Klio #5 (101) 2015

The Document is Published for the First Time

A.V. Zotova (Saint-Petersburg). German archives about intelligence work of Germany in the USSR (1931–1941). Commentaries………. 3

Documents from Militdrarchiv (Archive of the German armed forces, Freiburg) and Politisches Archiv Auswdrtiges Amt (Political archive of the German foreign Ministry, Berlin) are published for the first time. They show intelligence activities in Germany against the USSR. German intelligence agencies paid special attention to the study of political and military personalities and to the economic situation of the Soviet Union as a whole and its major economic centers – Moscow and Leningrad. In particular, they analyzed the activity of Leningrad companies, including those, which specialized in the field of aviation. Also they had given characteristics of the management of Leningrad military district. The article publishes data of German intelligence on the shortcomings in various sectors of economy of the USSR on the eve of the Great Patriotic war. Among the examples there were large logistical errors when the goods were transported from Leningrad to other regions of the Soviet Union.

Key words: Germany, the USSR, the interwar period, the Great Patriotic war, Leningrad, exploration of Germany.


Theoretical Issues

Grebenyuk A.V.( Nizhny Novgorod). Church, society and state of ancient Russia: an interaction problem in a creative heritage of V. O. Klyuchevsky………. 26

The analysis of views of V. O. Klyuchevsky of a problem of interrelation of church, society and state during the Old Russian period is presented in the article. In work the emphasis is placed on the characteristic of an orientation, dynamics and forms of realization of interest in this subject at the famous historian. The majority of researches of Klyuchevsky in which the main object of studying is the Russian Orthodox Church, fall on the earliest period of his scientific creativity. At this time in works of the historian F.I. Buslayev and A.P. Shchapov’s influence, enough far from “public school” is felt. It is expressed in methodological orientation of the young researcher demanding consideration of interrelations of church, society and the state in a cultural and ethical, world outlook context, in understanding of church service, an orthodox ceremony as the leading channel on which the church dogma got into public consciousness of ancient Russia, giving to religious representations of the people direct and art, figurative registration. However this installation didn’t find practical application in its own researches though, undoubtedly, it was reflected in early interest of Klyuchevsky in works of Old Russian folklore and to zhitiyny literature. Since the beginning of the 70th of the XIX century the historian passed to studying of a subject only in a legal context. These changes found reflections in low marks by Klyuchevsky of the information potential of an Old Russian hagiography. From now on the teoretiko-methodological installations applied by it in characteristics of the Old Russian church and state and public and church relations represented a combination of the principles of legal positivism and social law. This feature defined ideas of the scientist of a place of church in system of public relations of ancient Russia, influenced disclosure by the historian of a question of participation of ROC in the course of the Moscow state construction. Klyuchevsky characterized clergy as part of a public organism, a certain social and legal environment, and the princely and imperial power – as the only source new, developing in the XIV–XV centuries, a state legal order. These installations inevitably had to conduct professor of the Moscow Spiritual academy to such vision of interrelations of the specified “public elements” which could be hardly entered in a framework of church and theological approach to a problem, forced to consider Old Russian church as a legal entity with gradually narrowed action field. Perhaps, these circumstances caused at Klyuchevsky negative dynamics in development of interest in the specified perspective which from 70th of the XIX century more and more gets implicit, indirect forms.

Key words: V. O. Klyuchevsky, church, clergy, society, state, right sources, historiography, social law.


Sourse Studies

Melnov A.V. (Saint-Petersburg) The Christian Kelch’s chronicle about the siege of Vyborg in 170………. 31

Due to the difficulty of working with an old German text the “History of Livonia continuation from 1690 to 1707” by Christian Kelch had been rarely used by Russian scientists. It was written by a contemporary of the Great Northern War and describes various non-widely known events at the beginning of the War. The Chronicle contains quite a lot of descriptions of Vyborg’s siege in 1706 including the names of Swedish garrison officers and Swede’s sorties, both mentioned in other sources and new. Kelch’s work also includes the indication of the place where the heroic boarding of Swedish ships by sergeant Mikhail Shchepotev took place. The precise usage of names, places and event descriptions makes it possible to consider the information about Vyborg’s siege in the Chronicle authentic.

Key words: The Great Northen war, the siege of Vyborg, 1706, Vyborg fortress, Christian Kelch, Georg Maydell, Mikhail Shchepotev, boarding.



Vlasenko D.V. (Saransk). Confessional history of Post-Soviet Mordovia: review of historiography………. 35

The article is the characteristic of the main directions in the study of the religious history of the Republic of Mordovia in the 1990s – middle of 2010s. Special attention is paid to research on the history of the Russian Orthodox Church and the Muslim Ummah (community) as the most numerous and influential denominations, the interaction of the denominations with the authorities and interfaith relations in Post-Soviet Mordovia.

Keywords: Republic of Mordovia, confessional history, historiography, Russian Orthodox Church, Muslim Ummah, religious minorities.

Petrov A.I. (Moscow). History and cultural heritage of Russian America in international conferences

in Russia and abroad in 2014………. 38

The article explores and highlights recent international conferences and round-tables on the history and heritage of Russian America held in 2014. Scholars from United States, Russia and other countries and provinces had presented their reports on the theme. The vast spectrum of subjects had been discussed at the conference, from the interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary points of view. The most interesting were the problems devoted to the history of FortRoss, sale of Alaska, and the life and activity of Nikolai P. Rezanov. The pivotal problem was the history of the Russian Orthodox Church in America. The conferences had been a major step forward in understanding the phenomena of Russian America.

Key words: Russian America, Alaska, California, conferences, round-tables, history, heritage


General History

Zokoeva Z.V. (Saint-Petersburg). The International Non-governmental Organization «Dialogue Eurasia Platform»: history of activity………. 43

The Eurasia Dialogue Platform is an international non-governmental organization aiming at the development of inter-ethnic dialogue and the dissemination of information to help ensure that values of every country and race, as well as universal human values, become the foundation of life. The organizational structure of the Eurasia Dialogue Platform is that of a typical international NGO. The General Secretariat is located in Istanbul (Turkey), whose national representations are working in 12 countries (2012). Financial support comes from different sources, including contributions and charity.

Key words: international non-governmental organization, legal status, dialogue.


History of Russia

Sidnenko T.I. (Saint-Petersburg). Trends in the development of public catering in Russia in X–XVI centuries………. 46

Study the specifics and trends in the development of public catering in Russia in the period from X to XVI centuries is held by the author, on the basis of studying forms of organization food consumption and classification of the structural links between subjects. In terms of specific period of development of the state of mass food has been exposed to many objective and subjective factors of macroeconomic and endogenous nature. It is important to note that the impact of the crisis processes in agriculture (hunger, destruction, strife, war) resulted in reduction of sources of commodity resources, the narrowing of the range and lower quality of products consumed in food. With the end of the XV century public catering is allocated to one of the main branches of the universal economic activity of Russia. The development of public catering is considered as a process of changes, that characterize the transition from one qualitative state to another, under the influence of factors external and internal environment on the basis of economic growth with preservation of the basic properties of the system and ability to meet the goals and objectives aimed at meeting the needs of subsistence agriculture in general, the princely family and population with the use of regional advantages. The author makes a conclusion about the specific of public catering not only from the point of view of food consumption, but also from positions other needs – rest, talk, etc.

Key words. Public catering, history of trade, everyday and holiday meal, forms of social life

Chikova V.A. (Saint-Petersburg). To the question of management of church manors in the reign of Elisabeth Petrovna………. 55

This article is devoted to change in the management of church lands in 1744. The Russian Orthodox Church was a large landowner, but it didn’t accept that the general control of lands is exercised by Board of economy. After the requests of Russian priesthood the empress changed system. Perhaps, it was caused by a personal arrangement to Church and priesthood. But the decision of the empress and the government in 1744 had compromise character: control was transferred to the Synod through special establishment – Office of Synod economic board. But thus the state still had controlling function. In the article complexity and bureaucratic aspects of transition from one control system to another are considered. Also the conflict situations accompanying this transition are noted.

Key words: Russian Orthodox Church, church lands, management, Synod, financial statements, Board of Economy, Office of Synod economic board, conflicts.

Ozova F.A. (Cherkessk). The Deportation of Circassians in the year1856–1864: the Plan of its implementation………. 59

The process of deportation of Circassians from their historical native land Cherkessia situated in the Caucasus to the Ottoman empire in 1856–1864 has never been studied systematically. It should be noted that the process of deportations has its own peculiarities of studying and must cover a number of questions. First of all the questions of availability of a plan of deportation including methods of deportation should be investigated. The study of the process of the working out of the plan of the deportation of Circassians in 1856–1864 shows that it didn’t appear all of a sudden but was being developed and matured by a certain segment of military establishment of Russian empire for more than 30 years. The idea of deportation of Circassians from Chercessia and its subsequent colonization by Cossacs appeared first in 1829. This idea was being developed according to plan by the Headquarters of the imperial army. By the middle of the 19th century the plan of deportation of Circassians aquired clear outlines. If the deportation in 1829–1830 was meant initially only for the subethnic people of the strategically important Black Sea regions called Natuhais, then in 1850-s according to the plan of the Headquarters of the emperor the objects of the deportation became by that time all the subethnic peoples of Cherkessia starting with Natuhai people and ending with Kabardinian people. The plan of the deportation of the Circassian population consisted in exchange of the majority of the subethnic population of Cherkessia for the population of river Don region. Only a small part of the Circassians was meant to be deported to the Ottoman empire. This plan had been presented to the emperor Alexander the second in the year 1857. He in his turn submitted it to the Caucasian committee for consideration. The Caucasian committee, whose approval of the plan was necessary for its realization, gave a distinctly negative answer to the plan of the deportation of Circassians, noting that this plan could be regarded as a plan of physical annihilation of Circassians. The developers of this plan including the generals Milutin and Evdokimov were compelled to correct it in 1859-1860 following the Cossack riots directed against the colonization of Cherkessia by the whole Cossack regiments and villages. The new project known as “general Evdokimov’s plan” had been approved by the field marshal and Commander in Chief Baryatinsky in the year 1861. It consisted in the deportation of the majority of the Circassian population to the Ottoman empire. The time of the deportation of all Circassian and Abasin subethnic people was set to be realized till the year 1863 (afterwards corrected during deportation till May, 1864) according to the plan of Caucasian Headquaters. The information about methods of deportation of the population of Cherkessia carried out in 1856–1864 is more secret. Military and agents methods of deportation played most important part among other methods.

Key words: Caucasian War, the Circassians, deportation, plan, steps, methods.


History of Russian Regions

Semyonova N.L. (Sterlitamak). Senator’s Inspection of the Orenburg region in 1800………. 71

The article contains the analysis of the senator’s inspection in 1800 in the Orenburg region. It has become a part of the global inspection of the local government of the Russian Empire in the XVIII–XIX centuries. On the basis of the literature, some papers and archive sources the author studied a legislative basis of the inspection, a body of the senators-inspectors, a procedure and final materials of the inspection. The author came to the conclusion that there were not any serious disorders in the Orenburg region compared to some other provinces. The senators were satisfied with the results. Studying the problems of the province the inspectors were aimed at the opinion of the provincial government which they were in a close contact with. Besides, only some of the senators’ proposals to improve the work of the government were fulfilled.

Key words: inspection, the Orenburg region, administrative control, governor, local government, instruction, clerks.

Gurkin Y.A. (Saint-Petersburg). Improvement of vocational training of the Russian police in the early twentieth century (Revel school police policemen)………. 77

The article is devoted to the training of staff of the Russian police in the early 20th century. Rapid urban population growth, increasing of social contradictions, the events of 1905–1907 have led to a sharp deterioration in the crime rate. Increasingly, the police had not only to investigate the crimes committed, but also to be ready to join in the shooting and melee with the wellarmed gangs. The facts show that not always the police were ready for such developments. A different level of training was required. The first school, which the tried to solve the task, became a school police policemen in Revel. The program of the school in addition to studying the laws, internal regulations, medicine, veterinary, history and geography was included in special physical training and proficiency in small arms.

Key words: law enforcement agencies, police, investigation, crime, reform.

Shramkova O.V. (Saratov). Ethnic charitable foundations of the Saratov city as order in centers of rendering to refugees during the First Would War………. 80

This article is about active by analysis of different national charitable foundations of the Saratov city, which rendered assistance to refugees during the First World War.«Society benefit for the poor Jews» considers especially. Which the help of preserved archival documents we can see the scale of provided help which this society done, structure and organization of society we can see too. Polish and German society are considered too. As rule, help included in provision of the temporary place, which people could live in employment assistance. The main thing was the help to children, elders and sick people. Many of societies tried to help not only for people who belong to their nationality; they also help people which belong to some other nationality. This fact includes different interethnic communication and connection in town during the First World War.

Key words: refugees, charitable foundation, shelters, First World War, financial report, national society.

Zhuravlev V.A. (Saint-Petersburg) Staffing judiciary Leningrad and Leningrad region in 20-30s: principles, problems, results………. 83

On the basis of archival materials and publications in periodicals specified period, revealed the problem of training and retraining of judicial personnel in Leningrad and Leningrad region in 20-30s based on the actual state of affairs is a lack of qualified judicial officers and government measures for the speedy resolution of the current situation: the creation of courses, legal circles, impairment of nominees from labor groups to supplement the judicial system. Steps taken to resolve “personnel shortage” in the judiciary, are considered in view of ideological attitudes of party, economic difficulties, complications of the crime situation. One of the directions in the activities of Party and government officials, heads of city and regional courts, shows the preparations for the election of lay judges and follow-up with them.

Key words: the judiciary, training, judges, justice, lawsuit, legal courses.

Gessen V.Y. (Saint-Petersburg) For the history of material evidence of culture in Leningrad:

their losses in 1928–early 1930s General comments………. 90

The article, based on previously unused archival material reviews issues related to the seizure of paintings, works of applied art, products made of gold and silver that were in the RussianMuseum. Considerable attention is paid to the confiscation of church property, entered into the museum from the cathedrals, parish and house religious institutions of Petrograd. The principal value the authorities gave to the seizure of products from precious metals, which were mainly directed to the Leningrad office of the State Bank for remelting, part of them was sent to the State storage (Goshran) as the state repository of values. The rest of the museum property was reported to the V / O “Antiques” Commissariat for export sales of the currency. However, most part of museum staff resisted to the withdrawal of the most valuable items, hid them from viewing a specially sent commissions, delayed their surrender. And it caused a non-pleasure, the threat of sanctions by the People’s Commissariat, because the Council of People’s Commissars from it demanded the implementation of plans of currency at any price, not excluding the sale of unique museum exhibits.

Key words: Russian Museum, withdrawal, paintings, icons, artware, export, Gokhran, V/O “Antiques”, the State Bank, Narkompros, Director.

Krylova V.K. (Yakutsk). The power and intellectuals in the field of financial problems………. 103

In the 1920–1930s the question of how to put the intelligentsia at the service of the revolution and ideologically win it from the bourgeoisie turned out to be one of the primary. The Soviet government knew that with it could acquire a powerful weapon of agitation and the spread of revolutionary way of thinking throughout the country. Because the performance of a certain ideological orientation can more effectively show not only the man, his psychology, but also influence the society through the actions and aspirations. Thus, its creator could support the Code of Conduct. By creating a literary associations with state support, thereby authority in the face of the leading Bolshevik Party received a powerful weapon of agitation and spread of revolutionary way of thinking throughout the country by the method of socialist realism, the essence of which was the reflection of that same struggle for its construction. The party leadership had to strengthen their position in society, and therefore considered that the measures which have been enshrined in the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) on June 18, 1925 is not enough. Existing for that moment associations such VOAPP, RAPP etc., had already done their job and could not qualify for a consolidating role in society. Therefore there was need for appropriate restructuring of literary organizations and creation the creative unions on their basis. In this connection was elaborated new document “On the Restructuring of Literary and Artistic Organizations” and on April 23, 1932 it formed the basis of the Resolution by the Politburo of the CPSU (b). According to its conception the Union of Soviet Writers became the governing body in the literary environment. Consequently, its members had to obey the same communistic rules and look back at decisions to the party leadership. Such a relationship in the first place puts the talent at the service of the party, and then the public. At the same time, members of the Union were not able to stand on its own and unwittingly became dependent on party ideology and faced financial dependence on the state, and this impacted the duality, when the party’s decision was not supported by action and money. In this article, on the example of solving such a simple matter as the financial estimate ofthe Union of writers of Yakutia in 1938, discusses relationships between the authorities and intellectuals. That dependence on the established ideology and control in which the ruling party has set a thinking man, sometimes not only failed in contribution to its creative growth, but also resulted in incidents. The story is ordinary financial estimate, which are here described, is the real proof of it.

Keywords: power; society; Party control; imaginative literature; creative intellectuals; financial estimates.

Tuzova O.V. (Samara) Saratov model of musical culture system in 1939–1945 ………. 108

The article is devoted to the reconstruction of musical life in the Saratov region in 1939–1945. Based mainly on materials of the Russian state archive of literature and art, local archives and periodicals using the genetic, chronological, system, comparative approaches, theoretical modeling attempts to identify and analyze the structure of the Saratov regional models of system of musical culture are made. Management, concert-organizational, theatrical, educational, musical, creative, аmateur, technological and informational components are consistently considered. The factors that influenced its development during the Second World war are analyzed: the material (funding, instruments, buildings, props, literature, etc.) and staffing, evacuation processes, the status of the frontal region, the inclusion of part of Engels model into the Saratov region after the abolition of the AutonomousRepublic of the Volga Germans. Among the reconstructed processes – reduction, synthesis, expansion, regeneration and development of the system. The author describes the functionality of system components. Saratov Conservatory was the only one in the Volga region (until the Kazan Conservatory, opened in 1945), this fact determined its leading position in musical education. The Saratov region had the most developed industrial component in comparison with the provincial counterparts. Saratov during the war years remained a platform for new projects (Ukrainian Philharmonic, the orphanage of artistic and musical education, etc.).

Key words: system of musical culture; Saratov model; system approach; comparative approach; the Second World war, the Great Patriotic war, the Saratov Conservatory, the Moscow State Conservatory.

Martynenko A.V., Nadkin T.D. (Saransk) Islam in the republics of middle Volga region of the post-soviet period (on the example of Mordovia, Chuvashia and Mari El)………. 116

The article is the analysis of the main tendencies of development of Islam in the “national” republics of Central Volga area such as Mordovia, Chuvashia, Mari El during 1990 – middle of the 2010. The author of article characterizes features of Islamic revival in these republics of the considered period, including educational and socially oriented activity of local Muslim ummahs (communities). At the same time a certain influence of Salafit’s ideas in the considered region which creates real danger of religious extremism is noted. Other negative tendency is split of provincial Muslim communities on the competing spiritual managements (muphtiyats). Nevertheless, Muslim communities of the Republic of Mordovia, the ChuvashRepublic and the Republic of Mari El are estimated as confessional minorities which possess strong sociocultural potential and, along with Orthodox Christianity, are important part of a traditional confessional landscape of the region.

Key words: Islam, Russian ummah, Volga Region, religious revival, confessional situation, muphtiyats, salafits.


Military History

Pankratov A.G. (Saint-Petersburg) Nasal protection plates and half masks of some combat helmets in Ancient Russia………. 120

A significant number of combat helmets of different types, being used on the territory of Ancient Russia in the late Middle Ages were equipped with different types of face protection. These are three main groups: visors, half masks and nasal protection plates. This article considers the group, consisting of half masks with coronoid nasal protection plates and directly coronoid nasal protection plates. Thanks to similar lineaments it became possible to consider this fighting accessory separately, by grouping the existing excavations basing on number of signs; it also makes possible to track development and decadence of the same, as well as efficiency of use of these fighting accessory depending from nature of medieval fighting and to clear some technological aspects of production of the most complicated types of the same.

Keywords: Coronoid nasal protection plates and half mask, Lifting nasal protection plates in a bracket, Russian warrior, Rough workpiece, Embossing, Shaped hammer, Antiquities of nomads, relevant to Russian antiquities, Methods of production.

Grebennshchikova G.A. (Saint-Petersburg). The Secret Expeditions of Baltic Fleet………. 130

In the article on the basic of the new documents from Russian Federal Archives (Moscow and St.-Petersburg) there are little-known expeditions of Baltic Fleets together with landing troops to the coast of England and Holland during the rule of Empress Catherina the Second and Emperor Paul the First. The expeditions had a title of “Most Secret”. Russia and England were the allies and had carrying the secret expeditions as joint actions of their naval forces. It was necessary to fight against Revolutionary France. In 1795–1798, according to allies’ agreements between St.-Petersburg and London, Russians squadrons had been in North Sea and had blockaded the Fleet of Holland near Teksel’ Island. Russia had supported England during the difficult period when there was a rebellion in the Royal Fleet. In 1799 the both states had concluded the agreement about landing expedition with the purpose of destroyed the Fleet of Holland and against the French troops. The most important events had been analyzes on the based of watch journals of Russians ships which took participant in the expeditions to Holland. Russian ships were based at English ports.

Key words: revolutionary wars, Catherina the Second, anti-France coalitions, Emperor Paul, Russia and England, George III, Fleet and Politics, the battle operations, North Sea, blockade of Holland, Duck of York – the commander-in-chief.

Emelyanova E.N. (Moscow) Polish-soviet war of 1920: Failed attempt of destruction of the Versailles system………. 144

The article is devoted to the events of the Soviet-Polish war of 1920 and geopolitical aspects of this matter. The formation of the Versailles system was accompanied by various international forces struggle for spheres of influence. Soviet-Polish war has become a manifestation of this clash consisting in the confrontation between Poland, which operated under patronage of the Great Powers, and Soviet Russia, which relied on radical leftist forces in Europe. The role of the Comintern in the events of 1920, disagreements on tactical issues in the ruling circles of Poland and the Bolshevik Party, the position of European social democracy are under consideration in the article on the basis of archival documents and a wide range of sources. Much attention is paid to the negotiations with the leaders of the Second International to support the Bolsheviks’ “revolutionary offensive”. The article analyses the contradictions between the aspirations of European Communist Parties, the leaders of the ECCI and national interests of Soviet Russia. Despite the international rhetoric, the Bolshevik leadership endeavored to strength the international position of the country cooperating with the European communist and left-socialist movement. National interests appeared to be more important than international objectives. Therefore, the utopian idea of “world revolution” and the destruction of the Versailles system after the military defeat in 1920 has been adjusted, replaced by a policy of peaceful coexistence, and much later, completely rejected in favor of more important objective – defense against fascism. Peace of Riga in 1921 was a compromise between the Great Powers and Poland, on the one hand, and with Soviet Russia, on the other. Versailles system was established in more suitable for the RussianState adaptation than it possibly be. Despite the loss of the territories, there were positive outcomes: the socialist government of Belarus and Ukraine became focused on Moscow. And, therefore, Russia’s geopolitical position strengthened.

Keywords: foreign policy, the Versailles system, Russia, Poland, the war, the Comintern, geopolitics, party.

Zolotarev V.A. (Moscow) Pre-war period: the source of lesions the first months and the final victory in the Great Patriotic War………. 150

The article is devoted to the events of the Soviet-Polish war of 1920 and geopolitical aspects of this matter. The formation of the Versailles system was accompanied by various international forces struggle for spheres of influence. Soviet-Polish war has become a manifestation of this clash consisting in the confrontation between Poland, which operated under patronage of the Great Powers, and Soviet Russia, which relied on radical leftist forces in Europe. The role of the Comintern in the events of 1920, disagreements on tactical issues in the ruling circles of Poland and the Bolshevik Party, the position of European social democracy are under consideration in the article on the basis of archival documents and a wide range of sources. Much attention is paid to the negotiations with the leaders of the Second International to support the Bolsheviks’ “revolutionary offensive”. The article analyses the contradictions between the aspirations of European Communist Parties, the leaders of the ECCI and national interests of Soviet Russia. Despite the international rhetoric, the Bolshevik leadership endeavored to strength the international position of the country cooperating with the European communist and left-socialist movement. National interests appeared to be more important than international objectives. Therefore, the utopian idea of “world revolution” and the destruction of the Versailles system after the military defeat in 1920 has been adjusted, replaced by a policy of peaceful coexistence, and much later, completely rejected in favor of more important objective – defense against fascism. Peace of Riga in 1921 was a compromise between the Great Powers and Poland, on the one hand, and with Soviet Russia, on the other. Versailles system was established in more suitable for the RussianState adaptation than it possibly be. Despite the loss of the territories, there were positive outcomes: the socialist government of Belarus and Ukraine became focused on Moscow. And, therefore, Russia’s geopolitical position strengthened.

Keywords: foreign policy, the Versailles system, Russia, Poland, the war, the Comintern, geopolitics, party.

Morozov S.D. (Penza) A great feat of Great people.……… 159

The article dwells to the main results of the USSR preparations to fight with the Nazi Germany at 1930’s. The author makes a conclusion on the reasons of the defeats of the Red Army at Great Patriotic War first months. The major among them were the non completion of the military reform and mistakes at the military planning. However this didn’t mean unpreparedness of the Soviet Union (namely its military-political authorities and its diplomacy) and the whole Soviet people to rebuff the invaders.

Key words: Great Patriotic War, J.V. Stalin, V.M. Molotov, A. Hitler, I. Ribbentrop, interwar period, diplomacy.


History of Culture

Zontova E.A. (Saint-Petersburg). The Pushkin’s anniversary celebrations in Svyatie Gory in 1899 ………. 164

The article analyzes the struggle of the Soviet army and the people with Nazi Germany during World War II, the main stages of the battle, as well as the ratio of troops and weapons of the Soviet Army and the Wehrmacht. It describes the key events in the political arena of the whole world and summarizes the war, which lead to the defeat of the most reactionary and aggressive imperialist powers that the world has opened up many nations prospects of the path of national independence, democracy and social progress. Conditions were created for the victory of the revolution in a number of countries in Europe and Asia, strengthening in these countries and the influence of the USSR communist ideology. It shows the true meaning of the words “Price of Victory”, the heroism of the soldiers of the participating countries of the bloody events of world history.

Keywords: allied victory, the USSR, Germany, UK, France, USA, military units, contracts, confrontation.


History of Science and Technology

Bochinin D.A., Losik A.V. (Saint-Petersburg). Aluminium deficit hindered the development of the production of planes for the army and Navy of Russia for over thirty years………. 172

The article is devoted to the celebration of the Pushkin’s cecular anniversary in Svyatie Gory. The author examines the topic of the preparations for celebrations that were organized by the Pskov noblemen committee led by the nobility head – N. I. Novosiltsev. Thanks to the archival documents the author was able to describe in details the measures of the regalement commission at the upcoming celebrations in A.S. Pushkin’s honor. The holiday program during May, 26–27, 1899 consisted of two parts: for the honored guests and for the little educated residents. In order to this separation lots of contemporaries, criticizing the organizers, sharply commented the celebrations. The local population’s comments on the anniversary festivities and on the poet itself are notable for analysis. The A.S. Pushkin’s anniversary celebrations gave birth to lots of fictions and unbelievable guesses among the residents. The most significant result of that days was the purchase of the poet’s country estate in Mikhailovskoe by the government.

Keywords: anniversary, A.S. Pushkin, Svyatie Gory, Pskov noblemen committee, the holiday program, the honored guests, residents, country estate, Mihailovskoe.


Historical Characters

Tsintsadze N.S. (Tambov) G.R. Derzhavin’s state activity in the post of personal secretary of Empress Catherine II (1791–1793)………. 177

The history of the use of aluminum for the construction of aircraft has its roots in the years before the First World War. More precisely, not of aluminum and light alloys based on it, which in their mechanical properties similar to those of mild steel. Due to its high strength at relatively low weight the use of such alloys, particularly duralumin allowed to mace global aviation in the early twentieth century, a fundamental step in its evolution – to go from wooden to metal aircraft. Almost immediately, as soon as in the construction of domestic aircraft have been used light alloys in Russia showed an acute shortage of aluminum. Analysis of the documents of the Russian State Historical Archive allows to conclude that the government during the First World War gave quite adequate assessment of the need to create your own aluminum industry. However, for a long time, until the early 1930s our country has been forced to buy at very high prices this metal abroad. Chronic shortage of aluminum slowed the development of domestic aircraft production for more than thirty years. Russian and later Soviet designers and producers in those years were to be used as load-bearing elements and aircraft skin archaic materials – wood, fabric, iron. Analysis of the state of the Soviet fleet on the eve of World War II shows that most of our land and naval aircraft on its fight characteristics were inferior to foreign-metal machines. Only toward the end of Great Patriotic War, Soviet aircraft industry was able to organize the production of military aircraft with wide application in their design easily ferro alloys based on aluminum.

Key words: Tupolev aircraft, aluminum, seaplane, deficit, duralumin, factory «Red Vyborzets», ferro alloys, Commissar aviaprmyshlennosti, F.F. Shahurin, all-metal aircraft.

Gokov O.A. (Kharkov, Ukraine). The evolution of views of A.N. Kuropatkin on the policy of Russia of over Persia (1890–1915)………. 187

This article examines the public activity of the famous poet G.R. Derzhavin as the personal secretary of the Empress Catherine II. The study is based on a wide range of archival materials that were not previously introduced into scientific circulation. Briefly traces the evolution of the institute of state secretaries in the Russian Empire of the XVIII century. In the reign of Catherine the Great, it became a public authority outside the system put above all others. The power of the Secretary only compete with the power of General-prosecutor of the Senate. The adoption of a petition to the emperor was a method of feedback from the public without going through central and local levels of the power hierarchy. At the beginning of the 1790s. years one of the secretaries of state of Catherine II was a poet G.R. Derzhavin, already had time to serve in the military and civilian fields: he distinguished himself during the suppression the Pugachev rebellion, to get out of military service, he served as an employee of the Senate, then the governor of the Olonetsk and Tambov governorships. Appointment as a personal Queen’s assistant after loud resignation from Tambov and trial on the initiative convicted of embezzlement of public funds provincial officials, was to G.R. Derzhavin award and evidence a high degree of respect of the Empress. He was charged with monitoring the legality of decisions of the Senate. For the first time a detailed analysis of General list of petitions received by the Office of the G.R. Derzhavin for 1792 and 1793. Their material is systematized in six diagrams. They reflect the status of the estates of the applicants, the content of the petition and the dynamics of complaints by month. Diagrams supplement short comments and examples for each of the categories identified cases. As a result, it is concluded high intensity work of the Office under the supervision of the G.R. Derzhavin: in less than two years, it was considered almost 900 petitions to his Majesty. The wish of the poet to a consistent anti-corruption activities, even in the heart of the bureaucracy of the empire. However, inflexibility, the pursuit of justice and pedantry only increased the number of his enemies, which, ultimately, predetermined his resignation.

Key words: G.R. Derzhavin; state activity; Institute of Secretaries of State in the pre-revolutionary Russia; personal secretary of the emperor; Catherine II; a petition to the Emperor; the bureaucratic apparatus of the Russian Empire; corruption.

Gorobets S.V. (Saint-Petersburg). A.I. Siloti and its near related environment………. 198

In the article considers the process of development and transformation of the views of A.N. Kuropatkin of Russia’s foreign policy in Iran. They were formed gradually and finally were .presented in 1895 in a report to the Emperor. Later, under the influence of international, internal political and economic factors, they are somewhat transformed. But the basic features remained unchanged until 1915. A.N. Kuropatkin was a supporter of the territorial integrity and political stability of its southern neighbour Romanov empire. He believed that Persia should be under Russian influence. The main method of achieving this A.N. Kuropatkin saw the economic expansion of Russia in the Persian markets. Russia‘s economic policy A.N. Kuropatkin directly linked with the political and military means. A.N. Kuropatkin was guided by the foreign situation, but remained a supporter of Iran‘s ousting England. Most of the recommendations made by them have been implemented or implemented.

Key words: Persia, Iran, A.N. Kuropatkin, Russian foreign policy, Trans-Caspian region, geo-strategy.

Fei Haiting (Moscow). The problem of the state in ideology of P.L. Lavrov ……….204

Article is devoted to the concept of state of Russian sociologist, philosopher, writer of political essays and revolutionary P.L. Lavrov, one of the ideologues of Populism in the second half of the XIX century. The author scrutinizes the content of the concept of state and a number of related concepts of P.L. Lavrov like «contract», «law», «nationality», etc. Thinking individual is the basis of ideology of Lavrov. In fact, in this «individual» we can find the character of philosophy of Lavrov. He stood on two aspects to analyse the concept of individual: theoretical and practical. Political theory of Lavrov is consistent with this way of analysis. Therefore in this article we will examine the concept of state from these two aspects. He took the state as a special idealization of human society in theory and as a social form in practice. Idealization is the conscious value of human beings, which they put to their unconscious behaviors. Social form in the work of Lavrov represents human needs. People create different social forms with different functions, like Contract and Law, corresponding to their needs. The very public form of idealization and can be either true or false. Hence this article discusses the concept of state of Lavrov in sequence Iealization, Social Form, Contract, Law and State. As part of the concept of state P.L. Lavrov also addressed the topic of nationality, which played a major role in his argument. Author focuses on the philosophical approach P.L. Lavrov for understanding of the history of human society. The article also attempts to show his distinctive explanation on formation, subsequent development and the future of state.

Key words: P.L. Lavrov, Narodism, social contract, state, law, nationality, idealization, social form.

Yudin M.O. (Moscow). Manufacturing advisor………. 211

The article is devoted to Pavel Akimovich Ovchinnikov, the founder and owner of one of the largest Russian jewelry firms of the second half of the 19th – early 20th century. Born a serf peasant, he later became a first guild merchant, manufacturing advisor, hereditary honorary citizen of Moscow, and a knight of the seven Russian and several foreign orders. He established a company that became a supplier to the courts of Grand Princes, the Imperial Court, as well as to the Royal Courts of Italy and Denmark. Ovchinnikov’s firm regularly participated in Russian and foreign art and industry exhibitions during 50 years, and invariably received high awards and recognition of contemporaries. Ovchinnikov made a significant contribution to the development of Russian gold and silver art due to the proper organization of the production process, largely unique for his time, as well as the high artistic and technical level of the products. He is rightfully credited with the rise of the Russian jewelry industry and its triumphant foray into international art markets.

Key words: P.A. Ovchinnikov, jewelry industry, gold-silver, art, industrial art exhibition, production organization, charity, manufacturing advisor, merchant, supplier of the Imperial Court.

Zimonin V.P. (Moscow). The Dark and the Light Sights of Military-Historical Science………. 217

The latest attempts in foreign and domestic mass media to humiliate the historical image of our country not only intensifying but a new tendency has appeared – to undermine the trust in our military-historical past through distortion of contribution to its research by some prominent historians. The article emphasizes the selfless role in the development of national military history of professor Pavel Zhilin and realization of his ideas in modern researches, among them in the fundamental issue «The Great Patriotic War, 1941–1945» in 12 vols. Autor states his viues on the morden problems of the military history and the ways to their decision, aimed to successful realization of the mission of the Russian Armed Forces.

Key words: falsification, history, Motherland, military history, Zhilin, achievements, followers, the present


Will Be History Tommorrow

Ostrovsky I.V. (Kursk) The history of the development of the environmental policy in Russian Federation at the end of the XX and at the beginning of the XXI centuries, both on the federal and on the regional levels: the practice of interaction and contradiction……….229

In this article with the attraction of vast statistical data and legislative acts, the scene of environmental policy was analyzed by the researches, on both federal and regional levels in Russia at the end of the XX and at the beginning of the XXI centuries. The researches analyzed in details the stages of the development of legislative base in the sphere of nature conservative activity of the state, and at the same time the formation and the development of nature conservative services, both in the centre and in the field. The main purposes were revealed, which promoted the complication of work with violators in the sphere of nature conservative legislation of the Russian Federation on this stage of its existence. One of the main faults of the active ecological legislation is represented be the omissions existed in legal regulation of ecological terms. The terms on ecological insurance, audit, assessment of this projected activity’s influence on the environment, this paid negative influence on the environment are not stll settled from the legislative position. The conclusions were made, which serve to be the evidence of the fact, that at the present moment, in the work system of federal legislative authority preserve the signs of de-ecologization, and on the local level, there exists less and less legal leverages, which can influence the environmental policy.

Key words: ecology, environmental policy, legislative acts, Russian Federation, local government agencies, environmental protection.


Reviews of Scientific Pubications

Izmozik V.S. (Saint-Petersburg). Censorship and its Ministers in the Russian Empire. The middle of the XIX – beginning of XX century………. 235

Two monographs by N.G. Patrusheva about the structure and activities of the Russian Empire’s censorship department in the second half of XIX – early XX century first made the subject of a special study the censorship machine itself: its central and local institutions, its relationships with other governmental and administrative structures, its personal composition, despite the presence of numerous papers about various aspects of this problem. The basis of these monographs is a wide range of different sources, including a great amount of new archival sources. Anyone who addresses the history of the Russian censorship cannot continue his work without access to these works.

Key words: censorship, press laws, censorship regulations, censorship oversight, censorship department’s staff, the plans of censorship’s restructuring, censor as a profession, literature and periodicals.