Klio #8 (104) 2015

Theoretical Issues

Ippolitov G.M. (Samara), Poltorak S.N. (Saint-Petersburg), Repinetzkiy A.I. (Samara). Historical fact and event: “analytical” journey in the maze of opinions, assessments and views ………. 3

The second article completes the analysis of dynamics of changes in nature and content of such terms as «historical fact» and «historical event». «Historical fact» can be found in historiography and historical science’s methodology and category «historical event» is in developing process of historical science. There are final generalizations in the article. Authors reveal the dynamic of views such scientists as Marx, Engels, Lenin, Pokrovsky, Frantsev, Kovalchenko, Pronshteyn, Danilevsky, Colling-wood, Likhachev, Barg and also some modern methodologists, philosophers and historians about «historical fact» and «historical event». Article points out both terms have common origin – historical source, but as well they have qualitative differences. Authors make attempt to prove that there aren’t «purely eventful» historical researchers in historical science.

Keywords: historical fact, historical event, Marxism, philosophy, history, methodology of history, postmodern challenge, K. Marx, F. Engels, V. I. Lenin, D. S. Likhachev, R.J. Collingwood.


Source studies

Levin D.E. (Saint-Petersburg). The Matvey Vasilyevich Fursov (a historian, journalist and educator from Mogilev) obituary as biography sources: facts and preteritions ………. 16

The biography information of this person who studied Belarussian region in modern reference books is limited by the end of the XIX century, and the anonymous text of the obituary, firstly published in the official newspaper of regional government («Mogilev Province News», 1901, unofficial, no. 43, May 30, pp.185–186), gives additional information. Author has compared obituary text with the documents of the Department of Public Education (now these documents are in the Russian State Historical Archive), official and unofficial publications in the periodicals of the last century and concluded that all facts in the obituary, connected with the service of this the 4th class official, were extracted from his official list.

M.V. Fursov was born in 1825. After graduating the Philosphy Faculty of St. PetersburgUniversity, he started his carrier as a chief teacher in the Pskov classic school (1848) and an inspector of the Pskov military school. Later he was a director of the classic school in Shawly (1865–1872), Slutsk (1872–1876) and Mogilev (1876–1886). There is no information about his childhood, secondary school period (3th classic school in St. Petersburg, 1845) and university life (candidate of university) in the obituary. The authorship of M.V. Fursov historical articles (mainly anonymous and using the pen name) which were mentioned in the text, including some information of Belorussian and Jewish history, was confirmed by other sources. Perhaps, anonymous obituary author (probably, M.N. Sozonov, a teacher and historian of MogilevCollege) consulted with E.R. Romanov, who replaced M.V. Fursov as an editor of «Mogilev Province News» since 1897. The characteristics of Fursov as a chauvinist, given in the obituary, is contradictory with the diary of N.N. Kulikov, an educator and dramatist, with contents of Fursov`s publications, statistics and other sources. Author considers him a Russian liberal, cooperated with Imperial authorities on the basis of public education and regional studying. Author corrected by his comments some mistakes in the obituary and added some information about Fursov’s activity in the Pskov, Kovno and Mogilev government statistical committees and publications of Vilna educational district (including anonymous and signed by M.V.F, M.F., M.F-v., M.F.-b, F.) According to outher sources, which were different from obituary text, Fursov came up against the official course of minorities discrimination in education, and it led him to resignation.



Kiknadze V.G. (Moscow). The political and strategic content of the Third Reich plans against the Soviet Union: review of publications in scientific journals ………. 34

The article provides overview of the political and strategic plans of fascist Germany against the Soviet Union on the eve of the 75th anniversary of the Great Patriotic War. These plans were studied by Russian and foreign historians (Ayhholts D., Bogdanov V.N., Bruhl R., Weinberg G.L., Vasiliev V.V., Vishlev O.V., Gridnev V.M., Dashichev V.I., Orlov A.S., Petrov B.N. etc.) and revealed in their scientific articles. This article completes the series of works devoted to the historiography on this subject, and so contains general conclusions from the analysis of published sources and historiography on this subject. There is a characteristic of the degree of scrutiny of the four genesis periods of the Third Reich plans against the Soviet Union, various aspects of the preparation plans and directions for their implementation. Scientifically were substantiated the main historiographical concepts that reflect two sets of policy issues and strategic plans, which were directed against the Soviet Union by the Third Reich.

Keywords: Great Patriotic War, the Third Reich, Germany, the USSR, Hitler, policy, aggression, plans, planning process, war.

Khanin G.I. (Novosibirsk). Robert Daviess works on the history of Soviet economy and society ………. 41

Article examines a multiyear researching work of English economist R.W. Davies on the history of the Soviet economy and society in 1920–30. Davies cooperated with Edward Carr, another outstanding English historian who also studied the Soviet society. Author shows their common positions on the place of the Soviet Union in the world history. Article analyzes specifics of Davies approach which he used for researching the history of the Soviet economy as well as nature of using sources. Author estimates highly the tremendous work done by R.W. Davies and its objectiveness. Davies works may be a good example for Russian historians. Special attention is given to the sixth volume of the Soviet Industrialization (1933–1936) series. Article noticed the important meaning of creating a powerful military-industrial complex in the Soviet industrialization strategy. Author supplements Davies information with some important macroeconomic indicators. He criticizes Davies insufficient attention to the estimate of fixed cost and dynamics of the main funds that’s why is difficult to explain the economic growth factors in the Soviet Union in 1928–1936.

Keywords: history of the Soviet society, history of the Soviet economy, Soviet industrialization, the first five-year industrial plan, the second five-year industrial plan, role of the military-industrial complex in the 1930s, alternative estimates of the USSR economic growth in the pre-war period, Robert Davies, Edward Carr.


General history

Aleksandrova O.I. (Saint-Petersburg).Garrisons as a special form of Athenian colonization in IV century b.c ………. 49

This article describes the garrisons as the Athenian foreign policy method in the IV century B.C. The analysis of sources allows to suppose that appearance and spread of the Athenian garrisons was connected with the prohibition of founding cleruchies in the allies’ territory under the terms of the Second Delian League. It emphasized that from the allies’ point of view the garrisons had beneficial differences from cleruchies and defended not only Athenian interests, but also interests of other cities. Founding process of garrisons complemented the traditional Athenian colonization policy and was a special method for strengthening the Athens influence in that period of time.

Keywords: Athens, Athenian colonization policy, garrison, cleruchy, IV century B.C., the Second Delian League.

Varinova M. M. (Saratov), Guskov, E. A.( Kinel, Samara region). Causes of Caecina Alienus’complot ………. 52

This article describes the events occurred during the reign of Vespasian Flavius (69-79 AD), the founder of a new dynasty of Roman emperors. It focuses on the causes of the second major plot of this period – the conspiracy of Caecina Alienus and Eprius Marcellus in 79 AD. At the beginning of the Vespasian’s reign Helvidius Priscus suffered for his stoic beliefs, but Alienus and Marcellus were guided by other reasons. Apparently, they were motivated primarily personal reasons and the desire for a simple change of the Princeps. The main role in the organization of complot be-longed to Caecina, while Eprius Marcellus, probably, should have just become a sponsor of cash distributions for the warriors.

Keywords: Roman Empire, Flavians, Vespasian Flavius, Titus Flavius, the conspiracy of  Caecina Alienus, Eprius Marcellus, Helvidius Priscus, a political struggle.

Velichko E.O. (Saint-Petersburg). Assassination attempt of the Duke of Edinburgh: the Parliament of the United Kingdom between law and justice in examination of H. J. O’Farrell’s case (1868) ………. 55

The article shows the results of the research of the British Parliament activity in examination of H. J. O’Farrell’s case, who was Irishman and attempted to assassinate the Duke of Edinburgh in New South Wales in 1868. The incident occurred in time of aggravation of contradictions between the British and the Irish, the discussing of problems of Irish policy and intensification of the Fenian activity. As a result the Parliament discussed this case just in the context of Irish policy. Because of development of the conflict between the British and the Fenians the Cabinet aimed to avoid its escalation which could have caused damage to the unity and safety of the Empire. The way of consideration of Farrell’s case in the Рarliament demonstrated the methods that the government of the Mother country used to prevent conflicts within the Empire. The British government admitted to use the force methods to maintain the Empire in order. British politicians interpreted this way as lawful and fair in spite of the course of colonial reforming that was held in 1860s. The discussing of the situation that had taken part in Australia showed that the Parliament’s conceptions of law and justice correlated just with the objectives of the Empire’s prosperity while the individual interests weren’t so important in comparison with imperial problems. The O’Farrell’s case and the associated problem of Fenianism had considerable influence on the pace of decision of Irish policy acute issues. That, in turn, didn’t promote to resolve conflicts between the British and the Irish.

Keywords: law, justice, conflict within the Empire, British Empire, Parliament of the United Kingdom, Duke of Edinburgh, the Fenians, H. J. O’Farrell.


History of Russia

Voronov I.I. (Yaroslavl). Bureaucracy of the central bodies of the Ministry of State Property during the reign of Alexander II (1856–1881) ………. 60

The article reviews the influence of Alexander II reforms on the bureaucracy of the Russian Ministry of State Property.

The abolition of servage caused the loss of main purpose of the Agricultural Department, and was result of the crisis. The process of overcoming the crisis is connected with such personalities as M.N. Muravyov, A.A. Zeleniy, P.A. Valuev and AA. Liven. The author attracts our attention to the position which the minister chose in his activity: he could represent the ministry interests or he could consider the state interests more important for him.

We can see the peculiarities of personnel policy of the different departments heads; the influence of managing methods and attitude to the subordinates on the paperwork. The article provides us the data regarding the salary structure and financing volumes of the Ministry of State property officials.

Keywords: Aleksandr II, M.N. Muravev, A.A. Zelenoi, P.A. Valuev, A.A. Liven, great reforms, bureaucracy, officials, the Department of State Property.

Timokhina D.A. (Saint-Petersburg). Constitutional Democratic Party and the First State Duma election campaign in St. Petersburg ………. 65

The article deals with the methods of electoral campaign which were used the central body of the Constitutional Democratic Party of Russia (commonly abbreviated as Kadet Party) during the first State Duma election process in the winter–spring 1906. Appearing on Russian political scene in October 1905, the Kadet Party in a short time could create a tremendous campaign mechanism. The Central Committee of the Party developed a detailed campaign plan, which defined tasks of local committees for speech managing and press campaign.

The Bolsheviks and the SRs (it’s a short name of Socialists Revolutionaries) boycotted the election in the First State Duma considering it inappropriate during the first Russian revolution, and even more in their opinion the election was held unfair. Later tactics of boycott were recognized as wrong, and the Bolsheviks actively exploit used the election campaigns and the Duma tribune as a way in their political struggle. In these circumstances the Kadets could unite Russian liberals, as well as attract the attention of many democrats.

During the first election process of Russian history the Constitutional Democrats developed forms, ways and methods of electoral campaign, and identified their target audience. It’s experience of the first State Duma election that was later used by the Kadets for managing all their election campaigns until the Revolution.

Кeywords: history of Parliamentarism, Constitutional Democratic Party, State Duma, election campaign, electorat, agitation, E.I.  Kedrin, D.I Bebutov.

Ivlev K.V. (Orekhovo-Zuevo, Moscow region). Security activities of the Commission «Old Moscow» in 1909–1923 ………. 72

Article examines the work of the Commission for protecting monuments in the 1909–1923. Article based on the reports of the Commission for the Studying of Old Moscow at the Moscow Archaeological Society, kept in the Manuscript Department of the Russian State Library and materials of the Written Sources Department of the State Historical Museum. The main attention is paid to methods of monument conservation and practical results, which Commission managed to achieve. It is concluded that the work of the «Old Moscow» in this direction, despite some randomness, allowed to keep in safe architectural monuments, rescued from destructing some archives, as well as to intensify its work, which reached its peak in the end of the 1920s, when urban development plans included a radical change of city planning.

Keywords: Commission for the Studying of Old Moscow, methods of monument preservation, Moscow, Moscow Archaeological Society, archive protection, monument protection.

Kontsevoy I.A. (Moscow). «Most of the issues we have solved unanimously»: the Bolsheviks and the Left Socialist-Revolutionaries in the Soviet government and People`s Commissariats (November 1917–July 1918) ………. 76

The article describes the history of relationships between the representatives of the Bolsheviks and the Left Socialist-Revolutionaries in the Council of People`s Commissars during the Russian revolution in 1917–1918. The Soviet Russian two-party government was finally formed in December 1917 when several Left Socialist-Revolutionaries joined the Bolsheviks for managing the country. The joining of the Left Socialist-Revolutionaries to the government work indicated the appearing of the SovietState two-party base system. This fact led to the strengthening of the Bolsheviks’ positions in government. Team work of the Bolsheviks and the Left Socialist-Revolutionaries became the unique example of cooperation between these parties in the Soviet government and its institutions.

Keywords: Bolsheviks; Left Socialist-Revolutionaries; Council of People`s Commissars; revolution in 1917; Vladimir Lenin; Isaac Steinberg; Russian Emergency Committee; People`s Commissariat for Justice, two-party government.

Medvedev S.V. (Reutov, Moscow region). Transport higher educational institutions of the USSR in the 1930s ………. 84

This article examines a wide range of problems of the transport educational institutions of the 1930s based on the archival documents of the Fund NKPS (People’s Commissariat of Railways).These institutions didn’t provide the country required technical personnel despite having a large financial overruns. Additional difficulty was created by the frequent changes of plans, multidisciplinary, the absence in some technical colleges of individual work with students. On the one hand, many first-year students had a low knowledge level because of absence of continuity of higher and secondary schools curriculums. On the other hand, institutions couldn’t provide qualitative education due to a lack of teaching handbooks and laboratories as well as sudden student transferring to other specialties. NKPS leaders took some measures for overcoming the educational crisis: reducing ineffective educational institutions, upgrading the laboratories, implementing stronger control of technical colleges according to their ranking. As a result, indicators of lists of academic achievement were improved by the end of the 1930s, there were created new educational profiles and also industrial internership was more organized.

Keywords: technical personnel, industrial internership, curriculum, economic calculation, educational profiles, transport reconstruction, university rankings, everyday life.

Vdovin A.I. (Moscow). Nationalistic NEP during the Great Patriotic War ………. 89

The author presumes the nationalistic New Economic Policy (NNEP) – the same historical phenomenon as a new economic policy. There is attempt to give definition of the NNEP, to reveal its prerequisites, a chronological framework, manifestations at transition stages to the NNEP, its deepening and refusal of it connected with returning to the class national policy in article. Changes in national policy were defined by government confession of necessity of combination proletarian internationalism with the «healthy nationalism» power of the people (February, 1941), determination of begun war nature as a domestic (national), but not class. Article shows that it’s a revival during the war of people’s military traditions, a support based on patriotism as the main factor of victory in the war. Transition to the NNEP, according to the author, came to the end in December, 1941, and its deepening is traced till the beginning of 1944. At the final stage of the war is observed clotting the NNEP, its end connects with the requirement not to allow ignoring of the class maintenance of the Soviet patriotism (February, 1948).

Keywords: New Economic Policy, nationalistic New Economic Policy, patriotism, traditions, healthy nationalism, chauvinism, biases into ethnic question, Comintern, politics, relations between the allies in the anti-Hitler alliance, religion, church.

Pavlov M.Y. (Armavir). The great power of the chauvinism or Stalin’s phobia? To the question about the causes of extermination of «The Leningrad group» ………. 100

The article discusses the nationalist or «rusotsentristskaya» [Russian central] version of the «The Leningrad affair». Based on the first time introduced into scientific circulation documents from the Central Archive of the FSB are defined the place and role. Stalin accused this intention of «The Leningrad’s» on chauvinism, intention to form the second party center represented by the Russian Communist Party and isolate the Russian Federation within the Union. The author’s concept is based on the thesis that one of the main causes of the «The Leningrad affair» appearing was preventive, carrying a demonstration effect of leader’s desire to avoid of centrifugal tendencies. The article demonstrates not Russian nationalism of «The Leningrad’s», but real hypothetical possibility of its occurrence, not a desire to split the party and the country internally, but timid, independent attempts to declare the interests of the Russian people. Also article shows edifying bloody lesson of «The Leningrad affair» to the rest, doubting people. «The Leningrad affair» promoted the destruction of a whole cohort of talented leaders.

Keywords: «The Leningrad affair», I. Stalin, A. Zhdanov, A. Kuznetsov, the great power of the chauvinism, nationalism, Russian Communist Party, repressions.


History of Russian regions

Kortunov A.I. (Ufa). Issue of land ownership and population dynamics of Bashkir division in Ural Cossack army in 1832–1865 ………. 109

This article shows the main results of the research devoted to study the land ownership issue and population dynamics of Bashkir division in Ural Cossack army in 1832–1865. As a result it was found that creation of the Bashkir division of Ural Cossack army in 1832 was motivated by objective conditions, connected with the necessity of systemization of Bashkir government and land-using in Saratov province. There was conducted land delimitation that allowed Saratov Bashkirs to hold the certain land peaces for living and agricultural activities. Statistical sources has confirmed that, during the Bashkir division existence in Ural Cossack army, the Bashkirs were the most numerous Muslim nation within Ural Cossacks. In this case population of the Bashkir division from 1832 to 1865 increased almost in two and half times and was more than six thousand people. Besides the natural growth, the population of the Bashkir division also increased due to the ascribing of the Karakalpaks, Kirghiz-kaysaki and other groups of the local nomadic nations to the Bashkirs. By 1865, when all Bashkirs were transferred to civilian communities, the population of the Bashkir division in the Ural army greatly reduced.

Keywords: Bashkirs, Bashkir division, land ownership, Cossacks, Bashkirs of Saratov, Ural Cossacks, Ural Cossack troops, population, yurts.

Rostovtsev E.A., Barinov D.A. (Saint-Petersburg). St. PetersburgUniversity’s corporation during the revolution in 1905–1907: the collective portrait ………. 116

The article shows the collective portrait of professors’ corporation in the time of revolution in 1905–1907. The statistical data proves that the revolution in 1905–1907 apparently promoted the numerical increasing of corporation’s members and refilled it with great scientific forces. The main inflow of «new blood» was provided by the revolution to the department of physics and mathematics and the juridical one, they were connected with the most popular fields of the university teaching. At the same time university staff kept being closed and class-elite in corporate meaning. Meanwhile as shown in the article, the capital’s academic corporation of the University in the time of revolution was not a whole social group. Scientific achievements, social origins, involvement in politics of representatives of different fields of knowledge differed too. Certainly, only future researches will be able to show is it possible to extrapolate the data of the St. Petersburg University to wider scope of the elite history or not. However undoubtedly, results of researchers which were in the article allow us to have different sight not only at the history of the St. PetersburgUniversity during the revolution, but also at the structure of the Russian scientific elite in the beginning of the ХХ century and the character of relations between government and society.

Keywords: St. Petersburg University, Revolution in 1905–1907, history of a higher education, history of the Universities, collective portrait, prosopographic study, history of elites.

Kulachkov V.V., Ryabova T.I., Konova V.I. (Bryansk). Specifics of the peasantry legal consciousness in Western region of Russia in the first third of the XX century ………. 123

The article reveals the specifics of the peasantry legal consciousness in Western region of Russia in the first third of the XX century. Authors analyze the processes of legal development of village, expressed both in theoretical and practical aspects. The analysis allows us to see that the peasantry as well as a whole society had a very low level of legal consciousness. Radicalization process of the mass consciousness supported not only saving but also strengthening the traditions of legal nihilism, that had a bad influence on the formation of legal culture. Soviet government used revolutionary expediency and class morality that created opportunities for substituting the law by ethical norms. Ignorance most of the rural population, disregarding of peasant traditions and customs impeded the educational activities efficiency of the new state in the legal field. As a result the legal consciousness most of the peasants usually saved the particular legal features.

Keywords: legal consciousness, the peasantry, Western region of Russia, village, customary law, law, customs and traditions.

Karaichev D.N. (Ostrogozhsk). Agricultural colonization of Crimean region in 1940–1970. Scale and sources ………. 129

Article reviews the process of restoring workforce of the post-war Crimea agriculture being affected by the war and the mass resettlement of peninsula native population.

It was found that despite an acute shortage of the workers in agriculture of the post-war Crimea, intensive inflow of voluntary migrants continued during the 1940–1970 years, mainly brought from other Ukrainian regions.

This process could be subdivided in two stages: restoring the farm workers amount up to pre-war level and decreasing the shortage of workforce because of building the North Crimean channel and an enlargement of irrigated arable lands.

The article shows dynamics and growth of rural population in Crimean region in 1940–1970s as a result of balanced demographic policy implemented by the leaders of Ukrainian SSR.

Keywords: agriculture, migration, migration policy, internal migration, workforce, statistics.


History of International Relations

Golub Y.G. (Saratov). The «Big Three» first meeting: circumstances of choosing date and location ………. 134

Tehran negotiations which were held by F. Roosevelt, W. Churchill and I. Stalin in November-December of 1943 became the greatest event of diplomatic history, a stepping-stone in developing process of international and interallied relations. As a result a number of fundamental issues on ending of the Second World War and post-war world structure as is well known were discussed and negotiated. Meanwhile the conference as the article shows could never occur due to different leaders’ views of meeting’s appropriate date and location. Article shows the rough and long way of F. Roosevelt, W. Churchill and I. Stalin to hold the trilateral meeting. It is based on their personal correspondence and other diplomatic documents. Peripetias of the Tehran conference organizing is analyzed in the article. Author reveals the factors because of them the Iranian capital was finally chosen as a negotiation center.

Keywords: Second World War, USSR, Great Britain, USA, the Big Three, Stalin, Roosevelt, Churchill, Tehran conference.

Baranov V.P. (Moscow). Real Price of American Democracy (historical journalism experience) ………. 143

The article examines evolution trends of US foreign policy. Author analyzes the dynamics of American foreign policy activities, reveals specificity and continuity of efforts of the various US administrations, fighting for world hegemony.

The article shows the USA aspirations to spread its influence on capturing the foreign lands, natural resources connected with extermination of entire populations. The US expansionist policy is covered by arguments about the high ideals of loyalty to the idea of freedom.

The article discusses the dynamics of the United States participation since 1890 to 1930 of the ХХ century in the military operations. Author draws attention to the mechanism of repressive measures against dissidents, including criticizing the war. Regularity of the USA development was creating a unique mix of American militarism, greed and pragmatism.

Keywords: United States, color revolutions, annexation, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, the Philippines, the First World War, expansionism, American «Godly exclusiveness».

Korolev M.S. (Saint-Petersburg). Comparative analysis of the Socio-Economic development of Poland within the CMEA and the EU ………. 147

The article is devoted to a comparative analysis of the socio-economic development of Poland within two integration associations: the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA) and the European Union (EU). The evaluation is based on indicators of socio-economic development, the status of the financial sector, the legal status of Poland within the CMEA and the EU. The motives of Poland’s joining to the CMEA, the results of its participation in the socialist system of integration and the consequences of the collapse of this system for the country have been analyzed in the article. The causes and consequences of Poland’s entry into the EU have been investigated. Author shows advantages and disadvantages of both types of integration.

In conditions of the bipolar system of international relations that emerged after the Second World War Poland became a part of the Eastern Bloc and joined to the CMEA because of its geographical location, influence of the Soviet Union, the necessity to rebuild its shattered economy. After the collapse of the CMEA Poland started to move towards getting a full membership in the EU that was conditioned by the political and socio-economic changes had occurred by this time, as well as the security issues of the country. Author concludes that both organizations had a specific role at a certain historical stage of the Polish economy development. The CMEA provided Poland with industrialization, but was unable to help it in the developing of high technologies and producting of consumer goods. With the help of the EU, Poland has managed to liquidate these shortcomings, give a new impetus to the agriculture development, but the flip side of the EU membership for the country was a radical reduction in overall production, unemployment, migration of the working age population abroad.

Keywords: comparative analysis, socio-economic development, the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA), the European Union (EU), integration, the countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), Poland.

Sahin K. (Istanbul, Turkey). Features of the globalization process in Muslim countries and regions ………. 155

Nowadays religious ideas often are an expression of hope for the general public in Muslim countries and regions. It is the religious factor in certain cases that helps Muslim nations to find their place in the modern world. However religious ideas may lead to quite radical and extreme forms of reaction which is considered the complication of the phenomenon of adaptation of the Islamic world to globalization The article discusses the ambiguous impact of globalization on Muslim countries and regions. It shows both positive and negative (and extremely negative) reactions of the Muslim world on the current globalization model of the Western type. The article reveals mechanisms of countries’ and people’s adaptation to the globalization process that are based on their own socio-cultural foundation.

Keywords: globalization, westernization, Islam, Muslim world, anti-americanism, renewal of public life in the Islamic world.

Sahin E. (Istanbul, Turkey). Cyprus dispute and «the Annan plan» ………. 159

The article is devoted to the document on the Cyprus dispute settlement– «the Annan Plan». Kofi Annan was the first Secretary-General of the United Nations who worked on reconciliation of the Cyprus dispute seriously. For achieving this goal was elaborated the document named «the Annan Plan». According to the document the UnitedCyprusRepublic should be created on the island. This Republic would be divided into two autonomous parts – Greek and Turkish.

At the beginning of the article author gives the summary of the Cyprus dispute essence. He also analyses the structure of «the Annan Plan». Then author describes the process of preparing for the referendum on the both parts of Cyprus. In the process of the referendum voters would choose «yes» or «no» to «the Annan plan».

The author also describes briefly the political positions of the different Cyprian political forces and political parties on the Plan both on the Greek and the Turkish parts of the island. He also analyses slogans and methods of policy used by the parties in order to run the propaganda.

In conclusion the article analyses the causes of the «the Annan plan» failure. It describes why the Greek Cypriots voted against the adoption of the document. The author analyses the factors of the USA and EU influence on the preparation process for the referendum on the both parts of the island. He also analyses how much foreign politicians influenced on the process of propaganda against the document among the population. Author describes how the political forces tried to form the public opinion using the mass media.

Keywords: «the Annan plan», the Cyprus dispute, Cyprus, Turkey, the European Union, Northern Cyprus, European integration.


Zverev K.A. (Kostroma). Formation of state policy of the Republic of Estonia towards to Russian-speaking population (1992–2007) ………. 164

The article discusses the main directions, objectives, aims, stages and con-tent of the state policy of the Republic of Estonia towards to Russian speaking population between the Constitution adoption at referendum (18 June, 1992), and the crisis of spring in 2007, and also assessment of its efficiency was made. By the time of independence, Estonia became a multicultural bilingual country (almost equal position of the Estonian and Russian languages) with two major communities – Estonians and Russian speaking. Since independence was achieved, at the ruling circles and Estonian part of society dominated opinion of the «restoration» and legal succession of the first Republic of Estonia (1918–1940). It became possible because of that the political elite wanted to keep the power in their hands, as well as a part of Estonian society in conditions of competition wanted to have its privileged position in all spheres of life – both in the political and socio-economic. As a result, the firstly formed political course of the Estonia authorities towards to displacement the majority of Russian speaking inhabitants and, in fact, assimilative integration of people who stayed in Estonia in the second half of the 90s–early 2000s was softer only because of the conjunctural circumstances, but didn’t have significant changes, fixed dangerous division of the country into «two societies».

Keywords: Russian speaking population, integration policy, naturalization, Estonia.


Military history

Melnov A.V. (Saint-Petersburg). The siege of Kexholm in 1710 by using new sources ………. 170

The dairy of the Kexholm fortress’ commandant Johan Stiernschantz describes some little-known facts about the fortress siege in 1710 during the Great Northern War. Russian sources describing the siege’s history contain little information so that’s why this diary is a very valuable source. It describes every day of siege. This article reveals the information of the Kexholm’s siege and it’s based on the commandant’s diary and documents from Russian archives. New data allows to study Swedish garrison’s organization and condition as well as the strength of Bruce’s corps and its’ supply problems. The commandant’s motives that made him capitulate are also described in this article. The «accord» between J. Stiernschantz and R. Bruce and its’ conditions are also discribed in the article.

Keywords: The Great Northen War, siege of Kexholm, Priozersk, 1710, Kexholm fortress, Peter the Great, Roman Bruce, Johan Stjernschantz, Georg Lybecker, «accord».

Benda V.N. (Gatchina, Leningrad region). Development and adoption new models of artillery instruments for the arming during the General Feldzeugmeister P.I. Shuvalov’s lifetime (1756–1762) ………. 176

Development of military equipment and weaponry influences on the tactics of the waging war and military operations. On the eve of Russian entry into the Seven-year War (1756–1763 yr.) it was necessary to conduct substantial changes not only in the organizational and personnel structure of regular Russian army, but also to provide it weapons and small arms. Developing the new models of artillery instruments and their adoption for the arming by regimental, field and siege artillery into the 50 of the XVIII centuries, considerably increased the maneuverability of Russian artillery, which was in turn the base for more economical using of artillery during the military operations and increasing the artillery efficiency. Russian military leaders, relying on the national composition of army, successively moved from maneuver strategy and linear tactics, extensively used in the first half of the XVIII, to general battle strategy and further to battle system strategy and column tactics and skirmish tactics. New method of conducting the military operations required a great increase in the production of artillery weapons and ammunition for it that Russian army needed both during the preparation to the war and in the process of the war. Article shows the new models of the artillery weaponry that has been developed at the beginning of the second-half of the XVIII. There are their fundamental tactical-technical characteristics and the testing process of new artillery models and their adoption for the arming by the field troops in the article. Author attracts special attention to the role of the General Feldzeugmeister P.I. Shuvalov in the developing process of new artillery models at the beginning of their production and delivery into the troops.

Keywords: the second-half of the XVIII v., Elizabeth Petrovna, P.I.Shuvalov, artillery, new models of artillery instruments, «unicorns», testing processes.


History of culture

Krivoshey D.Y.( Moscow), Skurlov V.V. (Saint-Petersburg), Fabergé T.(Geneva, Switzerland). New data about activity of Fabergé firm. Fabergé’s Bookkeeping book in 1909-1916 ………. 185

The article shows information that contained in «Bookkeeping book of Fabergé in the period of 1909–1916». This book was found in the Russian State Archive and its information is being introduced into scientific use. Document contains data about purchases of the most important clients, including all members of the Russian Imperial House, and foreign Royal Houses, Russian State institutions, Army and Navy. There is some new information about: prices of the Imperial Easter Eggs of 1912, 1914, 1915, the product composition and range of the most important groups, such as stone-cutting «human figures», floral compositions, table clocks, prize cups, signs and tokens; information about employees who supervised and monitored the orders. Archival materials are considered in the context of previous scientific researching results, and, apart of gnoseological interest, will be in demand for practical using by antique dealers, collectors and museum staff engaged in the subject of Fabergé.

Keywords: Fabergé firm, Russian Imperial House, Easter Eggs, range of products, collections, jewelries.

Gessen V.Y., Ignatova O.A. (Saint-Petersburg). The history of removing of artistic treasures  from Petrograd-Leningrad to Moscow in 1918-1929 ………. 191

This article continues the series of publications based on archive data devoted to the history of removing of artistic and historical treasures from population by Bolsheviks after October 1917. It examines the issues connected with relationships between leaders of Moscow Narcompros and Petrograd organizations, which registered re-moved treasures, estimated them and sent to the state storages. There were statements for searching the permanent and temporary storages in Petrograd in order to detect objects that could be removed to Moscow museums. They also wanted to take a great part of property taken from individuals and organizations. Especially intensified treasure sending to Moscow were in 1924 and then after 1925, when State museum fund was being brought to the end. Attempts of some specialists to prevent removing of treasures were not successful. Even though treasures were sent from Petrograd to different destinations, analysis shows that Moscow was the main destination, and privileges were given to the most artistically and historically significant objects. The article briefly discusses the issues of re-evacuation of museum treasures from Moscow.

Keywords: Petrograd, Narcompros, Glavmuseum, artistic treasures, N.I. Trotskaya, expertise, collections of pictures, State museum fund

Kolesnik A.S. (Moscow). Place of the past in British popular music of the 1960s: «relevant history» of «the Kinks» ………. 205

The article analyzes the mechanisms of treatment with the past in British popular music of the end of the 1960s (based on the example of the rock band «the Kinks»). In the 1960s, the history of British popular music, the evolution of its esthetic and thematic traits had some peculiarities. That time the typical «British» sound had been forming; live performances demonstrated certain theatricality; popular music was focused on broadcasting the «Englishness». As a result of the new British musicians’ desire to determine their own sound, they actively worked with the national past and included the images of national history in their music, as well as in the live performances. The article describes, firstly, particular historical subjects that became popular among the British audience in the 1960s; secondly, format of treatment with the national past and images of history, which the author proposes to call, conditionally, «relevant history».

Keywords: popular music studies, popular culture, British popular music history, the Kinks, past, historical imagery.


Historical characters 

Borisenko V.N., Kuznetcova Y.I. (Saint-Petersburg). Robert Peel’s political biography in historiography (second half of the XX–beginning of the XXI centuries) ………. 215

The article analyzes recent researches of foreign and Russian scientists devoted on the activity of Robert Peel as a politician and statesman of Great Britain in 1830–1850. The aim of this article is to compare the opinions of different authors about the evolution of Robert Peel’s views and his reasons in making decisions as a Home Secretary, Prime Minister and when he was in opposition. This article shows new explanations of Robert Peel`s role in particular events of British history of 1830–1850s. The article reveals the characteristics of Robert Peel personality and determines the most controversial issues of his biography, such as establishing the Police Department, participating in the Catholic Emancipation process, accepting the Parliamentary reform in 1832, forming the basis of the Conservative Party and canceling the Corn Laws. Authors concluded, that foreign and Russian historians emphasize different aspects of Robert Peel’s biography and consequently get different results.

Keywords: Robert Peel, Parliamentary reform in 1832, Tory, Conservatives, Corn Laws, peelites.


Reviews of Scientific Publications

Popravko E.A. (Saint-Petersburg). New researches on the religious history in the Russian Far East (Reviews on the series of monographs of Natalya Potapovа) ………. 226

Article analyzes the series of the monographs of Natalia Potapova «Evangelical Christianity and Baptism in Russia in 1917–1922 (on the materials of the Far East)» (Part 1–2, 2014); «History of Evangelical-Baptist Movement in the Sakhalin Region (end of XIX–XX centuries» (2014). Article points out the using of new theoretical and methodological approaches, including borrowing from foreign (English-speaking) historiography, introduction of new documents (autobiographies, memories and correspondence of believers kept in personal archives of the community leaders of the Evangelical Christians and Baptists in the Sakhalin). The monographs contain new material on regional history of Evangelical Christianity and Baptists in the Russian Far East, in the first place in the Sakhalin, as well as correct some stereotypes about Russian and world history of denominations.

Keywords: historiography of the religious history, Evangelical Christianity, Baptist, Natalya Potapova, Sakhalin.


Scientific Conference were held

Samartseva E.I. (Tula). About the conference «Historical Russian Studies in the XXI century» (Budapest, Hungary, 17-19 May, 2015) ………. 229

Article shows a brief overview of the XX International Conference on Historical Russian Studies (Budapest, Hungary, 17–19 May 2015). The conference was organized by the Center of Russian Studies of the BudapestUniversity. Head of the Center – professor Gyula Svakiya. The conference was attended by representatives of 3 continents, 7 countries, more than 50 universities, academies and research centers. There were discussed topical issues of Russian history and historiography, especially the study of history in the different countries of the world. Author remembered an interesting debates on the Middle Ages, the culture of the XVIII century, The Second World War, the Russian emigration, Russian abroad and methodology. The atmosphere of friendship and productive scientific collaboration has become a hallmark of the scientific forum. Among the participants: Lishtenan Francine Dominic, Emmanuel Vagemans, Tamas Kraus, Dimeshi Zsuzsanna, Varga Beata,Yurganov Andrew and etc. Study of the declared themes at the conference will be continued in the article.

Keywords: history, culture, science, Russia, Hungary, the historical Russian studies, historiography, cooperation, universities and students.


To the memory of colleague

To the memory of B.V. Ananijch ………. 232