Klio #2 (86) 2014

Theoretical issues

Grebenuk A.V. (Nizhny Novgorod). Historians of law of XIX – the beginning of ХХ centuries about the role of Russian Orthodox Church in forming a united Russian State……… 3

The article analyses theoretical and methodological installation and methods of studying by historians of law of XIX – the beginning of ХХ centuries the problem of influence of the Russian Orthodox Church on the process of formation a united Russian state. Justifies the allocation of this group of researchers as an independent direction in the historiography of the problem.

Key words: historians of law of XIX – the beginning of ХХ centuries, formal-juridical method, state system, Russian Orthodox Church, state formation of XIV–XVI centuries.


Diaries, memoirs

Vasenko P.G. Memories of my life and the past life (continuation, publ. prep. by Mitrofanov V.V.) ……… 7

Publication of probably the last and recently found work, written by famous historian, representative of the Saint-Petersburg historical school, P.G. Vasenko. The work represents a new direction of his creativity – “Memoirs”, in which narrates about interesting facts of development of education in Russia in the middle of the XIX century, provides biographical information about the relatives, friends and acquaintances of the Vasenko family.

Key words: P.G. Vasenko, A.N. Tkacheva, memoirs, boarding house, education, friends.


Source study

Eroshkina O.N. (Saint-Petersburg) The Diary of K.I. Chukovsky as a source of study of the history of intelligentsia in Petrograd-Leningrad in 1920s……… 18

The object of research is unusual historical document – diary of a writer K.I. Chukovsky. Professional knowledge of Soviet history of the 1920s allowed O.N. Eroshkina using evidences of Chukovsky to create an informal history of the intelligentsia of Petrograd-Leningrad of 1920s.

Key words: K.I. Chukovsky, Petrograd-Leningradian intelligentsia, culture, censure, conformism.



Sinova I.V. (Saint-Petersburg) Historiography of childhood history in the second half of XIX – beginning of XX century……… 25

The article analyzes national and foreign historiography of childhood problems of the second half of XIX – early XX century. According to the author, the story of the childhood includes a number of historiographical directions: anthropology and ethnography of childhood, deviantology, juvenile history, history of everyday life.

Key words: childhood history, childhood historiography, child socialization, deviant behavior, everyday life, the victimization of children.

Kulumbegova L.I. (Saint-Petersburg) The mosaic of urban mentality in mirroring of Russian publicism through a prism of centuries……… 27

In the article on the basis of monitoring of the Russian media in XIX–XXI centuries investigates the identity of Caucasian mountaineers in the specific coloring of the local landscape.

Key words: mountaineers, mentality, national culture, image, custom, traditions, ethnos.

Frolov M.I. (Saint-Petersburg). Russian and German historians and memoirists about the «single» responsibility of Hitler for the defeat of Germany in the war against the USSR……… 32

The author on the basis of the analysis of a wide range of Russian and foreign historiography and memoir literature analyzes views of scientists on the activities of A. Hitler. M.I. Frolov comes to the conclusion that the victory of the Soviet people in the Great Patriotic war was legitimate.

Key words: Great Patriotic war, A. Hitler, Second World war historiography, historiography of the Great Patriotic war, German historians.


General history

Bannikov A.V., Przhigodzkaya O.V. (Saint-Petersburg). Army of the Eastern Roman Empire in the second half of V – first half of the VI century……… 35

The years of the fight after the battle near Adrianpole (378 year) influenced greatly on military organization
of Eastern Roman Empire. The Ustinian army was the logical outcome of those external and political events that occurred at the end of the IV – V century. It originated as the result of the synthesis of the Roman military organization and military organization of the barbarian peoples, who attacked the Empire or settled on its territory as federates. This type of military system was inherently barbarian-Roman or early-Byzantine.

Key words: Ustinian, limitans, bukellaries, federates, the Western Roman Empire, the battle of Adrianople.

Boldyreva I.I. (Voronezh). Double monasteries in England in the Beda the Respectful epoch……… 40

The focus of the article is a history of double monasteries in early medieval England. The author investigates the circumstances of origin of the largest women’s monastic centers in the Beda the Respectful epoch, identifies their features and role in political and cultural life of the Anglo-Saxon society.

Key words: early medieval England, Anglo-SaxonChurch, double monasteries, medieval monasticism, Beda the Respectful.

Akimov Yu.G. (Saint-Petersburg). Colonial North America and English-French relations in the second half of 60s of the XVII century……… 43

In the article on the basis of foreign historiography investigates the Anglo-French relations concerning colonies in North America. Concludes that the conflict between British and French, associated with the struggle for the North American territory in the 1660s, was limited.

Key words: colonies, North America, English-French relations, XVII century, Acadia colony.


National history

Repinetsky S.A. (Ramat-Gan, Israel). To the question about attitude of the society to the novel of N.G. Chernyshevsky «Chto Delat’?» («What to do?»)……… 46

The article is devoted to the study of perception of the novel of N.G. Chernyshevsky by his contemporaries and to the change of public attitudes to this work by future generations for half a century after its publication. The effect of the novel on the different generations of revolutionaries is investigates. It is based on the comparative analysis of the sources of personal origin (diaries, memoirs and correspondence) and on the materials of journalism.

Key words: N.G. Chernyshevsky, society «Sovremennik», «Chto Delat?» («What to do?»).

Troitsky N.A. (Saratov). A case of Egor Sozonov……… 50

The article summarizes the data from published and archival materials about one of the most high-profile judicial and political processes in Russia in the beginning of XX century on the case about the murder of the Minister of internal Affairs V.K. Pleve with estimates of the prehistory of the process, its political and legal characteristics and values.

Key words: Tsarism, socialist-revolutionaries, «white terror», «red terror», the court, penal servitude.

Simonyan R.Z. (Kursk). The role, significance and influence of the indictment by the Prosecutor’s supervision on the opinion of the court in the Russian Empire in the late XIX – early XX century……… 54

In the article with the attraction of archival material, and studies of lawyers of the late XIX century, shows the role, significance and influence of the Prosecutor on the decision of the court about making conclusions in criminal proceedings of the Russian Empire.

Key words: Prosecutor, public Prosecutor’s supervision, judicial authorities, the Russian Empire, the legislative process, the end of XIX century.

Burkov V.G. (Saint-Petersburg). To the history of the «Gold Star» of Hero of the Soviet Union……… 58

The article is devoted to the history of the awards – the star of the Hero of the Soviet Union and to the first people, who were awarded this medal.

Key words: medal «Gold Star» of the Soviet Union Hero, military rank «The Hero of the Soviet Union», top-ranking award, Cheluskints, A.V. Lyapidevsky.


The Past of Russian Regions

Nikolashin V.P. (Michurinsk), Kulachkov V.V. (Bryansk). Features of means of communication for
rural areas in late 1910s – early 1930s (on materials of the Central black earth and West regions
of Russia)……… 61

The article studies the impact of the means of communication in everyday rural life style of the late 1910s-early 1930s. Analyzes transformation and seal of village information environment for the mobilization potential of the village.

Key words: Communication, farmers, countryside, power, information environment, Central Chernozem region, Russia’s Western region.

Sivtseva S.I. (Yakutsk). Migration and national composition of the population of Yakutia in 1939–1959s……… 64

The article studies the main aspects of the migration movement of the population of Yakutia in 1939–1959. Based on the analysis of materials of all-Union census of 1939 and 1959, changes in ethnic composition of the population of the Republic are tracing.

Key words: urban and rural population of Yakutia, the migratory movement in Yakutia, the national composition of the population of Yakutia, 1939–1959.

Molchanova T.V. (Saint-Petersburg). Reading lessons: what and how the Leningrad students read in the middle of the ХХ century……… 68

In the article on the basis of published memoirs of former Leningrad students and periodicals recreated historical portrait of the youth of the second half of 1950s. According to the author, the students of that time loved to read, aspired to get acquainted with a sharp polemical literature.

Key words: Leningradian students, reading, «thaw» («ottepel»), «samizdat», poetical movement.

Chemodurov S.V. (Kursk). Improvement of social and living conditions of the population of the village of Kursk region in the end of XX – beginning of XXI century……… 72

The article considers the process of the improvement of social and living conditions in rural area. Analyzes the situation of housing, road construction and gasification of the village in the Kursk region in the end of XX – beginning of XXI century.

Key words:Kursk region, housing construction, road building, gasification, village.


Military History

Tovpeka A.V. (Saint-Petersburg). Development of the system of communication and control in a Separate corps of border guards of the Russian Empire in the late XIX – early XX century……… 77

In the article, based on archival documents, the author tells about the development of communication and control systems in a Separate corps of border guards of the Russian Empire in the end of XIX – beginning of XX century.

Key words: Separate corps of border guards of the Russian Empire, postal and telegraphic institutions of Russia, the communication in the Russian Empire, management in the Russian Empire.

Tikhonov D.N. (Saint-Petersburg). Border guards on the Black sea in the initial period of the Great Patriotic war……… 81

The article explores the combat activities of the Soviet seamen of the border guards in the Black sea in the beginning of the Great Patriotic war.

Key words: Soviet sailors, Worker and peasant Red Navy, The black sea fleet, sailors of the guards, boat, crew, border detachment, border troops, Navy.

Nalivkin L.A. (Saint-Petersburg) Command and management staff of the air force of the Red banner Baltic fleet in 1941……… 83

Based on the analysis of extensive historiography in the article was made an attempt to identify commanders and commanding staff of the air forces of the Red banner Baltic fleet in 1941.

Key words: Air force, Red banner Baltic Navy, air forces of the Baltic fleet, the Great Patriotic war, 1941, commander of the regiment, chief of staff, body of troops, aviation unit (regiment).

Vavulinskaya L.I. (Petrozavodsk). Medical support of foreign prisoners of war in the Karelian-Finnish SSR in 1944–1949……… 85

In the article on the basis of archival documents, introduced for the first time in the scientific circulation, considers organization of medical support of prisoners of war in Karelo-Finnish SSR camps. The author analyzed the reasons of morbidity and mortality of prisoners of war, the forms of health work and the difficulties of its implementation. Particular attention is given to medical personnel and the activities of special hospitals. Stresses that, despite the extreme conditions of the post-war time, in captivity was saved lives of many former enemy soldiers.

Key words: foreign prisoners of war, morbidity and mortality, health work, special hospitals.


History of internetional relations

Gokov O.A. (Kharkov, Ukraine). Russian military mission in Iran during the Russo-Turkish war of 1877–1878……… 90

The author analyzed the activity of Russian military mission in Iran in 1877. The conclusion is made, that the mission of V.A. Frankini was one of the actions of foreign policy and military security of the impending war. Study of the Persian army by him withdrew from the agenda an idea of attraction of Persia to Russia as an ally in the Russo-Turkish war of 1877–1878. As a result, the representatives of Russia managed to achieve neutrality of Tehran. The mission initiated reforms of the Iranian army and creation of the Persian Cossack brigade in 1879.

Key words: military mission, military intelligence, Persia, the Russo-Turkish war of 1877–1878.


Historical Psychology

Kaptzevich O.A. (Saint-Petersburg) Historical and psychological aspects of patriotism as a phenomenon of social consciousness……… 97

In the article patriotism is considered in historical and psychological context. The analysis of the psychological aspects of its origin and development is made. Special attention is paid to historical forms of patriotism in Russian public opinion from ancient times till our days. Reveals the political-psychological peculiarities of historical forms of patriotism in their relationship with ideology and system of values.

Key words: patriotism, homeland, citizenship, values, ideology.


The characters of history

Eldashev A.M. (Kazan). Abbess Maria Balashovskaya……… 102

The article reveals the life and spiritual growth of famous Kazan icon painter, painter and poet, mother superior of Balashov Pokrovsky nunnery, abbess Maria (Ekaterina Zaharovna Mandryka).

Key words: Metropolitan, Bishop, abbess, coenobitic monastery, women’s community, icon painting.

Rodin N.V. (Saint-Petersburg) Short life of the guardsman: strokes to the biography of S.N. Voevodsky (1889–1914)……… 109

The article is devoted to the investigation of genealogy, living and fighting of the nephew of marine Minister of the Russian Empire – Sergey Nicolaevich Voevodsky.

Key words: the Voevodskies, S.N. Voevodsky, Cavalry regiment, the First world war.

Letish D.M. (Berkley, the USA), Dmitrishin B. (Oregon, the USA). First Russian mercantilists and new countries……… 115

The article analyzes views of Yu. Krizhanich, A.L. Ordin-Naschokin, I.T. Pososhkov – the founders of mercantilism. Their role in theoretical fundomentals of new country formation. The authors attempt to determine their role in formation of the theoretical foundations of statehood.

Key words: Yu. Krizhanich, A.L. Ordin-Naschokin, I.T. Pososhkov, mercantilism, new States.

Grischenko T.A. (Kiev, Ukraine) Zbignev Bzhezinsky in the first half of 1980s: not final results and search of new goals……… 124

The article analyzes views of Z. Bzhezinsky on international strategy of the United States after completion of the work in the White house by him. An attempt is made to correlate beliefs of Z. Bzhezinsky with the key approaches of the administration of R. Reagan to international politics. The author comes to the conclusion that the analyzed period was the time of appearance in views of Z. Bzhezinsky of new traits from both its own intellectual evolution and the changing requests of the American society.

Key words: Z. Bzhezinsky, Reigan’s administration, international strategy of the USA.



Kazakova S.Yu. (Hanover, Germany). Influence of the family on health and bringing up of a child: lessons from the historical experience……… 128

People’s health is the main «business card» of socio-economic maturity, culture and success of the civilized state. The article, based on a historical analysis, covers the most topical issues of this important problem.

Key words: health, physical education, pedagogy, psychology, child, school.


Reviews of scientific editions

Rozental I.S. (Moscow). Review on the monograph of Repnikov A.V., Milevsky O.A. «Two lives of Lev Tikhomirov»……… 136

The review is carried out the analysis of contents of A.V. Repnikov, O.A. Milevsky monograph. Concludes that the published work is a weighty argument in favor of fruitfulness of the monographic study of the complex personality of the complex historical space.

Key words: A.V. Repnikov, O.A. Milevsky, Lev Tikhomirov.

Ippolitov G.M. (Samara). Another significant contribution of Professor V.I. Goldin in the historiography of the Russian Civil war……… 138

The review analyzes the contents of V.I. Goldin monograph, devoted to the analysis of the historiography, connected with history of the Civil war in Russia. Underlines the fundamental character of the work, a conclusion is made about the great significance of work in understanding the achievements of the researchers involved in the study of history of this problem.

Key words: V.I. Goldin, Civil war in Russia, historiography.

Kuzinets I.M. (Saint-Petersburg). You can win any weapon other than weapons of the spirit……… 143

In the review analyzes the contents of monograph of Petersburg historian M.I. Frolov, given a high assessment of his work.

Key words: M.I. Frolov, the Great Patriotic war, fight for Leningrad, patriotism, courage, spiritual strength.


Scientific Life

Reviews of official opponents

Salmin A.K. (Moscow). Review on the dissertation of M.M. Kerimova «Formation and development of Russian ethnography in the last decades of the XIX – the first third of XX century (on the basis of scientific investigation of Haruzins heritage)»……… 146

In the review of official opponent A.K. Salmin is given a high assessment of the dissertation of M.M. Kerimova. Stresses that her work goes beyond the scope of investigated problem and touches on a fundamental level discussion provisions of history and theory of Ethnology.

Key words: A.K. Salmin, M.M. Kerimova, Russian ethnography, family of Haruzins, ethnology.


Scientific Conferences have passed

Pilipenko S.A. (Samara). Interuniversity scientific and practical student conference «International relations: historical, cultural, psychological and juridical paradigms»……… 149

The publication presents brief information about interuniversity scientific and practical student conference “International relations: historical, cultural, psychological and juridical paradigms”, which have passed in Samara juridical Institute of Federal penal service.

Key words: international relations, globalization, Samara juridical Institute of Federal penal service. Underlines that the active participation of teachers – scientific leaders contributed to the high level of the presented reports.

Goldin V.I. (Arkhangelsk). From the past to the future: The Arctic and the Northern sea route through the prism of years……… 151

In the publication summarizes the results of International scientific-historical expedition devoted to Nansen. Participants in August 2013 passed on the research vessel «Professor Molchanov» on the route followed by Norwegian polar researcher F. Nansen and his colleagues on the steamer «Korrekt» a hundred years ago.

Key words: F. Nansen, steamship «Korrekt», Y. Lida, scientific ship «Professor Molchanov», Tromse, Dudinka, Arkhangelsk.

Lapina I.Yu., Kargapoltsev S.Yu. (Saint-Petersburg). Patriotism as a sign ideology of sociological genesis……… 153

In the publication tells about modern sense of patriotism in the socio and culture-genesis of Russian state, as well as the main aspects of manifestations of patriotism and civil consciousness of population. Also analyzes the state policy in the field of ideological education of young people. In the article is given a review of materials of the conference devoted to patriotic theme.

Key words: patriotism, national consciousness, ideology, SPbSUACE.


Letters to the Editor

Gessen V.Yu. (Saint-Petersburg). On scientific dishonesty……… 155