Klio #4 (64) 2012


Theoretical treatment

Umbrashko K.B. (Novosibirsk). The influence of the philosophical and methodological concept of A.L. Schlözer on Russian historical science of the XIX century (Source study and historiography)……….. 3

The article analyzes methodological foundations of scientific work of a prominent German historian A.L. Schlözer on the example of his works devoted to Russian written sources, in particular, the chronicles. Main attention is given to sources and historiography of the historian’s scientific works. The influence of A.L. Schlözer’s works on the Russian historical science of the XIX century is indicated. Purpose of the article is to demonstrate new trends in the critical study of sources in the national science of XIX century that appeared under the influence of the German historian.

Smirnov A.G., Paleev A.V. (Nizhny Novgorod). Russian nihilism of A.I. Herzen as a social and political struggle for rights and democracy in the 1860s……….. 9

The article examines social and political struggle for state reconstruction reflected in the Russian press of the 1860s. The authors analyze the works of A.I. Herzen, the content of the “Kolokol” journal, the publisher of which A.I. Herzen was.


Philosophy of history

Makhlina S.T. (Saint Petersburg). “The Reader” by Bernhard Schlink as a reflection of the war semiotics……….. 12

Since the beginning of human society as early as the Paleolithic there were wars. And with the development of civilization, their frequency increased. And later wars became more and more destructive, and the consequences of those got more serious. One example of the war semiotics is a novel by Bernhard Schlink, “The Reader.” This novel is a warning to all contemporaries that, despite the apparent short-term gains, the war is not the best way of interaction between cultures.


Diaries, memoirs

Chetverikov B.D. (Saint Petersburg). “Stezhky-dorozhky” (“The pathways”) (continuation))……….. 15

The autobiographical novel by B.D. Chetverikov tells us about the writer’s life that can be called «the outline» of the history of our country in the 20th century.

Katukova E.S. (The Moscow Region). Something to remember (continuation)……….. 24

These memoirs narrate Yekaterina Sergeevna Katukova’s life course that was inseparably linked with the outstanding military leader Mikhail Yefimovich Katukov. The memoirs cover many decades; events of the Great Patriotic War, however, hold the central position.


Source studies

Prokopyeva I.V. (Novosibirsk). S.M. Solovyev:  approaches for application epistolary sources of the New Time……….. 32

In this article approaches made by S.M. Solovyev for application epistolary sources of the reign of Peter I and Alexander I in the works: “The History of Russia from Times Immemorial” and “The imperator Alexander I: Policy. Diplomacyare considered.


General history

Bugashev S.I. (Saint Petersburg). The British navy raids at the north-west coast of France during the Seven Years’ War (1756–1763)……….. 35

Based on information from the various English documents and publications, the author concludes that the British navy raids at the north-west coast of France during the Seven Years’ War proved to be a good tactical discovery and brought undeniable success. Landing operations of the British Army and the Navy provided significant support to the allies of Great Britain. Special attention is paid to expeditions to the ports of Rochefort, Saint-Malo and Cherbourg. The author carefully examines the debates in the British cabinet on marine sabotage. The article presents the views of various researchers on the effectiveness of “Pitt’s system”.

Puyu A.S., Sadykhova A.A. (Saint Petersburg). International broadcasting in the Arabic language: the past and the present……….. 40

This article deals with the history of the beginning and spreading broadcasting in Arabic all over the world. The careful analysis of content of radio programming in Arabic revealed a positive impact of media on ethnic and religious relations.


The history of Russia

Kokhnovich V.A. (Minsk, Belorussia). Possessions and revenues of the Radziwill Family in the XIX– early XX centuries……….. 46

The article deals with changes in the management of lands belonging to Radziwill feudal lords. The processes in the management and structure of their economy after the abolition of serfdom and before the First World War are investigated. There is an increase of revenues from the exploitation of forests, industrial activity and the decline of traditional forms of farming.

Antonova I.A. (Saint Petersburg). Russian-American relations in the sphere of cinema during the Second World War and in the first years after the war……….. 55

The article is devoted to the issue of the American cinema expansion in Soviet Union during the Second
World War and in the first years after the war. This issue is analyzed taking into account two different aspects of the American cinema expansion in the USSR. On the one hand, the author analyzes the role of intergovernmental relations in the issue of the American cinema import to the Soviet Union. On the
other hand, the analysis also covers the role of the so called “trophy” films and their expansion in the
USSR regardless the official accords between the USSR and the American Motion Pictures Export Association.

Mikheeva G.V. (Saint Petersburg). The public library named after M.Ye. Saltykov-Shchedrin in the first postwar decade……….. 59

The public library named after M.Ye. Saltykov-Shchedrin (now the Russian National Library) in the first postwar decade did much to eliminate serious consequences caused to its personnel and funds during the siege. Proceeds of literature in its funds increased, the number of readers grew, regular opportunities expanded. The Library was granted a building at 36, Fontanka emb., where the general reading rooms were arranged. On the other hand, the ideological dictatorship was growing up; the Library was considered the “ideological front” and the assessment carried out in the early 1950s was in fact an ideological purge of personnel that inflicted irreparable damage to the Library personnel.

Vershel V.P. (Saint Petersburg). Informal labor press as a product and factor of the labor movement in 1989–1991……….. 72

The article analyzes activities of the labor press in the Soviet Union that reflected moods and actions
of the labor movement in the country, the behavior of its activists. At the turn of the 1980s–1990s
the labor movement, in the opinion of the author, remained the main force that was trying to soften
the negative impact of economic changes on the entire population, especially on its socially vulnerable groups.


The history of Russia regions

Matison A.V. (Moscow) The provincial clergy of Russia in the XVIII century: History and genealogy of the clergy in Ostashkovo……….. 76

On the basis of documents of the Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts and the State Archives of the Tver region the article gives a comprehensive study of the history and genealogy of the priests in the center of a small diocese of Tver – Ostashkovo town in the XVIII century and compares the obtained data with those of the clergy of the cathedral center of the diocese – the city of Tver in this period (discussed earlier in a separate monograph).

Golovach R.I. (Murmansk). On the historical background of urbanization in the Kola North……….. 82

This article provides an overview of historical types of settlements in the Kola North formed at different stages of the colonization of its territory. The author finds the possibility of transforming settlements from one type into another, and on this basis, considers the problem of the genesis of the Soviet city in a broad context of the colonization history.

Fedotyev D.S. (Saint Petersburg). Jewish merchants in Saint Petersburg in the second half of the
XIX century……….. 84

The paper presents data on population dynamics, social structure, and the main areas of business activity and specificity of the Jewish merchants in Saint Petersburg in the second half of the XIX century. The author concludes that, despite many adverse conditions, especially restrictive legislation, there was a sustainable development of the Jewish entrepreneurship in the capital.

Shkuropat S.G. (Saint Petersburg). Catering service in the socio-cultural environment of Saint Petersburg in the XIX century……….. 88

The article is devoted to the study of restaurants as enterprises in the sphere of hospitality in Saint Petersburg, the disclosure of their role in the everyday and festive life of the city and residents in the XIX century. The article attempts to analyze the functioning of restaurants in the everyday space of Saint Petersburg in the XIX century; their service is analyzed on the material of Russian literature, local history essays, memoir pieces, and historical research analyzes.

Zaytseva O.O. (Saint Petersburg). Repression as a method of preventing labor disputes at enterprises of Petrograd/Leningrad in early 1920s: types of punishment ………… 90

This article analyses principal views of repressions from the party, trade-union and extraordinary organizations which were applied to the workers participating in labor conflicts in Petrograd/Leningrad in early 1920s. The author considers such methods of prevention of conflicts as discharge, a re-registration, an expulsion from party, an imposition of fines, transfer to other plants, arrest, etc. The reduction in the number of labor conflicts by the middle of 1920s became a result of a similar policy of the authorities.

Antoshkin A.V. (Sterlitamak). The evolution of trade in BASSR under collapse of the NEP……….. 96

The article examines the development of trade in BASSR under collapse of the NEP. On the basis
of archival materials the dynamics of trade, the growth of the trade network are analyzed, the
role of “Bashtorg” is revealed as a major trading company within the public sector of commerce of the country. Monopolistic tendencies are defined in the state trade in comparison with private and cooperative sectors.

Alekseeva L.V. (Nizhnevartovsk). Agricultural development in the Far North during the Great Patriotic
War……….. 100

Climatic conditions of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous District are studied and the process of developing new lands is considered in the article in the context of studying the problems of agricultural development in the Far North during the Great Patriotic War. On the basis of new archival sources, the author revealed previously unknown facts, the statistical information regarding the plans and the results of the introduction of new agricultural lands.


Military history

Kazantsev V.P., Salogub Ya.L. (Saint Petersburg). “General Directorate of the Russian territory on the Liaotung peninsula is concentrated”. Local Government Draft of the Kwantung region (1898–1899) ……….. 104

The article is devoted to the analysis of two projects of the local department of the Kwantung region, represented by the direct participants of the event classes Russia of Port Arthur.


Historical characters

Sulaberidze Yu.S. (Tbilisi, Georgia). N.Ya. Marr: a researcher of Georgian culture, “cultural and historical school”……….. 112

The article deals with the formation of scientific beliefs, principles, methodology of N.Ya. Marr, a prominent representative of Saint Petersburg School of Oriental Studies. The author believes that N.Ya. Marr, on the basis of the “cultural school of Georgians” of the ancient education laid the foundation of “cultural and historical school” in the Caucasian studies, Georgian studies. In particular, the period between 1917 and 1922 is noted when scientists formulated the basic principles of research in the field of Caucasian and Georgian studies and wrote works on the cultural history of the Caucasus.

Barinova E.P. (Samara). A noblewoman of the beginning of the XX century in ego-sources of the epoch……….. 122

On the basis of content analysis of memoirs and correspondence of the beginning of the XX century the article analyzes the value judgments of the authors about a noblewoman and her role in Russian society, revealed differences in the subjects of epistolary heritage and memories by gender. The author also relied on the historiographical achievements of predecessors, based on the fact that there is the wide range of works on the modern personal history of the Russian nobility.

Boranbaeva Z.I. (Almaty, Kazakhstan). Academician V.M. Zhirmunsky on the Kazakh folklore in his relationship with international folk influences……….. 125

The article investigates the work of V.M. Zhirmunsky on global folk mutual influence who considered the Kazakh folklore in relation to the ancient, Scottish, Russian folklore. According to the author, the works of V. M. Zhirmunsky form a whole epoch in the history of world literature.

Skurlov V.V. (Saint Petersburg). Biography of Mikhail Evlampievich Perkhin (1860–1903), a master jeweler in the Faberge Company, a native of the Olonets province……….. 128

The summary: The historical biographic sketch about Michael Perhin (1860–1903), a native of Karelia (the former Olonets province), the jeweler of the Russian Faberge Company which made Easter Imperial eggs and jeweler subjects, having huge museum and antiquarian value nowadays. He worked in Saint Petersburg in 1884–1903. Data of his descendants is also presented.


To become history tomorrow

Kosinov A.I. (Kursk). Environmental safety and the powers of federal bodies and government entities of the Russian Federation: theoretical and legal aspects……….. 134

In this article the powers of federal bodies and government entities of the Russian Federation in the field of environment protection from the juridical positions are analyzed.


The review of scientific publications

Shtyrbul A.A (Omsk). Ukrainian political elite: from the national revival to the national self-determination……….. 137

The review praised the monograph prepared by the Ukrainian researcher S.G. Ivanitskaya.
Despite some criticisms, confidence is expressed that the work will be in demand among readers for many years.

Ippolitov G.M., Pilipenko S.A. (Samara). Partisans without heroic glory, or Bashi-Bazouks? The critical notes in the margins of the monograph by Alexander Gogun……….. 139

In the review the appreciation of the monograph of A.Gogun is given. Reviewers consider that it represents «the extraordinary work as a whole necessary and useful to a historiography of the Great Patriotic War». At the same time in the review a number of remarks and wishes is stated to the author.


Scientific life

Goldin V.I., Tamitskiy A.M. (Arkhangelsk). The fundamental problems of geopolitical rivalry and cooperation in the Arctic at the turn of the XX and XXI centuries……….. 145

The article summarizes the theoretical and methodological seminar held on February 28, 2012 in the Northern (Arctic) Federal University (Arkhangelsk). During the seminar fundamental problems of geopolitical rivalry and cooperation in the Arctic at the turn of the XX and XXI centuries were discussed. It was attended by professors, doctoral students, postgraduates and students of N(Ar)FU, administration of the Arkhangelsk region, as well as colleagues from Moscow and Murmansk. 

Lapina I.Yu. (Saint Petersburg). Pedagogy is the queen of sciences……….. 150

The article analyzes the results of the All-Russian scientific and practical conference “Pedagogical space of higher school: technology, meanings, and values”. The problem and specifics of humanities teaching in technical higher school are identified.