Klio #02 (182) 2022

Basangov S.V., Vasyarkieva Ts.O., Khakhlenova V.A., Tsakuginova G.A. (Elista). History of the General Archive of the General Staff (Lefortovo Archive)

Bachelor, Department of IRDA, Faculty of Humanities,
Kalmyk State University named after B. B. Gorodovikova,
358011, Russian Federation, Elista, st. Pushkin, 11,
e-mail: sandji23200@gmail.com

Bachelor, Department of IRDA, Faculty of Humanities,
Kalmyk State University named after B. B. Gorodovikova,
358011, Russian Federation, Elista, st. Pushkin, 11,
e-mail: vasyarkieva@list.ru 

бакалавр, Bachelor, Department of IRDA, Faculty of Humanities,
\Kalmyk State University named after B. B. Gorodovikova,
358011, Russian Federation, Elista, st. Pushkin, 11,
e-mail: l.hahlenova@yandex.ru

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Department of IRDA, Faculty of Humanities,
Kalmyk State University named after B. B. Gorodovikova,
358011, Russian Federation, Elista, st. Pushkin, 11,
e-mail: tsakuginovag@mail.ru 

Abstract. This article explores issues related to the history of the emergence and activities of one of the predecessors of the Russian State Military Historical Archive – the Lefortovo Archive or the General Archive of the General Staff. The work is based on a wide range of legislative and documentary sources, periodicals and monographs. At the beginning of the work, the relevance of the work is traditionally substantiated, the degree of development of the research topic is shown, and the methods that were used in the work are indicated. For a better understanding of the history of the Lefortovo archive, the authors resorted to a retrospective research method and mentioned its predecessor – the archive of the Inspectorate Department of the Military Ministry. One of the important moments in the history of the archive was its division into two parts – the Moscow and St. Petersburg branches. All movements of the archive are shown, the problems that archivists faced (for example, the lack of paper-friendly premises). Thus, we can come to the following conclusion. The Lefortovo archive (general archive of the General Staff) passed its historical path very worthily, overcoming numerous difficulties, and in the end was able to fulfill the main task – the preservation of the historical, cultural and documentary heritage for future generations.
Keywords: archive, documents, inventory, files, storage, military materials

Shakhmatov V.V. (Moscow). Perception of the 1917 Revolution by Russian Conservatives based on the materials of the print bodies of radical monarchist organizations in Russia

The historian. Alumnus of the Faculty of History of Lomonosov Moscow State University.
Russia, Moscow, 111399, st. Martenovskaya, 14/57, apt. 84.
e-mail: vvshakhmatov@gmail.com

Abstract. The article discusses the specifics of the rhetoric of representatives of the most massive radical monarchical public organizations of Russia at the beginning of the XX century, such as the All-Russian Dubrovinsky Union of the Russian People, the Union of the Russian People and the Mikhail Archangel Russian People’s Union, published on the pages of the central printing bodies of these organizations during the last three years of the existence of the Russian Empire. Particular attention is paid to demonstrating the risks and extremes that the Russian conservative tradition contains as a mass political phenomenon. The presence of these negative features does not detract from the cultural significance of the works of outstanding Russian conservative thinkers and the philosophical, spiritual and moral heritage of the Russian conservative tradition. Knowledge of the possible negative manifestations inherent in this philosophical and political trend can contribute to its objective understanding and effective use of its most valuable achievements.
Keywords: All – Russian Dubrovinsky Union of the Russian People, Union of the Russian People, Russian People’s Union named after Mikhail the Archangel, Right-wing radical press, Russian Banner, Zemshhina, The Bell, Russian Conservatism

Aybars R.O. (St. Petersburg). Turkish Historiography of Russian-Turkish Relations from the Second Half of the 19th until the Beginning of the 20th Centuries

PhD Student,
Institute of History of St. Petersburg State University.
199034, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, University Embankment, 7/9.
E-mail: refikoguz@gmail.com

Abstract. This article is aimed at introducing the fundamental works in Turkish historiography written on Russian-Turkish relations from the second half of the 19th until the beginning of the 20th centuries. More often than not, Turkish authors have conducted researches regarding military or political problems. They mainly focused on the problem of the Turkish straits, Russian intervention in the Balkan regions of the Ottoman territory, conflicts of Russian and Turkish interests on the Caucasia and the Armenian problem.
The article considers historical works, published from 1968 until today, and studies the extend to which above mentioned historical problems have been dealt with. Our observations tell that there has been 3 periods where significant upward trends in the number of publications about the history of Russian-Turkish relations have taken place. From 1968 until 1970, 3 monographies were published, but then researchers do not seem to be interested in the given topic until 1997. Overall, more works were published in the second and third periods mentioned above, respectfully from 1997 until 2005 and from 2010 until 2021.
Considering the given topic only, scientific traditions of history have been developing slowly in Turkey. The reason of which should be the regret for losing the Balkan and Caucasian territories and the defeat of Turkey in the WWI. As the historical sciences advance in Turkey, one sees a leap of diversity in application of scientific methods and styles in historical researches.
The article reviews Turkish history books and their worth in general. The main problem in Turkish historiography is lack of scientific methods in some of authors’ works and rare references to sources in Russian in some of others’.
Keywords: Ottoman, Turkish historiography, Russian relations, straits, Balkan, Caucasia

Tribunsky S.A. (Samara). Cultural and educational work in the Red Army in the so-called interwar period: Soviet historiography of the problem. Article two. Analysis of Soviet historiographic sources (second half of the 1930s – first half of the 1950s)

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Russian History, Samara National Research University named after academician S.P. Korolev”,
443086, Volga Federal District, Samara region, Samara, Moscow highway, 34,
E-mail: ser.6791@yandex.ru

Abstract. In the vast and diverse Soviet historiography of the so-called interwar period (1920s – June 22, 1941), a certain array of historiographic sources published in the second half of the 1930s – the first half of the 1950s took its place, in which various aspects of cultural and educational work in the Workers ‘and Peasants’ Red Army (RKKA) – this unique component of party and political work in the Armed Forces of the young Soviet state are highlighted. This article is a logical continuation of the article “Cultural and educational work in the Red Army in the so-called interwar period: Soviet historiography of the problem. Article one. Analysis of Soviet Historiographic Sources (1920s – first half of the 1930s)”, published in this journal [Klio. 2022. No. 1 (181) January. pp. 13-28). The subject of her research is the established Soviet historiographic research tradition of studying the topic of cultural and educational work in the Red Army in the so-called interwar period, the views of Soviet historians, the analysis of the process of accumulation and increment of historical knowledge, the depth of scientific development of the topic mentioned above in the second half of the 1930s. in the first half of the 1950s. Based on the results of studying our problem, some of its main historiographical tendencies are synthesized. The article is made in the format of problem-thematic historiography. There are no copyright claims for the completeness of the coverage of the problem.
Keywords: Red Army, cultural and educational work; party political work; historiographic source; historiographic analysis; historiographic trends; the second half of the 1930s – the first half of the 1950s

Khramkova E.L., Tuzova O.V. (Samara). “Spare capital” of the Soviet Union: new local history publications

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Professor of the Department of National History and Archeology of the Samara State Social and Pedagogical University
Russia, 443099, Samara, M. Gorky st., 65/67, Samara State Social and Pedagogical University
e-mail: hramkova@rambler.ru

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Professor of the Department of Philosophy and Social Sciences and Humanities, Samara State Technical University
Russian Federation, Samara, 443100, Samara, Molodogvardeyskaya st., 244, Samara State Technical University
e-mail: ovtuzova@mail.ru

Abstract. The article analyzes the latest publications of famous Samara historians Alexander Ivanovich Repinetsky and Gleb Vladimirovich Aleksushin, dedicated to the temporary capital of the USSR in 1941 – 1943 – to the city of Kuibyshev. The source base, main storylines, features of the structure and content of each work are considered, comments and suggestions are made, which can be taken into account in subsequent reprints. The authors’ contribution to the development of an insufficiently studied problem is revealed. The author states the formation of a historiographic trend that has matured over several decades, aimed at a multifaceted historical reconstruction of the history of Kuibyshev as a reserve capital of the country. The conclusion is that the book by A. I. Repinetsky for the first time gives a generalized idea of the role of Kuibyshev in the extreme conditions of war. The original features of the photographic project by G.V. Aleksushin are noted. The scientific and cognitive value of publications for a wide range of readers, including teachers of various educational institutions, students and pupils, is emphasized. It was expressed regret that books written for the general reader, containing interesting factual and visual material on the history of the country and the Samara Territory during the Great Patriotic War, are a bibliographic rarity due to insufficient circulation.
Keywords: Kuibyshev city, Kuibyshev region, World War II, «reserve capital», «military capital of the USSR», visual history, A.I. Repinetsky; G.V. Aleksushin

Biletskaya I.V. (Moscow). Legislative regulation of debt relations between Jews and Christians in Castile in the middle of the XIII century

Postgraduate student, Department of history of Middle ages,
Faculty of History,
Lomonosov Moscow State University.
119991, Russian Federation, Moscow, Leninskie Gory, 1.
e-mail: izabellabileckaya@gmail.com

Abstract. Present work, based on the material of legal documents issued during the reign of king Alfonso X the Wise, is dedicated to study the problem of legislative registration of credit and debt relations between Jews and Christians in the Kingdom of Castile in the middle of the XIII century. An attempt is made to study how the legislative regulation of debt relations took place at its initial stage, what issues related to debt relations were put on the agenda, and finally, what were the parameters, rules and restrictions, in accordance with which these relations could develop legally. The conclusion is made about the importance of debt relations in the general context of the relations between Castilian Jews and Christians. In the middle of the XIII century debt relations received legal formalization, which fixed a certain regulation, the rules according to which debt relations should have been reproduced. These rules put in order the procedure and conditions for entering into debt relations and their procedural registration, as well as for litigation in debt disputes. Taking into account the list of issues that have received certain regulation in the considered legal texts, it is concluded that in the debt relations can be noticed the quintessence of relations between Castilian Jews and Christians.
Keywords: Kingdom of Castile, XIII, Alfonso X the Wise, legislative regulation, debt relations, Jews, Christians

Schmidt W. (Regensburg, Germany). Baltic Germans and Germany: on the Problem of Mutual Relations (from the period of the First World War to the 1930s)

Magister of History,
University of Regensburg,
Humboldt street 48 a, 93053 Regensburg, Germany,
E-mail: wolodjaschmidt@gmx.de

Annotation. Issues related to the relations of the Baltic Germans and Germany are of undoubted interest for historical research, primarily in terms of studying the role and place of the Baltic Germans in German policy towards the region. The stages of relations between the Baltic Germans and Germany can be divided into three periods, which fully characterize the stages of their political development. The attitude of the Baltic Germans towards Germany in different periods was different and changed under the influence of certain political conditions. It should be noted that the change in the attitude of the Baltic Germans towards Germany occurred during the First World War, during the occupation, during the joint struggle against the Bolsheviks, and then during the years of the National Socialist dictatorship. Almost until the end of the XIX century, the Baltic Germans regarded Germany as a state with which they identified their cultural and linguistic ties. In the last third of the XIX century, these views changed under the influence of the policy of Russification in the Baltic provinces, which led to disappointment among the Baltic Germans in their belonging to the Russian Empire. These ideas were widely spread in the circles of the Baltic Germans, but were not of a political nature.
Keywords: Germany, Baltic Germans, Russian Empire, ideology of National Socialism, National Socialist groups in the Baltic States

Kuzenkova M.V., Polyakova N.V. (St. Petersburg). On the issue of prospects for changing the 9th Article of the Constitution of Japan: Historical aspect and Modernity

PhD in History, Associate Professor of the department
of International relations, Medialogy, Political Science and History
Saint Petersburg State University of Economics
191186, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Canal Griboedova Emb., 30/32
e-mail: marinahistory@yandex.ru

PhD in History, Associate Professor of the department
of International relations, Medialogy, Political Science and History
Saint Petersburg State University of Economics
191186, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Canal Griboedova Emb., 30/32
e-mail: n.v.polyakova.engec@gmail.com

Abstract. In the article the problems caused by the inclusion in the political agenda of Japan of the issue of changing the 9th article of the Basic Law of the country are considered. Since this article formulated the renunciation of the right to war, its revision is one of the most pressing issues in recent Japanese history. The authors analyzed the internal and external causes of its occurrence, as well as the current state of the problem. In Japan, there is still a movement whose supporters oppose the revision of Article 9. Recently, however, among parliamentarians and young people, there has been a steady increase in the number of those who support the implementation of constitutional reform in the country, including changing the article. The article provides a generalized selection of the positions of the political forces of the country, which they adhere to in these discussions. Particular attention is paid to the point of view of the Liberal Democratic Party, which for several years has openly advocated changing the 9th article of the Constitution.
Keywords: The Constitution of Japan, the principles of pacifism, constitutional change, the repeal of Article 9, the movement in defense of the Constitution, the Japanese Self-Defense Forces, the Yoshida doctrine, peacemaking passivity, the «normalization» of Japan

Gekht A.B. (St. Petersburg). Mark Wallenberg. The failed heir of the Swedish bankers’ dynasty

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Docent, Head of the Department of History and Regional Studies, Faculty of Social Digital Technologies, The Bonch-Bruevich St. Petersburg State University of Telecommunications.
193232, Russia, Saint-Petersburg, Bolshevikov prospect 22, building 1
E-mail: a.geht@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article aims to examine the dramatic episode that called into question the future of the Wallenberg’s family leading financial and industrial group in the Nordic region. At the end of November 1971 the eldest son and planned heir of the financial and industrial group Mark Wallenberg committed suicide. Mark’s death came at a difficult time for the Wallenberg-controlled bank, which was in the process of merging with another major financial institution. Undoubtedly, this circumstance was decisively reflected in the fate of Mark Wallenberg. Along with considering the prerequisites that influenced the desire of the SEB management to increase the amount of financial resources available to them, the article puts forward an assumption substantiating a set of reasons that prompted the failed heir to the financial and industrial group of the Wallenberg family to voluntarily die.
Keywords: financial and industrial group of the Wallenberg family, banking, Mark Wallenberg, Stockholms Enskilda Bank, Sweden

Bakanov A.V. (Makhachkala). On the issue of the territorial-administrative structure of Dagestan in the period of 16th-early 19th centuries

Historian independent researcher
367030, Russia, Makhachkala,
e-mail: mr.bakanov85@mail.ru

Abstract. If we talk about the basic principles and rules of the territorial-administrative structure of the perimeters of modern Dagestan during the period of the 16th, 17th, 18th and the early 19th centuries, then we can say in the affirmative, which at the presented time it was an exceptional inherent fragmentation. As, properly before, at the indicated time, Dagestan was de facto an extremely bright, original world. Here it should be noted that a group of scattering both allochthonous and autochthonous states in the Horde, post-Horde epoch and the initial medieval studies steadily formed the boundaries of the Country of Mountains, and, accordingly, in the indicated phases, the western coast of the Caspian, undoubtedly, had an identical structure. From what was just noted, it follows that during the indicated phases, Dagestan, as indeed many before, was assembled in no other way, as a global puzzle. Note that the latter collected many different in their parameters, as well as in the specifics of the details. We also add that many of them fought for the segment at the presented time. And if you do not go into particulars, but speak in general, then it should be noted that Dagestan at the time of the outbreak of the aforementioned centuries was a region, the systemic portrait of which, in its construction, had an image of extreme fractionality, both in its own horizontal and vertical. Let us especially highlight and emphasize that for a correct understanding of the presented region, multi-tiered fragmentation is nothing more than the beginning from the beginnings.
Keywords: Eurasia, Dagestan, Western Caspian Territory, territorial-administrative structure, international relations, state borders

Mankov S.A. (Pushkin, St. Petersburg). Bloody drama from the everyday of the serfdom Russia: the case of the murder of the landlord Nikolay Chikhachev

Ph.D. in history, honorary member of the Russian Academy of Arts,
Senior researcher of the State Museum «Tsarskoye Selo».
196601, Sadovaya st., 7, Pushkin, Saint Petersburg, Russia.
e-mail: mankov21@mail.ru

Abstract. The article considers the case of the murder of a collegiate assessor, chamber junker N.P. Chikhachev by a Polish nobleman A.F. Yasinsky in September 1851. This tragedy and its investigation reveal many aspects of the social life of the landowner’s estate of the Russian Empire in the 50s. XIXth century The murder of the landowner Chikhachev brings to light both the unsightly phenomena of interpersonal relations between the owner and an equal in status, but poor hanger-on, due to which the psychological problems of relations led to the murder, and the relations of the owners and managers of the estate with the peasants, including the corrupting effect of serfdom on family life as peasants and their owners. The example also traces the formation of a system for investigating serious criminal offenses in the Russian Empire, the course of investigative measures, methods of collecting and analyzing information, and the complex process of imposing a criminal penalty. The article is based on archival sources previously unused in Russian historiography, materials on the family history of the landowners Chikhachevs, fiction of the period and modern studies of the state of serfdom in Russia in the middle of the XIXth century. In general, the case of the murder of the landowner Chikhachev shows a three-dimensional picture of the everyday life of the landowner’s estate in the pre-reform period.
Keywords: nobility, peasantry, serfdom, murder of landlords, Chikhachev, Pskov Governorate, Porkhovsky Uyezd, Russia in the XIXth century

Baryshnikov M.N. (St. Petersburg). Russian steam navigation and trading company and passenger traffic between Russia and Turkey in 1857 – 1876

doctor of historical sciences, professor, head of the Department of History of the Institute of History and Social Sciences,
Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia,
48, Moika Emb., St. Petersburg, Russia, 191186.
E-mail: barmini@list.ru

Abstract. This article investigates the impact of the shipping activities of Russian steam navigation and trading company on the passenger flows allocation between Russia and the Ottoman Empire after the end of the Crimean War. I use annual information on passenger shipping between the two countries between 1857–1876 to estimate the dynamic effectiveness in this cross-border market in the presence of the increasingly significant geopolitical, economic and sociocultural changes as the transport operations proceeded apace. In this article, I argue that the determining a balance of government, public and private interests was is critical to explaining the restoration and development of large-scale shipping links with Turkey. My research confirms not only the sound quantitative and financial performance of company and successful interregional transportation (in the space from the Black Sea to the Eastern Mediterranean) growth, but also the critical role played by combination of private initiative and public assistance for the development of the pilgrimage movement to the Middle East.
Keywords: Russia, Turkey, Russian steam navigation and trading company, passenger traffic, Black Sea, Eastern Mediterranean, Middle East, pilgrimage

Zhilkibaeva R.R., Nasyrova L.G. (Yelabuga). Professional and ethical consciousness in the work of a teacher in the Russian Empire in the second half of the 19th – early 20th centuries

Ph.D. in History, Assistant, Department of General and Russian History, Yelabuga Institute of Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University
423600, Russian Federation, Yelabuga, Kazanskaya St., 89
e-mail: RRSajfullova@kpfu.ru

Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Department of General and Russian History, Yelabuga Institute of Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University
423600, Russian Federation, Yelabuga, Kazanskaya St., 89
e-mail: LGNasyrova@kpfu.ru

Abstract. This article discusses the professional and ethical components in the activities of teachers in the Russian Empire in the second half of the 19th – early 20th centuries. As these components, the authors distinguish moral and political trustworthiness, methods of education and self-education, moral behavior, professional skills and qualities, external professional appearance, important for the period under study. The authors come to the conclusion that the main qualities in the period under study were political and moral reliability, which were considered in the first place. This is due to the fact that in the second half of the XIX – early XX centuries. in the Russian Empire, social thought actively and widely developed, political circles were created. Teachers, as representatives of the intelligentsia, were involved in political activities and often found themselves under suspicion of unreliability. A teacher who raised doubts about political or moral reliability could be dismissed from the educational department without the possibility of a subsequent return to this position. Such cases are discussed in this article. The article also provides an analysis of historical sources, shows examples from the clerical documentation of the period under study.
Keywords: professional ethics, teacher, profession, reliability, Russian Empire, XIX century

Yu Jie (Moscow). The Commemoration of Alexander III and His Reign by the Society of Zealots of Russian Historical Education at the Turn of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries

Senior Lecturer,
Department of Chinese Philology,
Institute of Asian and African Studies,
Lomonosov Moscow State University.
Russian Federation, 125009, Moscow,
Mokhovaya Street, 11.
E-mail: kaqusha686@yahoo.com

Abstract. The study of commemorative practices and the examination through their lens of both the time in which these practices are employed and the era and its individuals who are commemorated is a relevant area of historical research. Such practices make it possible to identify and analyse the aspects of the politics of remembrance that are not always readily reconstructed in the context of political history or the history of social thought. This article examines the commemorative practices of the Society of Zealots of the Russian Historical Enlightenment in Memory of Emperor Alexander III and its journal Starina i Novizna. These commemorative practices were aimed not only at promoting the image of the deceased sovereign, but also were regarded as a counterbalance to the hopes of wide sectors of society and the officialdom, which became apparent after the accession to the throne of Nicholas II, for a return to the reformist policy of Alexander II.
Keywords: commemoration, politics of memory, Society of Zealots of the Russian Historical Enlightenment in Memory of Emperor Alexander III, S.D. Sheremetev, K.P. Pobedonostsev, Alexander III, Dowager Empress Maria Feodorovna, Russian conservatism

Vinogradov P.V., Shabelnikova N.A. (Vladivostok). Organization of sea transportation to Russia during the First World War

Candidate of Historical Sciences,
Head of the Department
of Natural Sciences and Special Subjects,
Far Eastern Fire and Rescue Academy –
a branch of the St. Petersburg State University of the State Fire Service
of the Ministry of Emergency Situations of Russia.
Working address: 690922 Vladivostok. Russian Island, Ajax village, 27.,
E-mail: supwin26@mail.ru

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Full Professor,
Department of Humanitarian Disciplines
Vladivostok branch of Far Eastern
Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal
Affairs of the Russian Federation
690087, Russian Federation, Vladivostok, Kotelnikova st., 21,
E-mail: nhistorik@mail.ru

Abstract. The article, based on archival materials, examines the issue of the organization of sea transportation to Russia during the First World War. The war demonstrated the extremely important role of timely and regular delivery of necessary strategic materials by sea to Russia, ensuring both military operations and the functioning of the economy transferred to military rails. Attention is focused on the fact that sea transportation has become one of the main elements of the military-technical cooperation of the Russian Empire with the Entente states formed during the war, ensuring the implementation of the main element of such interaction — the transfer of weapons, military equipment and various strategic resources. The Russian government had to urgently develop the country’s peripheral ports — Arkhangelsk and Vladivostok, since the most modern Black Sea and Baltic ports were blocked. To ensure sea transportation, the Russian government had to urgently develop the country’s peripheral ports — Arkhangelsk and Vladivostok, since the most modern Black Sea and Baltic ports were blocked. During the war years, the port infrastructure of the Arkhangelsk and Vladivostok ports was radically improved, allowing for regular sea communications with the Entente states.
Keywords: sea transportation, Vladivostok, Arkhangelsk, merchant ships, tonnage, military-technical cooperation

Kashevarov A.N. (St. Petersburg). Fate of the relics of orthodox saints in soviet power in domestic and foreign historiography

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor,
Honored Worker of Higher School of the Russian Federation,
Professor Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University,
Russia, 195251, St. Petersburg, Polytechnicheskaya Str., 29.
E-mail: kashevar12@mail.ru

Abstract. The submitted article is devoted to the analysis of the study by domestic and foreign researchers of complete drama of the history of the relics of Orthodox saints in Soviet times. The first mention of the autopsy and confiscation of the saints of the relevant appeared in the Soviet work on the history of the Russian Orthodox Church, published in 1920–1930s. They are impossible to be considered scientific, as they wore a sharply accuratory nature. In contrast to the propagandists of atheism 1920–1930s, the authors of the post-war period until the end of the 1980s. In accordance with the changed party plants, it was believed that the struggle against religion and the church as a whole acquired the nature of the ideological struggle for the celebration of scientific worldview. However, they did not manage to critically rethink the traditional approach to studying the topic of the fate of the relics in Soviet times and go beyond its framework. The coming in the early 1990s. Changes in society and the discovery of researchers of previously inaccessible, hidden in the archives of the party and special services, determined the possibility of a qualitatively different level of the source base, as well as scientific analysis, deprived of anti-religious addictions and political prejudices. Modern domestic researchers (Kashevarov A.N., Kozlov V.A., Semenenko-Basin I.V., Gasharovsky M.V.) succeeded by expanding the chronological boundaries in studying the topic, concretize the individual aspects of its study (for example, the return of the church of some From the relics during the period of Stalin’s religious “thaw”, threatening and attempts by the new confiscation during the Khrushchev attack on the church, the process of their second gain during the years of restructuring), as well as publish the first generalizing work, allowing to compile a holistic understanding of the fate of the relics of Orthodox Saints to the Soviet era In the context of state-church relations of that time. Foreign authors (Kurtis I., Roccucci A., Struve N., Chrysostomus I.) Instead of a specific historical study, remained in the plane of its overall production and surface lighting.
Keywords: The relics of Orthodox saints, the Soviet era, the propagandists of atheism, modern domestic researchers, foreign historiography, aspects of the study of the topic, source base

Kozhevnikova O.D. (Moscow). Russian-Georgian relations after the military conflict 2008: the role of the Russian «power party» in post-conflict settlement

Postgraduate student of the Department of History of Social Parties and Political Movements
Faculty of History, Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov
119991, Russian Federation, Moscow, Lomonosovsky prospect, 27, building 4
e-mail: olyacleo@gmail.com

Abstract. The subject of the research is Russian-Georgian relations after the 2008 military conflict. The relevance of the study lies in the fact that these relations are still in the stage of normalization while actually maintaining the status quo. The purpose of the study is to identify the influence of the «party in power» on the post-conflict settlement. The research methodology includes the methods of the general scientific group and special methods: the method of historical retrospection and the method of political content analysis. The results of the study are the data collection on the position of the ruling party after the hot conflict phase in 2008. The field of study application is the history of international relations, the history of political parties, the history of military conflicts, conflict theory, political science. Conclusions: it is substantiated that the position of the ruling party has not changed since 2008 and is that the conflict did not take place with the Georgian people, but with the specific ultra-right political regime of M. Saakashvili. It has been proven that members of the United Russia party, being in key positions in law enforcement agencies and executive bodies, as well as in the majority of the State Duma, influenced the post-conflict settlement of relations from the standpoint of maintaining the status quo for Abkhazia and South Ossetia. It was concluded that the role of the Russian «party of power» was very significant in information, humanitarian and military support to South Ossetia and Abkhazia, which negatively affected relations with Georgia, as well as to the fact that the conflict was actually frozen and passed into a latent stage for years to come.
Keywords: Russia, Georgia, the military conflict of 2008, South Ossetia, Abkhazia, the United Russia party, the State Duma of the Russian Federation

Goryaev M.S., Avliev V.N., Lidzhieva E.A., Sangraeva G.M. (Elista). On the measures of the Russian government aimed at spreading Christianity among the Kalmyks in the first half of the 19th century


Candidate of Historical Sciences, Department of IRDA, Faculty of Humanities,
Kalmyk State University named after B. B. Gorodovikova,
358011, Russian Federation, Elista, st. Pushkin, 11,
e-mail: mergengoryaev@mail.ru 

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Department of IRDA, Faculty of Humanities,
Kalmyk State University named after B. B. Gorodovikova,
358011, Russian Federation, Elista, st. Pushkin, 11,
e-mail: bartolomeod@yandex.ru 

Bachelor, Department of Foreign Philology, Faculty of Humanities,
Kalmyk State University named after B. B. Gorodovikova,
358011, Russian Federation, Elista, st. Pushkin, 11,
e-mail: lenkira02@mail.ru 

Bachelor, Department of IRDA, Faculty of Humanities,
Kalmyk State University named after B. B. Gorodovikova,
358011, Russian Federation, Elista, st. Pushkin, 11,
e-mail: sangraegg@mail.ru 

Abstract. At the turn of the last centuries, the confessional issue becomes an important component of modern society. The solution of this issue requires the search for new methodological approaches, especially in the field of regulating interreligious relations. This article is devoted to issues related to the Christianization of the non-native population (on the example of the Kalmyk population of the Lower Volga region) of the Russian Empire in the first half of the 19th century. The Christianization of the small peoples of the Volga region, Siberia and the Urals, including the Kalmyks, was considered as one of the important means of their loyalty to the Russian Empire. The activity of the Russian Orthodox Church, aimed at spreading Christianity among the nomads (nomads) of the Volga region (more precisely, the Lower Volga region), has not yet been fully investigated, which poses urgent tasks for historical science. The Russian government in its domestic policy encouraged the adoption of Christianity by the Kalmyks with various preferences: transfer to the Cossack estate with a salary, the allocation of special places in the form of certain cities, the organization of schooling for children. The results of the missionary activity of the Russian Orthodox Church in the Christianization of the Kalmyks were mixed. If in the general cultural plan the activity of the mission had a positive value, then in the narrow confessional sense it did not achieve the desired result.
Keywords: empire, Kalmyk steppe, Holy Synod, missionary work, Christianization.

Mironychev S.V. (Nizhnevartovsk). To the Question of Establishing the Population Size of Yugra in 1939-1945

postgraduate student, FSBEI HE «Nizhnevartovsk State University»,
628600 Russia, Nizhnevartovsk, st. Mira 3 b
e-mail: mironichev1983@mail.ru.

Abstract. The article deals with one of the little-studied issues of regional historiography. It concerns the establishment of the number of the population of the Khanty-Mansiysk National District during the Second World War. The article is based on the analysis of works of historical and demographic character. The insufficiency of reflection of demographic questions in the researches of the Soviet period is established. The author analyzes data on the total number of population of the district on the basis of researches’ works. This analysis has a comparative character.  The article considers the number of population for each year separately in the dynamics. The author determines by comparison that the data of the total population differ from the researchers. The article notes that the annual dynamics of the population of the district during the study period is presented only in the works of one scientist. It is established that the issues of natural movement of the population of the region remain unstudied. The data on the national composition of the population of Yugra are insufficiently presented. Analysis of the national historiography showed that there is an extensive research literature on the demographic history of Siberia in general. The article emphasizes that despite its abundance, statistical data and facts related to the history of the population of Khanty-Mansiysk Okrug are presented fragmentarily. The author draws attention to the fact that the demographic development of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug during the war years has been studied much weaker than the Siberian level of historiography.  The author does not deny the existing achievements in the study of the population of the region during the Great Patriotic War, but draws attention to the need to prepare a comprehensive demographic study.
Keywords: Yugra, World War II, demographics, numbers, researchers, sources

Zakharov G.A. (St. Petersburg). Leningrad branch of the All-Union Society for Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries (LO VOKS) – the Union of Soviet Societies for Friendship and Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries (LO SSOD) in 1954-1991years: historiographic review

Deputy Director
St. Petersburg State Budgetary Institution
social services for the population
«Center for Social Assistance to the Family and children
of the Kalininsky district of St. Petersburg».
195265, Russia, St. Petersburg, Luzhskaya st., 10 building 1,
E-mail: zakharovgrisha@yandex.ru

Abstract. Throughout the entire period of the USSR’s existence, the government considered it necessary, along with diplomatic methods, to use the possibilities of so-called “public or people’s diplomacy”. The instrument of such diplomacy was public organizations designed to promote the Soviet way of life, the foreign and domestic policies of the Soviet government and the Communist Party. One of such “tools” was the All-Union Society for Cultural Communication with Abroad (VOX) – Union of Soviet Societies of Friendship with the Peoples of Foreign Countries (LO SSOD). At the same time, to date, the topic of the organization and activities of especially regional divisions of VOX and SSOD remains little studied. This article contains a historiographical review and analysis of publications on this subject.
Keywords: The Communist Party of the Soviet Union, the foreign policy of the USSR, the All-Union Society of Cultural Communication with Abroad, the Union of Soviet Societies of Friendship and Cultural Communication with Foreign Countries, regional branches of VOX-SSOD, the Leningrad branch of VOX-SSOD, monographs, articles, dissertations

Aleshin P.A. (Moscow). Sculpture and poetry of Benvenuto Cellini

Candidate of Art History, Researcher at the Scientific and Editorial Department of the State Historical and Cultural Museum-Reserve “Moscow Kremlin”
103132, Russia, Moscow, Kremlin
E-mail: paleshin@bk.ru

Abstract. During the Renaissance, there were cardinal changes in the self-consciousness and social status of artists. The Renaissance artist is no longer just a craftsman, but a free creator, equal in status to a poet. Thanks to this, the mutual interest of artists and writers in each other grew. A completely new phenomenon, which became possible only thanks to the spiritual conquests of the Renaissance and in a new way embodied the ideal of uomo universale, was the phenomenon of the artist-poet that arose in the Florentine culture of the 16th century.
In the article we analyze Benvenuto Cellini’s sculpture and poetry, which allows us to illustrate some aspects of the artist-poet phenomenon. It is explained what made the masters of art – even those who did not have a real poetic talent – to compose poetry. A comparison of the artistic techniques that Cellini used as a sculptor and as a poet allows us to trace the deep connection between the verbal and the visual in the culture of the Cinquecento. One of the points examined in the article is the study of how the naturalist idealization appears in sculpture and in poetry, providing their inclusion in mannerism art.
Keywords: Benvenuto Cellini, Cinquecento, poetry, Renaissance, sculpture

Malnach A.D. (Riga, Latvia). “I have been slapped in the face …”: Jazep Vitols and the founding of the Latvian Conservatory

Anniņmuižas bulv., 30-77, Rīga, Latvija, LV-1067
e-mail: amalnach@gmail.com  

Abstract. The circumstances of the founding of the Latvian Conservatory, now the J. Vitols Latvian Academy of Music, in 1919, are considered in this article. The role of the government of Soviet Latvia, the bourgeois provisional government of Latvia and the professor of the Petrograd Conservatory, composer Jazep Vitols, in the creation of a higher music school in Riga are analyzed. In the twentieth century, under the influence of opposing ideologies, two historiographic traditions were formed. According to the author, the vision of Soviet historiography, emphasizing the importance of the Soviet government initiatives of creation a number of higher educational institutions, in particular the Latvian Conservatory, is closer to the truth. The attempts of bourgeois historians, however, to conceal the innovative cultural undertakings of the Soviet regime are explained by their wish to assert the priority of the provisional government under the leadership of K. Ulmanis. The author comes to the following conclusion: Vitols used the situation that was a result the confrontation between the Soviet and bourgeois projects in order to keep the headship of both the State Latvian Opera and the Latvian Conservatory. However, when faced with strong opposition in musical circles, he managed to only partially implement his project. It was not possible to combine both posts, and the composer took the appointment to the post of the director of the Conservatory on August 20, 1919 as a defeat, a personal insult and a forced concession.
Keywords: Jazep Vitols, Latvian Conservatory, Latvian Opera, Soviet Government, Latvia.

Losev K.V. (St. Petersburg). Review of the monograph by A.A. Nepomnyashchy “Oriental Faculty: unknown pages of the history of Crimean Studies” (Saratov: Amirit LLC, 2021. 416 p.)

PhD Economy,
Dean of Faculty of Humanities of State
University of Aerospace Instrumentations (SUAI),
196135, Russia, St. Petersburg, Gastello str., h. 15.
e-mail: k.losev@mail.ru

Abstract. The review contains a general analysis and appreciation of a new scientific study by Professor A.A. Nepomnyashchy “Oriental Faculty: unknown pages of Crimean Studies”, which touches on the general problems of Oriental studies in general and Crimean studies in particular, in the context of the political and cultural development of the country in the 1917–1920s. It is emphasized that the monograph for the first time gives a description of the teaching and administrative staff, analyzes the curricula of the Eastern Faculty (department) of the Tauride University (then successively changed its name to the Frunze Crimean University and the Frunze Crimean State Pedagogical University). The wide range of the monograph’s source base is emphasized. The fundamental nature of A.A. Nepomnyashchy’s research is noted, revealing new pages in the history of Russian science and higher education.
Keywords: orientalism, Russian Oriental studies, Crimean studies, Taurida University, Frunze Crimean University, Frunze Crimean State Pedagogical Institute

Tyminsky V.G. (Moscow). From history to modernity in the medical scientific book of Professor Leonid Bulanov “Osteopathy at the fingertips”

Владимир Георгиевич Тыминский (Vladimir Georgievich Tyminsky)
президент Европейской академии естественных наук (ЕАЕН),
почетный ученый секретарь РАЕН, профессор.
105062 Россия, г. Москва, Подсосенский переулок, д.24
E-mail – Osteopat-24@yandex.ru

Grebenshchikova G.A. (St. Petersburg). A tragedy bigger than the Titanic

Галина Александровна Гребенщикова (Galina A. Grebenshchikova)
доктор исторических наук, профессор, член-корреспондент РАЕН
 и команда проекта «Теплоход «”Армения”. Вспомнить всех».