these organizations and got from different archival sources. The article tries to take into consideration in nowadays conditions experience of the Great Patriotic War. It’s given characteristic of the term «hybrid warfare». The article notes that the generator of this war was the USA and its closest allies of NATO.

Keywords: Great Patriotic War, State Defense Committee, Supreme High Command General Headquarters, hybrid warfare, NATO, modern Russia.


History of Culture

E.S. Kaschenko  (Saint Petersburg). «As long as you play, you feel that you’re alive»: N.K. Cherkasov and his place in Russian cinema (1930–1950) ………. 180

ELENA SERGEEVNA KASCHENKO – Candidate of Art Criticism, Associate Professor, Department of Western and Russian Culture, Institute of History, Saint Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Mendeleevskaya liniya 5.

e-mail: e.kaschenko@spbu.ru

Famous Soviet actor, Nikolai Konstantinovich Cherkasov (1903–1966) in our opinion, is the most versatile native actor of the first half of the XX century. His biography connected with theatre and cinema equally. In 1923 he entered the Leningrad Institute of Performing Arts, Dramatic Department. Artist’s creative destiny was successful. In 1935 he played a great comic role in film «Goryachie denechki» (Hot days). In 1936 in the film «Deputat Baltiki» (Deputy of Baltic Naval) actor played a complex role, having proved that he could cope with any role. Cherkasov’s cinematic reputation allowed S.M. Ejzenštejn to give him a role of «Ivan Groznij» (Ivan the Terrible). The impact of Cherkasov’s works on the audience was very strong. He was treated with a great respect as a person with active social position. The main stages of his career were in politically difficult period of time. Does this influence on the contemporary evaluation of Cherkasov’s works?

Keywords: history of cinema, history of the USSR, Soviet cinema, N.K. Cherkasov, S.M. Ejzenstejn, Ivan the Terrible.

Reviews of Scholarly Publications 

V.A. Cholakhyan  (Saratov). Review of the publication «Viktor Chernov: destiny of Russian Socialist» / A.I. Avrus, A.A. Goloseeva, A.P. Novikov (M.: Kluch-S, 2015) ………. 184

VACHAGAN ALBERTOVICH CHOLAKHYAN — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Institute of History and International Relations, Saratov State University. 410012, Russian Federation, Saratov, Astrahanskaya ul., 83.

E-mail: vcholakhyan@yandex.ru

The article is a review of the monograph of A.I. Avrus, A.A. Goloseeva, A.P. Novikov dedicated to activity of one of the creators and leaders of Socialist Revolutionary Party V.M. Chernov. It paid attention to the fact that the authors having a great experience of researching the history of life and activities of V.M. Chernov made some important notes into revolutionist biography. In particular, they proved that V.M. Chernov was born not in Novouzensk city, as it was considered earlier, but in Hvolynsk city in Saratov province. The article notes that the monograph was written on the basic of a great number of archival documents and it gave an innovative character. Authors follow the activity of V.M. Chernov during his life and note this fact that he was always a patriot of Russia.

Keywords: V.M. Chernov, Socialist-Revolutionaries, Narodniks, Hvolynsk, terrorism, N.K. Mihailovsky, P.N. Milyukov, V.I. Ulyanov, V.A. Maklakov.

A.S. Andreev  (Saint Petersburg). Latin America in the Comintern: New Experience of Biographical dictionary ………. 189

ANTON SERGEEVICH ANDREEV – Postgraduate student, Centre of Iberoamerican Studies, Saint Petersburg State University. 191060, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, ul. Smolnogo 1/3, entrance 8.

e-mail: anton.andreev89@gmail.com

The review analyzes the book written by Saint Petersburg historians, experts in the history of the Left movement in Latin America, Lazar and Victor Jeifets «Latin America in the Communist International, 1919–1943: Biographical Dictionary» («America Latнna en la Internacional Comunista, 1919–1943 Diccionario biografico», Santiago de Chile, 2015). Particular attention is paid to the analysis of the documents and historiographical research base. The review shows the role of dictionary in modern historiography of Latin American Communist movement.

Keywords: Communist International, Latin America, Communism, biographical dictionary, Left-Wing movement.

N.G. Patrusheva  (Saint Petersburg). Why read other people’s letters (Office of postal censorship in Russia) ………. 194

NATALYA GENRIKHOVNA PATRUSHEVA – Doctor of Historical Sciences, Head of Sector of Bibliology, Section of rare books, National Library of Russia. 191069, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Sadovaya ul., 18.

e-mail: patrusheva@nlr.ru

The review is dedicated to research of V.S. Izmozik, which for the first time presents the history of postal censorship in Russia in the XVIII–early XX. Based on a wide range of sources this book comprehensively shows the emergence and development of the secret service, its goals and objectives, organizational structure, work methods, successes and failures. Great attention is paid to the personnel of «black cabinets».

Keywords: postal censorship, political spying, history of diplomacy, history of state institutions, history of bureaucracy.