Klio #6 (66) 2012


Diares, memoirs

Chetverikov B.D. (Saint Petersburg). “Stezhky-dorozhky” (“The pathways”) (continuation)………. 3

The autobiographical novel by B.D. Chetverikov tells us about the writer’s life that can be called «the outline» of the history of our country in the 20th century.

Katukova E.S. (The Moscow Region). Something to remember (continuation)……. 11

These memoirs narrate Yekaterina Sergeevna Katukova’s life course that was inseparably linked with the outstanding military leader Mikhail Yefimovich Katukov. The memoirs cover many decades; events of the Great Patriotic War, however, hold the central position.


Source studies

Mitrofanov V.V. (Nizhnevartovsk). “Many thanks to you…:” some facts about the educational and organizational activities of S.F. Platonov in Nizhny Novgorod in the early XX century………. 21

This publication reveals the history of relations between S.F. Platonov and N.N. Iordansky, a well-known figure in Nizhny Novgorod in the sphere of education. To specify the role of S.F. Platonov in conducting educational courses in 1902 and 1903 in Nizhny Novgorod region, the publication of literary collections, and other important initiatives of local historians, their correspondence is of great importance, the publication of which will be the next step in the study of this cooperation. Two letters written by S.F. Platonov allow to specify previously unknown facts related to the preparation of his two articles for publication in Nizhny Novgorod journals.

Bogutskiy A.E. (Shushenskoye, Krasnoyarsk Krai). Foreign publications of Irkutsk and Yenisei Cossacks as a historical source………. 26

This article analyzes the content of materials by foreign publications of Irkutsk and Yenisei Cossacks, “Irkutsk Cossack” and “Yenisei Cossacks” magazines published in Harbin in the 1930s. Appeal to the subject extends ideas about the life of Cossack emigrants formed in historical science.



Litvin A.A. (Kazan). National movements and national organizations in the Middle Volga region in the early XX century: the domestic historiography of the turn………. 29

The article presents the review of the study of national movements and national organizations of the Middle Volga region in the early XX century. In the 90s of the XX century owing to the disappearance of political censorship and the departure from the immutable canons, an opportunity to examine national organizations fairly and to define their true goals and objectives appeared. However, the researchers came upon a subjective interest in the problem from the leaders of re-emerging national movements. The article attempts to conduct an objective study of the stated issue.

Frolov M. I. (Saint Petersburg). Historians and memoirists of the FRG and the Battle of Kursk………. 32

In the article written by M.I. Frolov, a scientist and veteran of the World War II, the dynamics of studying the Battle of Kursk in the postwar period is traced through a variety of the published sources and historiography (mainly by foreign authors).


General history

Nagodkina S.A. (Saratov). West Prussia in the policy of Frederick II………. 35

The article discloses the policy of Frederick II in respect of a new province – West Prussia which was established in the territory obtained after the first partition of Poland. The author highlights key economic measures used to secure new lands by the King.

Bugashev S.I. (Saint Petersburg). The women’s movement in Britain in the XIX–early XX century………. 38

The article is devoted to the British feminism at the end of XIX–the beginning of the XX century. The author pays special attention to the analysis of the fight of the English women for the political rights. The author investigates the seventy-year experience of the British suffragettes, as well as methods and ways of achievement the political goals. It is noted that the English suffragism was presented by two directions: moderate and “militansky”. The author comes to the conclusion that some methods applied by suffragettes for lobbying their interests can find their application nowadays as well.

Novikova I.N. (Saint Petersburg). Sweden in the foreign policy of Germany shortly before the World War I………. 42

This article discloses the changing role of neutral Sweden in Germany’s foreign policy before the World War I. The views of Kaiser Wilhelm II, political, military and diplomatic elite are analyzed with respect to the role and place of Sweden in Germany’s foreign policy plans. On the basis of unpublished sources of German archives, the author shows how Berlin tried to involve Sweden in the political-military alliance against Russia by diplomatic methods, and why such efforts were unsuccessful.


The history of Russia

Shkuropat S.G. (Saint Petersburg). Travelers and the culture of traveling in Russia in the first half of XIX century………. 48

The article attempts to provide a systematic picture of the functioning of roadside and urban hospitality businesses. The article reveals challenges and difficulties faced by travelers. The author depicted the activity hotels and their service in the first half of XIX century from the fragments found in publications and materials of different authors, memoirs and epistolary sources, texts of guides, on the material of Russian literature, local history essays, historical studies, on the example of roadside hospitality facilities and the best establishments of Saint Petersburg. 

Bazhanov D.A. (Saint Petersburg). “The policy to the people”: by parties and Helsingfors seamen in March–July of 1917………. 51

This article is devoted to the review of how political parties influenced the mass consciousness of the Russian seamen being in Helsingfors in March–July of 1917. The author lists the key areas of the party work, the alteration of its forms. This article is based on a broad source base – RGAVMF and RGASPI funds, periodical press, and memoirs. The article concludes that in these circumstances not only the ideas but also the way they were delivered to the masses, and the form of submission, acquired great importance.

Kashevarov A.N. (Saint Petersburg). On the tactical line of the Soviet authorities in respect to the Orthodox Church in the early 1920s………. 55

The article contains a comparative analysis of the proposals from the management of punitive and repressive bodies submitted by the Cheka, and VIII “Church” department of the People’s Commissariat of Justice on the policy towards the Orthodox Church in the transition from the Civil War to the NEP. Particular attention is paid to the polemics in the national press on this matter by M.I. Lacis, the Cheka representative, and P.A. Krasikov, the head of the VIII Department of People’s Commissariat for Justice (the Narkomiust).

Khrymov D.V. (Saint Petersburg). The activities of the Russian Orthodox Church abroad in Yugoslavia in 1920–1939………. 58

The article examines the activities of the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad (ROCA) in Yugoslavia in 1920–1939. The peculiarity of the ROCA activity in Yugoslavia consisted in the fact that this country had been the center of the spiritual service of the ROCA in those years.


The history of Russian regions

Kazantsev V.P. (Saint Petersburg). The Russian Empire in the Pacific. The Far Eastern administrative policy of the government in the 50–70s of the XIX century………. 61

The article reviews the activities of the Russian government to establish a system of local administration in the territories of the Far East attached to the empire as a result of the Aigun (1858) and the Beijing (1860) Russian-Chinese treaties and known as the South-Ussuri Krai (the Primorye), and the Amur Region.

Ivanov A.A. (Irkutsk). Irkutsk gendarmes………. 69

The article is devoted to the activities of the political police of the Irkutsk province in the XIX–early XX century. On the basis of diverse factual data introduced into scientific circulation mainly for the first time, the author identifies various working methods of gendarmes among the radical part of society, determines the structure of the provincial directorates and services, comes to the conclusion about the high level of professionalism and effectiveness of protective and punitive activities of gendarmes.

Kalinina O.S. (Saratov). Problems of child health and hygiene in the Volga Germans of Kamyshin District of Saratov province in the early XX century……….. 77

The article is devoted to little known aspects of the everyday life of German colonies of Saratov Right Bank. The author examines children’s infectious diseases in German families.

Pomogalova O.I. (Saratov). The support of F. Nansen to the starving population of Saratov province in 1921–1923………. 80

The article is devoted to F. Nansen, the great polar explorer. The author examines the situation of hunger prevailing in the Saratov province in 1921–1923 and assistance to the starving population.

Galiullina D.M. (Kazan). Primers for adults in Tatar language in the 1920s………. 84

The article shows the specific features of the Tatar primers in Arabic script for adults as a form of Soviet-era textbooks. Primers for adults are analyzed as important sources on the history of the Tatar people. We investigate not only the verbal texts, but also a visual range of primers as a reflection of socio-political and socio-cultural processes in the Republic of Tatarstan during the early decades of the Soviet power.

Fedoseeva I.M. (Krasnoyarsk). German sections of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks) (PCP (b) in Siberia in the 1920s………. 86

The article analyzes the position of the German sections in Siberia in the 1920s. The author examines the problems associated with nation building within this period. The specifics of the German Communist sections is shown herein. The author widely used the sources from Siberian archives.

Belozerov D.A. (Kursk). The activity of public organizations of the Kursk region during the Khrushchev “thaw” (early 1950s–mid 1960s)………. 89

The study analyzes the establishment and operation of public organizations in the territory of Kursk region in 50–60s of the XX century. The analysis of their activity is based on a study of archival documents. It testifies to the great role of public organizations in reforming the social and political life of the population of Kursk region.

Portsel A.K. (Murmansk). “People’s diplomacy” on Spitsbergen during the Cold War………. 93

The article discloses the relationship of “Arktikugol” workers with Norwegian citizens on Spitsbergen after the Second World War.

Golovin E.A. (Kursk). The state of labor discipline as a factor of the development of industrial production in 60–70s of the XX century (The Kursk region enterprises as an example)………. 97

On the basis of the archival documentation from the collection of the Kursk Regional Court the author examines the state of labor discipline at industrial enterprises of the region. The significant impact of the discipline on the economy is noted.


Military history

Molochnikov A.M. (Saint Petersburg). Combat operations against the army of I. Bolotnikov in 1606………. 100

Basil Shuisky is still called as “boyar tsar”, although in his struggle with Cossacks and rebellious nobles of southern Russia in 1606 he received quite strong support from the side of a certain part of the county gentry and even the peasantry. The article examines the social composition of the supporters of Tsar Basil and their struggle with the forces of Ivan Bolotnikov in the west and north-west Russia.

Grebenshchikova G.A. (Saint Petersburg). Combat path of the squadron of Vice-Admiral Dmitry N. Senyavin: the top of fame and the bitterness of the end……. 105

The article, based on the documents from Russian archives, examines the activities of Admiral Dmitry N. Senyavin during the development of Bosphorus landing operation and the stay of Russian sailors in England.


Cultural history

Makhlina S.T. (Saint Petersburg). A bed in a residential interior design………. 118

A bed is a special facility for sleep and it appeared in ancient times. The article shows various forms of beds in the history of culture in different countries. The manufacturing techniques and artistic features of finishing beds are described herein.


Historical chracters

Dmitrieva N.V. (Vyborg). J.A. Martinelli and Ch.H. Tetam are two architects of the Monrepos Estate near Vyborg………. 119

The article reviews the role of the “Italian component” in the development of the modern ensemble of Monrepos Park near Vyborg. These are both individuals one way or another connected with Italy, and various Italian cultural influences and experiences the founders and owners of the park.



Sakharov V.A. (Moscow). The Union of the Soviet Republics or the Union of the Soviet peoples?………. 122

The author reviews the history of policy changes of the Bolshevik Party in the nation building (the rejection to create the Union of the Soviet Republics by the union of the Soviet peoples within the unitary socialist state and the adoption of the course), as well as attempts to ensure the formation of the union of peoples within the Soviet Union, and their results, the main historical and policy lessons.


The reviews to the abstracts of dissertations

Fedosik V.A., Yanovskiy O.A. (Minsk, Belorussia). Review to the abstract of the dissertation by A.V. Popov “Genesis, formation and development of the system of values within Russian military intelligentsia
(X century–early XX century)”………. 133

The review provides a high assessment of the thesis research of the applicant, there is a profound vision of the historiography of the problem, use and analysis of a vast array of sources for the thousand-year history of the Russian army, the application of new approaches to their analysis. It is noted that the author of the thesis discovered a new trend in the historiography of the Russian intelligentsia.


The reviews of scientific publications

Talerov P.I. (Saint Petersburg). A pure idealist, full of ideas and energy………. 135

On the eve of the 170th anniversary of the birth of the prince-rebel Peter Alekseevich Kropotkin a book by Vyacheslav Markin, a well-known writer and geographer, was published in a series of “Life of Remarkable People”. According to the reviewer, its language is dashing and rich, and it is read in one breath, conveying the atmosphere of the distant years of the late XIX–early XX century.

Kulikov S.V. (Saint Petersburg). Small but precious!……….. 138

The review analyzes the collection in the context of the modern historiographical situation where there are very few high quality works on the prehistory and history of the revolution of 1917. According to the reviewer, the collection is a rare example of a truly scientific approach to the given problem since it includes the articles devoid of exclaims plaque and representing a striking example of the revolution understanding, free from the effects of ideological predetermination and social order.

Teplyakov A.G. (Novosibirsk). Blood in curve: Soviet state security organs in the mirror of the departmental historiography………. 141

This article analyzes the typical specimens of the modern departmental historiography of the Cheka-MGB (Ministry of State Security) represented by O.B. Mozokhin and A.M. Plekhanov. Their works have similar features: archaic nature of ideological preferences, poor knowledge of contemporary works of civil historians, the bias, the tendency to perceive the Cheka documents without comments. Negligence during the preparation makes the books under review related, so that they are marked with a large number of errors, including when quoting major documents from relatively inaccessible funds of the FSB.

Gordeev P.N. (Saint Petersburg). Review of the publication “The Tauride readings 2010. Current problems in the history of parliamentarism”………. 148

The reviewed scientific publication “The Tauride readings 2010. Current problems in the history of parliamentarism” is a compilation of works of the International Conference devoted to the history of parliamentarism, which is done during several years in the Tauride Palace in Saint Petersburg. Most of the articles are devoted to various aspects of the State Duma of the Russian Empire and the essence of the period, which is denoted by the term “the Duma Monarchy”. Several authors of the compilation focused on the current problems of parliamentarism in Russia and Ukraine. These issues are discussed by well-known historians from Saint Petersburg, Moscow, Kiev, Minsk, Perm and other cities, whose works are presented in the reviewed publication.



Kashevarov A.N., Kruglikova O.S. (Saint Petersburg). The anniversary of L.P. Gromova, a remarkable scientist and teacher………. 151

The paper analyzes the activities of L.P. Gromova, Professor, famous St. Petersburg scientist and teacher, and draws attention to the diverse work made by Lyudmila Petrovna Gromova.


Scientific life

Smirnova V.G. (Saint Petersburg). Presentation of the unique book………. 152

The publication describes the three-volume edition of “Annals of the Russian Fleet. From the inception of navigation in Old Russian State to the beginning of the XXI century”. The uniqueness of the three-volume is emphasized, including the fact that it contributes to strengthening of links between science and the Navy.


Colleague’s memories

Kan A. (Stockholm, Sweden). Lev Yurievich Slezkin (1920–2012)………. 153

The obituary describes the life of Lev Yurievich Slezkin, a major Russian scientist, the participant of the Great Patriotic War, the Americanist, and gives high assessment of his contribution to the development of historical science, and also marks his remarkable personal qualities.