Klio #5 (113) 2016




Lapina I.Y., Kargapoltsev S.Y. (Saint Petersburg). State and terrorism: the unity and struggle of opposites ……………………………………………………………………………………… 13

IRINA YURYEVNA LAPINA — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Head of the Department of History and Philosophy, Saint Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering. 190005, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, 2-ya Krasnoarmeiskaya ul. 4.

e-mail: soviet@lan.spbgasu.ru

SERGEY YURYEVICH KARGAPOLTSEV — Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of History and Philosophy, Saint Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering. 190005,  Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, 2-ya Krasnoarmeiskaya ul. 4.

e-mail: soviet@lan.spbgasu.ru

This article sets a semantic connection between the policy of state terror and terrorism in the world and domestic sociogenesis. It considers the basic concept of the theory of anarchist communism in Europe and Russia. The authors conclude that a conflict of interests and the social contradictions between the State and the individual. They diagnose the main components and motivation of revolutionary violence as a paradigm of the extremist statements of leaders in power. The article estimates the causal relationships of politicization of international terrorism in the modern globalized space.

It’s indicated typological features of totalitarian regimes in the past and present (French Bonapartism, Soviet Bolshevism, Italian Fascism, German National-Socialism, Chinese Maoism, etc.), as well as their relationship with the terror and terrorism. It evaluates the contemporary literature on the topic of state terror and terrorism. Also the article analyzes the consequences of Americanism policy as the main cause of the terrorism threat in the world and a new round of the Cold War.

Keywords: State, sociogenesis, revolutionary terror, anarchism, Russia, terrorism, extremism, radicalism, Americanism, globalization.




Soshnikova X.V. (Saint Petersburg). The Restoration era in France under the reign of Louis XVIII in «Son of the Fatherland» magazine ………………………………………………………………………………………. 22

XENIA VLADIMIROVNA SOSHNIKOVA – Postgraduate student, Department of Modern and Contemporary History, Institute of History, Saint Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Mendeleevskaya liniya 5.

e-mail: soshnikona_ks@mail.ru

The article is dedicated to the issue of the reflection of the Bourbon Restoration in France under the rule of Louis XVIII in the literary magazine «Son of the Fatherland». France was still a topic of interest in the articles of Russian periodical press after the Patriotic War of 1812 and the Foreign Campaign of Russian army. Based on the «Son of the Fatherland» magazine’s issues over the period of 1814–1824 the author regards a range of topics that were produced by the perception of French nation by the Russian public opinion. The opposition between Russian and French public, the theme of French sinfulness, the king image and the French everyday life were of particular importance among them. Apart from the articles of «Son of the Fatherland» the sources of this research include the archival material, in particular the reports of the Central Censor Committee.

Keywords: Louis XVIII, Patriotic War of 1812, Foreign Campaign of Russian army, Restoration era, magazine «Son of the Fatherland».




Nerovnyi A.V. (Saint Petersburg). Foreign historiography of Australian troops participation in the North Russia intervention in 1918–1919 ……………………………………………………………………….. 29

ARTYOM VIKTOROVICH NEROVNYI – Postgraduate student, Department of History and Region Studies, The Bonch-Bruevich Saint Petersburg State University of Telecommunications. 192177, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Karavaevskaya ul. 34, #110.

e-mail: art830@yandex.ru

The article analyzes the foreign historiography of Australian troops participation in the North Russia intervention in 1918–1919. The author divides North campaign in two periods of time, which is typical for foreign studies. He identifies the factors which made difficult studying of this theme for previous investigators and scientists. Presentation of the material in chronological order allows to show the intensity of the development of this field of knowledge on different temporary stages. For qualitative analysis of materials the author uses a wide range of works on the subject, including scientific, popular science and journalistic, and gives their brief descriptions in terms of content. Historiographical research is particular interesting because of its obscurity in the framework of Russian historical science.

Keywords: North Russia intervention in 1918–1919,  North Russia campaign, North Russian expeditionary force, North Russian relief force, military history of Australia.




Balashov A.A. (Kursk). Saltiv antiquities on the territory of Seym region: the issue of interethnic contacts ………………………………………………………. 35

ALEXANDR ALEXANDROVICH BALASHOV – Researcher, Research Institute of South-East Russia Archaeology, Kursk State University. 307250, Kursk reg. , Kurchatov, Naberezhnaya ul. 7, #185.

e-mail: 2012balashov@gmail.com

The article is dedicated to the study of Khazar products made from non-ferrous metals that are found on the territory of Seym region. In total more than 60 findings (belt elements, jewelry, clothing parts) from 17 permanently studied monuments and a number of unspecified places are analyzed. On the basis of an extensive historiography all the findings have been reasonably divided into three groups: actual Saltiv antiquities, things wrongly attributed to them previously and things with a disputed place of production.

It is for the first time that a most complete catalog of Khazar products made from non-ferrous metals which were found on the territory of Seym region is given within one work. A part of the findings comes from predatory excavations on the territory of Kursk region and can be dated only with the involvement of a wide range of Saltiv analogies. The author notes that the clarification of the time of Khazar antiquities’ existence deep in Slavic lands has allowed to talk with more reason about long Slavic-Alan-Bulgarian contacts.

Keywords: Seversk land, Khazarian Khaganate, Romensky culture, Saltiv-mayatsky culture, Severian-Alan-Bulgarian relationship, Seym region.




Babenkova J.V. (Saint Petersburg). The ideology of the tyrants in Heraclea Pontica ………………………….47

JULIA VLADIMIRIVNA BABENKOVA – Postgraduate Student, Department of Ancient Greeсе and Romе, Institute of History, Saint Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Mendeleevskaya liniya 5.

E-mail: juily.babenkova@gmail.com

The article is dedicated to the ideological policy that was in the period of the rule of the tyrants in Heraclea Pontica. The tyrants conducted their policy in the fields of economy, religion and military arts, being in complicated circumstances they still provided support to certain social strata. Their power represented a kind of specific historical phenomenon combining both – authorities of an autocratic ruler and polis government institutions. From the very beginning of the tyranny establishment in Heraclea the problem of power retention was very acute. Clever ideological policy appeared very effective in strengthening the tyrants’ power over the civilians and over the conquered territories. The ruling dynasty of Clearchus achieved support of the majority of herakleotos. As a result we see a birth of the ruler cult (Clearchus, Timotheus, Dionysius and Amastris). And that was the beginning of the process which later led to «intravitam» deification of the Hellenistic kings. And from this point of view Heraclea governors were the ancestors of the Hellenism epoch kings.

Keywords: ideology, tyranny, Zeus,   Heraclides Ponticus, cult,  , Amastris, Anahit, Hellenism.

Antonova L.V. (Pskov). «Federation would save our Empire in war, or, better still, from war»: conception of law and justice in the Empire building and the Imperial defence ………………………………. 53

LIDIA VLADIMIROVNA ANTONOVA – Postgraduate Student, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of General History, Herzen State Pedagogical University. 180016, Russian Federation, Pskov, Yubileinaya ul. 85, #12.

e-mail: antonova.lidia.24@yandex.ru

The relevance of the research topic is determined by the demand for comprehension of the historical experience of the British Empire state building as one of the factors to strengthen its defence and peacekeeping capacities. Based on the conference papers of the Royal Colonial Institute held in 1886 within the Colonial and Indian Exhibition in London the article considers the opinions of the federalists – officers, colonial officials and public figures – about the defence of the future Union, the role of the colonies in the prevention of war, their «fair» contribution to Imperial defence. It revealed the presence of two complementary views: conversion of the Empire on a federal basis and the creation of a legislature with representation of the colonies is the way to strengthen the defence capability of the Power; Federation can be an instrument for preventing of the armed conflicts. It is concluded that in British society were spreaded the perceptions of renewed Empire as a guarantor of the rule of law and justice.

Keywords: British Empire, Colonial and Indian Exhibition of 1886, Imperial Federation, Royal Colonial Institute, Imperial defence, Imperial building, conception of law and justice, the prevention of armed conflicts, J. Colomb, F. Labilliere.




Bogdanov A.P. (Moscow). Dispute on Privilege of Moscow Academy XVII century ………………………… 60

ANDREY PETROVICH BOGDANOV – Doctor of Historical Sciences, Leading Researcher, Institute of Russian History, Russian Academy of Sciences. 117036, Russian Federation, Moscow, ul. Dmitriya Ulyanova 19, #40.

e-mail: bogdanovap@mail.ru

The article discusses all controversial issues of content and forms of the Privilege of the Academy in 1682, the evaluation of the motives of its composer Sylvester Medvedev, as well as the problem of approving the document by Tsar Fyodor. It proves that the Privilege is the Сharters (Letters patent) of the Tsar, one of the most formal, authoritative and stable document of Tsars power. All Сharters texts, questionable from the colleagues’ point of view because of their brutality, are citations of current laws on protection of the Orthodox faith from heterodoxy and magic. The Charter puts these laws under the control of the Academic Council of the Autonomous University and outputs Science out of the Church authorities. Medvedev was charged for selfish motives and they appeared false. He was attributed the motives of his opponents, who accused the scientist of heresy and they achieved creation in Moscow the Slavic-Greek schools under the rule of the Patriarch instead of Autonomous State University with study of all languages of science. The article proves that the contemporaries appreciated the fact of approval of the Letters Patent, and did not consider Schools created Medvedev’s opponents as the University, which principles were established by the Tsar.

Keywords: Moscow Slavic-Greek-Latin Academy, Tsar Fedor Alekseevich, Sylvester Medvedev, protection laws of Orthodox faith, enlighteners, philhellene.

Spiridonova E.K. (Saint Petersburg). Caspian expedition of academician Karl Ernst von Baer in 1853–1857: the government order and the organization of the study of marine resources ……………………….. 77

EKATERINA KONSTANTINOVNA SPIRIDONOVA – Postgraduate Student, Department of Region Studies, Institute of History, Saint Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Mendeleyevskaya liniya 5.

e-mail: st035424@student.spbu.ru

The author considers the main stages of preparation and research directions of the Caspian expedition (1853–1857) of K. Baer. In its program the well-known scholar identified technical, statistical and natural history sections. The article focuses on the fact that the organization of the scientific trip, in addition to the Academy of Sciences, was firstly started by the Russian Geographical Society and the Ministry of State Property. Based on the new knowledge, extracted during the expedition, the authorities subsequently carried out reforms. In 1865 a new charter of the Volga-Caspian Fisheries was approved. Later, the Imperial Russian society of fish-farming and fishery which opened in 1881 also implemented various ideas of K. Baer for fish protection. Thanks for the surveys of K. Baer, in particular which were carried out during the expedition to the Caspian Sea, the foundations of the domestic ichthyology have been laid.

Keywords: Academy of Sciences, K.E. von Baer, Caspian expedition, Caspian Sea, fishing, fishing control, fisheries, government order.

Grebenyuk A.V. (Nizhny Novgorod). Church-state relations era of unification of the North-Eastern Russia in the works of Russian canonists last quarter of the XIX – early XX centuries ………………………………… 83

ALEXEY VIKTOROVICH GREBENYUK – Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of National History and Culture, Nizhny Novgorod State Architectural and Construction University. 603950, Russian Federation, Nizhny Novgorod, Il’inskaya ul. 65.

e-mail: grebenyuk.7aleksey@gmail.com

The article shows the features of the disclosure of the theme of Church and State relations in the XIV–XV centuries in the new area of legal knowledge of the second half of the XIX century – in Russian canonical science. It gives characteristic of theoretical and methodological tools of historians having studied the canon law, which were applied then in the study of the problem and it determined its perception. It’s showed the aspects of Church and State interaction in the XIV–XV centuries that became a result of studying this interaction as an issue relating to the historical and legal problems of the Church. The author finds out the channels and ways of mutual influence of the canons and its «related» disciplines such as the history of the Russian Church, state study, civil history, moral theology in the process of studying this topic in the domestic scientific thought in the second half of the XIX–early XX centuries. It’s analyzed the results of this influence, having expressed in the formulation of new questions connected with the problem of relationship between the Church and State authorities during the period of formation of unified Russian state. That, in turn, allows us to identify the vectors of theme development in pre-revolutionary historiography.

Keywords: Russian history of canon law, Church and State relations in the XIV–XV centuries, Russian canonists.

Apal’kov D.I. (Moscow). The debates in the Politburo as a tool of intraparty struggle in the Bolshevik party of 1925–1927 ……………………………………………………………………………………. 93

DMITRY IGOREVICH APAL’KOV – Postgraduate Student, Department of the History of Russia of  XX–XXI c., Faculty of History, Moscow State University. 119234, Russian Federation, Moscow, Leninskie Gory 1, B-949.

e-mail: apal_d@mail.ru

The author puts debates in the Politburo into the context of the intraparty struggle and examines the debates as a tool of the struggle on the basis of the Politburo meetings transcripts . The focus of the article is on the political rhetoric of the opposing sides: its efficiency and the boundaries of the acceptable in discrediting opponents. The author comes to the conclusion that the method of discrediting through transcripts was on the whole under control of the majority fraction. Another conclusion is that rhetoric of the Politburo debates is characterized by passing through three stages of expansion of the acceptable boundaries. Until the end of 1926 the boundaries of the acceptable outlined by the traditions of party ethics prevented systematic use of extreme political accusations at the Politburo meetings.

Keywords: Politburo, intraparty struggle, transcripts, discredit, political rhetoric, bounds of admissible, majority faction, opposition.




Rykov A.V. (Breitovo, Yaroslavl region). Renovationist schism in the territory of contemporary Rybinsk diocese. 1920–1927 ……………………………………………………………. 102

ANDREY VLADIMIROVICH RYKOV – Priest, Ss Cyril and Methodius School of Post-Graduate and Doctoral Studies. 152760, Russian Federation, Yaroslavl region, Breitovskiy rayon, Breitovo, Church of The Nativity Of John The Baptist,  Respublicanskaya ul.

e-mail: Andreirykov@yandex.ru

This article describes historical events of the life of the Russian Orthodox Church. The period under review covers seven years and started in 1920, when the Soviet authorities had applied to the Russian Orthodox Church all of that moment means. The Church was deprived of financial savings, confiscated real estate and lost legal status, the wave of repressions took the lives of many faithful children of Orthodoxy. However, the government still saw in front of them strong and, as it seemed, dangerous opponent. In the period under review, in addition to the campaign on withdrawal of Church values, which was described in a separate article, the Soviet government initiated and actively supported the Renovationist schism in the hope to destroy the Russian Orthodox Church from inside and get the Renovationists-allies, who completely supported the Soviet state. The author traced the development of the Renovationist schism in the borders of the modern Rybinsk Diocese of the Russian Orthodox Church. The development of events is presented in chronological order. It’s analyzed the sources of division, administrative methods and stages of distribution of Renovationism ideas. The article describes the changing situation of the Russian Orthodox Church. It shows some of the obstacles that the new government and the Renovationists were faced. Also it shows the attitude of the clergy towards the changes carried out by the Soviet authorities.

Keywords: Rybinsk diocese, Renovationist schism, Church and revolution, Russian Orthodox Church, Soviet power.

Orav V.A. (Saint-Petersburg). The problems of melioration on the Karelian isthmus in the late 1940s and the early 1950s …………………………………………………………………………………. 108

VLADIMIR ALEKSEEVICH ORAV – Postgraduate Student, Department of Modern History of Russia, Saint Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Mendeleevskaya liniya 5.

e-mail: v.oraw@yandex.ru

This article studies the issue of developing of melioration system. The Karelian Isthmus was one of most economically developed region of Finland, which became a part of the USSR in 1944. The author considers existed melioration methods in the studied period, changes that were brought in the excess water deferent system, aims and problems of the melioration network reconstruction and its ultimate results. The Karelian Isthmus had a ramified melioration network stipulated by specific soil and climate conditions. This network included 90 thousand kilometers of drains built by Finns. This colossal equipment fell to desolation during the Great Patriotic War and it demanded restoration. Soil fertility directly depended on status of the system. However, regional government did not dispose sufficient resources for the maintenance. Moreover, new requirements were presented to melioration. It had to enable to cultivate farmland by means of tractors. At the same time, Finns didn’t use mechanic, but cart traction. As a consequence, there was made a decision to abolish a shallow drainage network for three fourths of arable lands and to substitute on another lands the old network for tile drainage. The author concludes that the reconstruction was initiated by regional leadership, who had headed Leningrad and region since «Leningrad affair». The decision about reconstruction was caused by longing to compensate costs of «socialist’s economy» such as high horse losses level. The decision also had not a scientific substantiation and a material and technical base.

Keywords: melioration, drainage ditch, bogging, tractor, pottery tubes, Northern scientific-research institution of hydrotechny and melioration.




Qu Xueping, Wu Yanqiu (pr. Zhejiang, China). Quantitative changes of the Russian emigration in China during the period of 1920–1940 ……………………………………………………………………………. 113

XUEPING QU – Postgraduate student, Department of Russian History and archival studies, School of Humanities, Far Eastern Federal University. 690922, Russian Federation, Vladivostok, Russian OPS-2, 9, №5034.

e-mail: xueping.qu@mail.ru

YANQIU WU – Candidate of Historical Sciences, Zhejiang Yuexiu University of Foreign Languages. Zhejiang province of China, Huaiji st. 428.

e-mail: qiuqiu1984815@163.com

Since the construction of the Chinese Eastern Railway, there used to be hundreds of thousands of Russian expatriates residing in the Northeast of China. This group of Russian expatriates had been wandering in the Northeast of China for nearly half of a century and their population, ethnicity, gender, age, marital status, and occupation had changed over that period. They either returned to their motherland or moved to other European countries after the end of the Second World War and China’s anti-Japanese war. Nowadays this particular historical phenomenon attracted more and more attention of the academic circles of China and Russia. The authors consider quantitative and qualitative changes of the ethnic composition of that group of Russian expatriates. This article will be useful to the research of the Northeast Russian immigrant history.

Keywords: Russian diaspora, Russian emigrants, social and political life, Manchuria, re-emigration, Russian population, ethnic composition, Chinese Eastern Railway, Harbin.

Meshcheryakov K.Y. (Saint Petersburg). The Russian-Kazakh relations during the «Ukrainian crisis» …………………………………………………………………… 118

KONSTANTIN YEVGENIEVICH MESHCHERYAKOV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Deputy Head of Department of the Post-Soviet studies, School of International Relations, Saint Petersburg State University.
191060, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, ul. Smolnogo 1/3, Entrance VIII.

e-mail: k.mesheryakov@spbu.ru

The article analyzes the evolution of the Russian-Kazakh relations in 2014–beginning of the 2016. The author said that the impact of the «Ukrainian crisis» on the development of bilateral cooperation was mostly negative. Russian intervention in the internal affairs of a neighboring state, and the restoration of its sovereignty over the territory of Crimea raised Kazakh deep concerns over its national security. The ensuing aggravation of antagonisms between Russia and the West caused severe challenges for Astana. Russia and Kazakhstan sharply reduced bilateral trade, and froze the implementation of major joint projects. Moscow refused to rent several strategic facilities in Kazakhstan, and a prospect of termination of two parties’ cooperation in the field of space loomed on the horizon. Russia lost its leadership in the post-Soviet space in the field of hi-tech, and ceded that segment of cooperation with Kazakhstan to the EU, US, Japan, and South Korea. The two countries’ main integration project, the Eurasian Economic Union, plunged into a crisis. Russian diplomacy became too unpredictable for Kazakhstan, which perceived it as manifestation of great power and imperial policy violating the allied status of bilateral relations. Therefore, despite the both sides’ efforts of maintaining a high level of interaction, the Russian-Kazakh relations dramatically cooled.The article based on a wide range of information sources originating both from Russia and Kazakhstan, most of which are first involved into academic circulation.

Keywords: Russia, Kazakhstan, foreign policy, diplomacy, international relations, strategic partnership, military-political alliance, post-Soviet integration, Customs Union, Eurasian Economic Union, Baikonur Space Center, Crimean Spring, Ukrainian crisis.

Sapanov S.Z., Azerbaev S.G. ( Almaty, Republic of Kazakhstan). The historical experience of economic relations between Kazakhstan and African countries ……………………………………………. 135

SAIFULLAH ZHUMABAEVICH SAPANOV – Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the Department of Chinese Studies, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University. 050026, Republic of Kazakhstan, Almaty, ul. Karasai Batyr 95.

e-mail: cefosh1@mail.ru

SALAVAT GUBAIDULLOVICH AZERBAEV – Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Kazakh Ablai Khan University of International Relations and World Languages. 050022, Republic of Kazakhstan, Almaty, ul. Muratbaeva 200.

e-mail: cefosh1@mail.ru

This article deals with the historical experience of economic relations between Kazakhstan and African countries in the 60–70 years of XX century. The article analyzes the dynamics of development of economic relations of the Kazakh SSR with such African countries as Egypt, Algeria, Republic of Ghana, Republic of Guinea, Kenya, Morocco, Republic of Mali, Republic of Somalia, Ethiopia and others.

For many Kazakhs, these contacts were a good experience for professional growth. Kazakh companies have been exported to African countries condenser blasting machines, electric voltage stabilizers, isolation materials and steel reinforcement. The evidence of strengthening the cooperation between African and Kazakh scientists is the fact of research trainings in Kazakhstan and the exchange of scientific delegations, and scientific and artistic literature with the scientists of Kazakhstan. Kazakh–African relations got a new shape during the years of independence. If in the past Kazakhstan had accessed to African countries through the all-Soviet Union ministries and departments, now it has the capacity to carry out communications directly.

Keywords: economy, cooperation, Africa, Kazakh SSR, industrial enterprises, fraternal assistance, cultural ties, disintegration of the USSR, new stage of development.

Khabalov A.T. (Moscow). Preconditions of formation of the European policy of the Eastern Partnership ……………………………………………………………………………. 141

ALAN TAYMURAZOVICH KHABALOV – Candidate of Historical Sciences, Department of Political Sciences and Law, Moscow Region State University. 105005, Russian Federation, Moscow, ul. Radio 10.

e-mail: habal@yandex.ru

The article considers causes and preconditions of forming the European policy of the Eastern Partnership, directed on such Post-soviet republics as Ukraine, Moldova, Belorussia, Armenia and Azerbaijan. It underlines that, in spite of officially declared aims of program, including the legal and economic closing of these countries with the EU, and this process based on geopolitical aspirations of the European Union.

The article based on wide Russian and foreign historiography, and also documents of the published sources. The author attempts to compare the positions of different authors, regarding the formation problem of folding preconditions of European Policy of the Eastern Partnership. In the author’s opinion the current state of the Eastern Partnership process does not meet the expectations of the majority of its member countries. Only Ukraine, Moldova and Georgia in the opinion of A.T. Khabalov continue contradictory movement towards the EU.

Keywords: policy of European Neighborhood, program of the Eastern Partnership, geopolitical aspirations of the EU, agreement of Association with the EU.




Lar’kin V.V. (Saint Petersburg). The impact of political repressions on the combat training of troops of the Transcaucasian Military District in 1937–1938 …………………………………………………. 150

VALENTIN VIKTOROVICH LAR’KIN – Associate professor, Department No. 6, Mikhailovskaya Military Artillery Academy. 195009, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, ul. Komsomola 22.

e-mail: valentin_larkin@mail.ru

The article is dedicated to the issues related to political repressions in the Transcaucasian Military District in 1937–1938. On the basis of archival documents the author analyzed the impact of political repressions on combat training of troops of the Transcaucasian Military District. Particular attention is paid to the quality of commander training and operational training of staffs, in conditions of unfolding political cleaning officers in the Transcaucasian

Military District. The evidence of the political repression effects on the level of combat training of troops of the Transcaucasian Military District bases on the reports of the administrative board of the Transcaucasian Military District on the outcome of these military councils of that historical period. This article attempts to reveal the reasons of personnel shortage in the Transcaucasian Military District that emerged by the end of 1937, and also show the effects of the reduction and renovation of main types of managers whose work connected with daily and combat activities.

Keywords: Transcaucasian Military District, political repressions, combat training, command structure, operational training headquarters, commander training, tactical training, military council.




Panichkin A.Ph. (Saint Petersburg). 18th Century Saint-Petersburg Parish Clergy ……………………….. 155

ALEXANDR PHILIPPOVICH PANICHKIN – Archpriest, Candidate of Theology, Assistant Chief of Military Training and Research Center of Russian Navy, N.G. Kuznetsov Naval Academy, Senior Priest of the St. Paul the Confessor and St. Righteous Warrior Feodor Ushakov Church, Peter the Great Naval Corps. 199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, nab. Leitenanta Shmidta 17.

E-mail: alpriest13@yandex.ru

Based on numerous archival records from the St. Petersburg Central State Historical Archive that are for the first time ever introduced for the scientific use, as well as on the Complete Collection of Laws of the Russian Empire, the Complete Collection of Decisions and Orders of the Department of Orthodox Confession, the Descriptions of Documents and Archive Files of the Holy Governing Synod, and Historical and Statistical Information about the St. Petersburg Diocese, the article describes St. Petersburg parish clergy in the XVIII: their upkeep, education, preaching, living conditions and stratification; punishments and rewarding applied to the clergymen. The article tells about the principles of appointing of priests to parishes, shows how the elective principle was gradually replaced with appointment by bishops, including in order to weaken the influence of the nobility on the priests’ appointment and to give preference to candidates graduated from seminaries. The author elaborates on succession of spiritual positions from father to son. The article names some of the best preachers of that time in St. Petersburg and is abundantly supplemented with examples of archival materials.

Keywords: spiritual consistory, parish clergy, clergy punishments, clergy rewards, preaching in St. Petersburg, clerical education.

Volkovskiy N.L. (Saint Petersburg). Problems of development of national theory  of journalism in the 1950s ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 168

NIKOLAY LUKYANOVICH VOLKOVSKIY — Doctor of Philological Sciences, Professor of the Department of Theory of Journalism and Mass Communications, St. Petersburg State University. 199004, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, 1 liniya V.O. 26

e-mail: vnluk@yandex.ru

This article discusses the features of the development of the domestic theory of journalism in the first decade of the second half of the XX century. The reforms began in the country after the death of Stalin, created more favorable conditions for the formation of the university journalism education. This process has stimulated the development of the science of the press: to improve the training of specialists was required a fully develop the theory of journalism. At any university faculties and departments of journalism there were research centers for the development of the theory of journalism. On the basis of the analysis of the sources the author reveals the conditions and issues that impacted on the formation of the science of journalism, shows the main trends and directions that established in media research, radio and television, and influenced on the development of the theory of journalism in the coming decades.

Keywords: genre, journalism, newspaper, science, research, monograph, essay, print, radio, television, theory.




Klykova E.D. (Moscow). Wrongfully accused (Murder of the Minister of National Education N.P.  Bogolepov) ………………………………………………………………………………. 174

EVGENIYA DMITRIEVNA KLYKOVA – Postgraduate Student, Department of Russian history of the XIX – beginning of the XX century, Faculty of History, Moscow State University. 117628, Russian Federation, Moscow, Kulikovskaya ul. 3, #48.
e-mail: janika91@yandex.ru

The article represents an essay of the activity of the Minister of National Education Nickolaj Pavlovich Bogolepov. The author focused on the personal and professional method of Bogolepov as the Minister and Professor to the university problems as well as his view on the proper course of the university life. In this article the author tries to follow the dynamics of the studying youth’s view on the situation in the university at the conditions created by the Minister Bogolepov’s policy. His policy was in line with the whole governmental course. Also this article tries to follow the certain noticeable changes in methods which students used to influence on the government. While investigating imminent social and political crisis (the end of the XIX – beginning of the XX century) the author firstly studies the role of a single although high-ranking person at his efforts to overcome that crisis. Unfortunately these efforts were in vain because by that time the system crisis was so severe that gradual, slow, careful measures of the honest and responsible minister couldn’t block the increasing disturbance wave. The situation in the university was in one’s way a model of the social and political situation in the whole country. Month after month it became more and more trouble. The abyss was forming between government and society.

Keywords: university regulations of 1884, N.P. Bogolepov, university, student movement, «Temporary rules», first student strike, P. Karpovich, political killing, socialist-revolutionary.

Sheh  A.V. (Murmansk). «Separatism» and «anti-separatism» in the socio-political development during Perestroika in the USSR (1985–1991) on the example of political leader Boris Yeltsin and writer Vladimir Bykov ……………………………………………………………………………….. 182

ALEXANDER VLADIMIROVICH SHEH – Postgraduate Student, Department of History and Law, Arctic Murmansk State University. 183025, Russian Federation, Murmansk, ul. Trudovye rezervy 13, #64.

email: Sheh28@yandex.ru

The reforms of the political, economic and social life of the country which were initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev in 1985, showed the inability of the authorities to control over the compliance with the rule of law that’s necessary to ensure stability during the taking place political process. The consequences were the numerous ethnic conflicts and manifestations of separatism.

The article provides the analysis of social and political development of the Belarusian SSR and Murmansk region of the RSFSR on the background activities of V.V. Bykov, and B.N. Yeltsin, resulting the appearing of new and different for ideological reasons the CPSU alternative political and social associations expressing nationalist and separatist views. One of the most famous of these is the inter-regional deputies group and the Russian factor appeared in the political reality.

Keywords: Perestroika, pluralism, separatism, election, publicity, socialism, Russian factor, democracy, reform, CPSU Central Committee.




Halina E.S. (Moscow). The scenarios of the future development of the EU-Russia energy relations  for the period up to 2020 ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 198

EKATERINA SERGEEVNA HALINA — Postgraduate student, Department of World Politics and International Relations, Russian State University for the Humanities. 125993, Russian Federation, Moscow, GSP-3, Miusskaya pl. 6.

e-mail: 29-katya@mail.ru

This article discusses the prospects of development of the EU-Russia energy relations. A starting point which is considered to be the events of the Ukrainian crisis of 2014 that became the most serious conflict in relations between Russia and the EU for the period after the end of the Cold war. The author examines the influence of events in Ukraine on the energy policy of each party and the possible development of relations between Russia and the EU for the period up to 2020: confrontation, cooperation, preservation of the status quo. Based on the analysis of available data the author comes to the conclusion that the greatest chance for implementation is the inertial scenario of development, involving the maintenance of existing relations. While both Russia and the EU will seek to gradually reduce mutual dependence in the energy field.

Keywords: Russia, European Union, energy strategy, sanctions, energy security, future scenarios.




Poltorak S.N. (Saint Petersburg). Review of the official opponent on the dissertation  of V.A. Gurov «Russian Armed Forces and their role in resolving the armed conflicts in 1988–2008» ………………… 205

SERGEY NIKOLAEVICH POLTORAK — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Editor-in-Chief of journal for scientists «Klio», Professor of Department of History and Regional Studies, Bonch-Bruevich Saint Petersburg State University of Telecommunications. 195220, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Grazhdanskiy pr. 11.

E-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru

The article is a review of the official opponent on the doctoral dissertation of V.A. Gurov dedicated to the history of the Soviet (Russian) Armed Forces activity in the XX–XXI. It notes that one of the research peculiarities is a unique source database – Funds of the president’s archives of some Central Asian states. V.A. Gurov not only did a fundamental research of archival and published documents but also could compare it with his own combat experience. The author of the dissertation is a participant in military actions in «hot spots». The uniting of this researching work with author’s experience has allowed the applicant to prepare a scientific work approaching the objective coverage of issue. In the opinion of the official opponent. Dissertation of V.A. Gurov «Russian Armed Forces and their role in resolving the armed conflicts in 1988–2008» deserves a high appreciation, meets all the necessary requirements for the doctoral dissertations on the Russian history and the applicant deserves to be awarded the degree of the Doctor of Historical Sciences on specialty 07.00.02 – Russian history.

Keywords: V.A. Gurov, «hot spots», Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Armed Forces of the USSR, Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.




Leiberov A.I. (Saint Petersburg). Review on the book of L.A. Nalivkin «Baltic pilots at the beginning of the Great Patriotic War: Aviation of the Baltic region in the summer of 1941.  St. Petersburg: Nestor-Istoria, 2015 ………………………………………………………………………………….. 209

ANDREY IGOREVICH LEIBEROV – Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of History,  Saint Petersburg State Mining University. 199106, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, 21 liniya V.O. 2.

e-mail: Leybmih@mail.ru

This review provides a brief analysis of the recently published monograph by the historian, who studied the Soviet Naval aviation, Leonid Nalivkin, which was dedicated to the analysis of the activity of the Baltic Air Force during the summer of 1941. The reviewed book is based on a wide variety of sources: the military archives, published materials, and memoirs. The author convincingly argues that the prevailing stereotype in literature about the unconditional domination of German aircraft in the sky over the Soviet Union was not an absolute in relation to the Baltic region, where Naval aviation operated at least on equal with the enemy air force, and in many respects superior to it. A special place in the investigation takes the theme of the bombing of Berlin in the summer of 1941 by the forces of the Baltic Naval Aviation. The book contains a very informative applications, references, glossary of aviation terms. Written in a professional manner, the book is interesting and easily to read.

Keywords: Baltic Fleet, Air Force, bomber, fighter, buttleplane.




Jubilee of professor A.V.  Losik ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 211

This article is devoted to the Jubilee of Professor A.V. Losik (The 70th Anniversary). He is a famous Russian historian, founder of the historical school for the study of the history of domestic military industry, Doctor of Historical Sciences and Professor. The article tells about his life as a scholar, the process of forming his scholarly school and also his students. Many of them have become the doctors of sciences and professors. It notes the great contribution which made Aleksandr Vitaljevich in the development of the issue of the history of the Russian (Soviet) military industry.

Keywords: A.V. Losik, history of military industry, History of the Great Patriotic War, modern military industry.