Klio #02 (170) 2021


Tribunsky S.A. (Samara). Some historiographic trends in the study of the problem of cultural and educational work in the Red Army during the front-line Civil War in Russia in Soviet historical science (second half of 1960s - first half of 1980s) .........13

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Russian History, Samara National Research University named after academician S.P. Queen “, 443086, Volga Federal District, Samara region, Samara, Moscow highway, 34, tel. 8-937-100-15-55, E-mail: ser.6791@yandex.ru

The scientific research experience accumulated during the Soviet period of development of domestic historical science testifies: in the extensive historiography of the Civil War in Russia, especially in relation to the front stage of its course (approximately the second half of 1918 – 1920), a certain array of historiographic sources in which revealed various aspects of cultural and educational work in the Workers ‘and Peasants’ Red Army (RKKA) took place. This was a unique component of party-political work in the Armed Forces of the young Soviet state. These sources in Soviet historical science have been studied before. A similar historiographic trend was further developed in the post-Soviet, and especially in modern domestic historical science (the first twenty years of the 21st century). The subject of this article is the Soviet research historiographic tradition of studying the topic of cultural and educational work in the Red Army during the front-line Civil War in Russia, as well as the views of Soviet historians, an analysis of the process of accumulating historical knowledge in the second half of the 1960s – the first half of the 1980s. Based on the results of studying the scientific problem, historiographic trends were synthesized. There are no copyright claims for completeness of coverage of the problem.
Keywords: front-line Civil War in Russia; Red Army, cultural and educational work; party political work; historiographic source; historiographic analysis

Krivoshchekova E.V., Sivkina N.Yu. (Nizhny Novgorod). Features of the Imperial rule of the Early Seleucid kings.........................................................................................22

Master student of the Department of history of the Ancient world and the Midlle Ages of the Lobachevsky national University,
603022, Russia, Nizhny Novgorod, Gagarina Ave., 23.
E-mail: elizaweta.krivoschyockova@yandex.ru

Doctor of historical Sciences, associate Professor, Professor of the Department of history of the Ancient world and the Midlle Ages of the Lobachevsky national University,
603022, Russia, Nizhny Novgorod, Gagarina Ave., 23;
senior researcher at the research and educational center of the Dobrolyubov national University “Slavic-Greek-Latin cabinet”, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia.
E-mail: natalia-sivkina@yandex.ru

The purpose of the article is to study the imperial foundations of the early Seleucid state. An attempt was made to analyze the corpus of sources, traditional for the study of the Seleucid state, using the achievements of the imperial studies, in order to determine the imperial nature of the early Seleucid state and the practices of the imperial governance.
The Seleucid empire in the era of its heyday, stretching from northern Syria to northern Afghanistan, occupied most of the ecumene, encompassing polities diverse in cultural, ethnic, economic characteristics. The principles of functioning of this large diverse political entity are a problematic place in the study of history of state and Hellenism, which has not yet received a coherent conceptual solution. The appeal to the aspects of governance during the era of the first Seleucid rulers – Seleucus I and Antiochus I – meets both the established public interest in imperial topics and the continuing enthusiasm of researchers in studying the problems of imperial building, ethnic and cultural identity, and cross-cultural studies. During the study of the sources, the authors came to the conclusion that the mechanism of the state’s functioning was based on the imperial policy of kings aimed both at the formation of universal political and cultural bondsand avoidance the violent deconstruction of the traditional lifestyle of the East. Besides, the practices of imperial governance of the first Seleucids were identified, such as dialogue policy with indigenous communities, the acquaintance of the kings with traditions of locals, demonstration of their acceptance, the search for common cultural symbols and meanings for their numerous and contradictory subjects, as well as the formation of the image of the state as a universal, and a dynasty as transcultural.
Keywords: Hellenism; Seleucids, Seleucus I, Antiochus I, Empire, imperial rule

Alferov D.A. (St. Petersburg). Transport infrastructure and new areas of Khartoum in the first half of the XX century.....................................................................................29

Faculty of Asian and African studies,
St. Petersburg University.
199034, Russian Federation,
St. Petersburg Universitetskaya Emb., 7/9.
E-mail: alferov_d@list.ru

The article is devoted to the history of the development of Khartoum – one of the largest cities in Africa and the capital of the Republic of Sudan in the first half of the XX century. Until now, this topic has not received adequate coverage in domestic literature so far. Transport infrastructure has become one of the most important factors in the development of the Sudanese capital. With the completion of the bridge over the Blue Nile, Khartoum became part of one of the largest railway networks in Africa, connecting different parts of the country. However, the railway left its mark in the capital itself, stretching around the city, thus defining the boundaries and squeezing the capital between itself and the Nile. By the middle of the XX century Khartoum became cramped within the framework of the “iron ring”, and it began to grow gradually southward, overcoming the railroad and swallowing up the slums formed during the first years of the capital’s existence. In their place, new modern districts were laid. Simultaneously with the growth of the city, the road and transport network also developed. Khartoum was one of the few cities in Africa where a tram operated. Thanks to the ferry service, it united Khartoum, Omdurman and Khartoum North and existed until the sixties of the XX century.
Keywords: Sudan, Khartoum, railway, slums, condominium

Kostyuk R.V., Vauchok A.S. (St. Petersburg). Political and institutional features of European integration in the 1990s: approaches of France and Germany................34

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor
of the Department of Theory and History of International Relations Saint-Petersburg State University.
198330, Russia, Saint- Petersburg, Marshala Zakharova Street, 60, apt. 21,
E-mail: rouslan_k@mail.ru

Postgraduate student of the Department of Theory
and History of International Relations
Saint-Petersburg State University.
193231, Russia, Saint-Petersburg, Solidarity Avenue 27, building 1,
E-mail: alexander1992@bk.ru

The article examines the features of the approaches of France and Germany to the political and institutional dimension of European integration in the 1990s. The authors show that in the last decade of the twentieth century, there was a qualitative acceleration of the processes of European construction, a significant contribution to this process was made by the FRG and France. Analyzing the approaches of the two countries to changes in the political and institutional sphere of integration processes associated with the adoption of the Maastricht, Amsterdam and Nice treaties, the authors emphasize that these international acts became possible largely due to the mutual compromises of the two leading countries of the European Union and an active German-French political cooperation. The article shows the coincidences in the approaches of Germany and France to the evolution of the institution building of the EU. At the same time, the authors pay attention to the specifics of the proper German and French points of view, what distinguished the positions of the two European powers in the institutional and political sphere.
Keywords: Germany, France, European Union, European construction, treaty, politics, integration.

Zotova A.V., Wang Ren Zhi (St. Petersburg). Formation of parliamentary international relations between China and St. Petersburg (1994-2016).........................................45

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Docent, Associate Professor of the Department of International Relations in the Post-Soviet Area, Saint-Petersburg State University. 199034, Russia, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya nab., 7-9.
E-mail: anastasiyazotova@mail.ru

Hohhot, China
Saint Petersburg State University, International Relations in the Post-Soviet Space, 1st master’s class.
Russian Federation, 191060, St. Petersburg, Smolny street 1/3
E-mail: st087621@student.spbu.ru

The legislative Assembly of St. Petersburg began to pay attention to its international activities to establishing contacts with cities and regions of the People’s Republic of China from the very beginning of its activity. This was largely facilitated by the twinning ties that existed between the city on the Neva and China since the days of the Soviet Union. Through the efforts of the St. Petersburg deputies, relations with representatives of the authorities, including the parliamentary structures of China, as well as Chinese business, began to be built on a qualitatively new basis – based on the mutual economic interest of the parties. At the same time, the traditions of previous relations have also been preserved: sincere good relations between the two peoples and respect for the long-standing common history linking the two states. The article was prepared on the basis of extensive Russian and Chinese sources, including materials and documents of the Legislative Assembly of St. Petersburg.
Keywords. Legislative Assembly of St. Petersburg, China, PRC, twinning relations, parliamentary contacts

Garusova L.N. (Vladivostok). The anti-Chinese vector in the policy of the «Free and Open Indo-Pacific» by President Trump (2017–2021) ..............................................54

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor,
Professor of Asia Pacific Department,
Far Eastern Federal University,
Chief researcher, Institute of History,
Archaeology and Ethnography
of the Peoples of the Far East FEB RAS
Russia, 690078, Vladivostok, Khabarovskaya St., 24–10.
E-mail: lgarusova@mail.ru

With the arrival of the D.Trump Administration in the White House in 2017, the promotion of the foreign policy strategy of the “Free and Open Indo-Pacific” with its obvious anti-Chinese orientation has begun. It is aimed at a collective counterbalance to China, as a potential world leader, by the forces of American allies, the core of which is the “Quad” (USA-Japan-Australia-India). The author’s analysis of conceptual and current departmental foreign policy documents, shows that President Trump’s strategy is a continuation of the regional policy outlined by his predecessor – Barack Obama. This calls into question the widespread view in historical and political science of Trump’s radical rearranging and restructuring of international relations with his concept of a “Free and Open Indo-Pacific”. It is proved that the Trump administration has chosen competition in the field of advanced technologies, infrastructure and energy as the main tool for neutralizing China’s influence on Asian countries.
Keywords: Indo-Pacific, foreign policy, USA, China, allies, counterbalance, infrastructure projects.

Bartashev D.S. (Moscow). The problem of birth equality and the morganatic marriages in the Russian imperial family.....................................................................................62

Senior Lecturer at the Faculty of World Politics (on the basis of the Institute of the USA and Canada of the Russian Academy of Sciences) at the State Academic University of the Humanities (GAUGN), Moscow.
109004, Moscow, Teterinsky per., 12, building 5
E-mail: dmitri_bartashev@mail.ru

The problem of birth equality runs through the entire history of Russian dynastic legislation. Meanwhile, pre-Petrine Russia did not know such a principle: the sovereigns willingly married their subjects, deprived of any alternative due to the almost complete absence of contacts with the ruling houses of Europe. The situation changed fundamentally under Peter the Great. The presence of close dynastic ties with, first of all, Germanic houses led to the borrowing from them of ideas (formed during the 16th-17th centuries) about the need to observe the principle of birth equality in marriage. For many German princelings, this practice was intended to maintain the notorious «splendor of the clan». After the beginning of building under Peter I the relationship of the Romanovs with foreign dynasties, for some time, by inertia, marriages of sovereigns and their relatives with their subjects continued to be concluded (or planned). Although in the 18th century there were still no formal restrictions on entering into a morganatic marriage, there was a feeling that the wedding of a monarch and a subject was a fact that should be kept secret for the good of the state, and even better to try to avoid altogether such. As a similar example from the history of Western Europe, we can recall the secret marriage of the French king Louis XIV and the Marquise de Maintenon, concluded after the death of Queen Maria Theresa. At the beginning of the 19th century, in Russian dynastic practice, and then in legislation, the awareness of the need to observe the principle of birth equality when marrying both emperors and members of their families finally prevailed, although some of them continued to insist on the right to act at their own discretion.
Keywords: Russian imperial family, House of Romanovs, dynastic marriages, order of succession to the throne, Basic laws of the Russian Empire, morganatic marriages.

Baryshnikov M.N., Fedotiev D.S. (St. Petersburg). Shipping business and Orthodox pilgrimage to Palestine: Russian Steam Navigation and Trading Company in 1856 - 1859.................................................................................................................71

Doctor of History, professor, Honored Scientist of the Russian Federation, Head of the Department of History of the Institute of History and Social Sciences, The Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia 48, Moika Emb., St. Petersburg, Russia, 191186, E-mail: barmini@list.ru

assistant of the Department of History of the Institute of History and Social Sciences, The Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia 48, Moika Emb., St. Petersburg, Russia, 191186. E-mail: fedotieff@inbox.ru

This article examines the political, social and commercial impact of the 1856 creation of the Russian Steam Navigation and Trading Company (Russian S. N. Co.) on the development of pilgrim traffic to Palestine. It does so at a particular moment of foreign policy situation: the ending of the Crimean War. The article finds that institutionalization of the Russian S. N. Co. is indeed associated with significant and far-reaching changes in the number of Orthodox pilgrims between 1857 and 1859. The company’s contributions to East Mediterranean shipping began a pattern that would fuel the Orthodox pilgrimage’s development and growth for more than a half century. The authors claims that shipping company represent an associated form of ownership and management in which private organization realize public and state interests. In addition, firm’ strategic actions and the degree of collectively shared visions about international marine operations mattered for how the pilgrimage developed. By revealing company’s transport strategy and focusing on managerial, this article shows that large corporations and Russian Empire government were not always at odds and could often forge a mutually beneficial relationship.
Keywords. Eastern Mediterranean, Palestine, Orthodoxy, pilgrimage, corporation, shipping, interests

Burdina G.M. (Elabuga). The Great Patriotic War: the chronicles of student life................82

PhD of Historical Sciences,
Department of universal and national history, Elabuga Institute (branch) of Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University
Russian Federation, Elabuga, 423604
E-mail: gulnaramansurovnab@gmail.com

The present study focuses on a relatively little studied topic of student life in the setting of the Great Patriotic War (GPW) during the evacuation of universities. The period under study is considered with respect to changes that took place in higher education during different war phases. Through comparative historical analysis and source criticism, the study examines a variety of commonly used historical sources, such as personal diaries, university archives, and administrative records that were written in the Soviet Union at the time. The study focuses on those features of personal and social life that did not receive close attention in previous studies and systematizes the existing research into the life of single universities and cities that have been evacuated from the seized areas. In addition, the paper looks at some aspects of the dynamical life of universities during wartime, at peculiarities of work, education and entertainment in evacuated universities, and at the usage of personal time by students. Special attention is paid to personal testimonies and diaries that are already introduced into historical research, as well as testimonies of contemporaries about the life of wartime students. Such testimonies are of historical importance, but they also contain evidences that are somewhat controversial in terms of evaluation.
Keywords: The Great Patriotic War, studentship, evacuation, the history of universities, recreation, mobilization, labor reserves.

Muromceva L.H. (Voronezh). Croatian legionnaires in battles against Soviet troops on the Mius front (December 1941 - January 1942)..................................................89

Extern of the Voronezh State Pedagogical University,
394043, Russian Federation, Voronezh, st. Lenin, 86.
E-mail: muromtseva-2020@inbox.ru

The article presents a historical reconstruction of a little-known episode of the Great Patriotic War, in which the troops of its allies and satellites took part on the side of Nazi Germany. One of the first military units formed in the puppet Independent State of Croatia (existed during 1941-1945) was the 369th Reinforced Croatian Infantry Regiment. This volunteer unit was sent to the Eastern Front, where it became part of the Wehrmacht’s 100th Light Infantry Division. After battles in the Kharkov direction, the division in November 1941 – December 1941 was transferred to the Mius-front, where the German 1st Tank Army, which was defeated at Rostov, took up defensive positions. For a month, Croatian legionnaires as part of the 100th LPD defended on the western bank of the Mius in the area north of Matveyev Kurgan, waging hostilities against the formations of the 37th and then 56th armies of the Red Army, while in connection with the new, successfully developing offensive of the Soviet troops were again transferred at the end of December 1942 to the area south of Barvenkovo.
Keywords: Great Patriotic War, Mius Front, 369th Croatian Infantry Regiment, Soviet troops.

Gershzon M.M. (Moscow). In search of the optimal structure of cultural management in the USSR (1953-1963)............................................................................................96

Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov
Russia, 119991, Moscow, GSP-1, Lomonosovskijprospekt, 27, building 4.
E-mail: mgershzon@yandex.ru

The article deals with issues of the reform of state cultural management bodies and the creation of the first Ministry of culture in March 1953. As well as its reformation over the next ten years. After its creation, the Ministry of Culture became the body with the widest range of powers. It was even responsible for the management of higher and secondary specialized educational institutions. And due to the absence of the Ministry of education, to a certain extent, the management of the secondary school. After the creation of the Ministry of culture, the first major reform took place in 1954, when the Ministry of higher education was created. Then, in 1957, the Committee on radio and television was formed. And the Main departments of capital construction and the printing industry were abolished. Their functions were transferred to the «Sovnarkhoz» (Councils of National Economy). In 1963, the Committee for cinematography was organized, as well as the Committee for Press Affairs. Eventually, in 1963, the Ministry of the culture of the USSR was responsible only for those areas of culture that were managed by the Committee for arts of the USSR, which was dissolved in 1953. After 1963, there were no serious reforms in the field of state management of culture until the decay of the USSR. Thus, the structure of state management bodies in 1963 became almost the same until 1953, with slightly changed names of departments. In the ten years from 1953 to 1963, however, there were significant changes in all branches of culture, both in qualitative and quantitative terms.
Keywords: Ministry of culture of the USSR, Soviet culture, Management of culture, Soviet art intelligentsia, the movies, theater, music, radio, Khrushchev.

Orlov S.V. (Moscow). Information Society in Russia in Modern Times: Pages of History. 102

Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor,
Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of History,
Department of the History of Russian Social Movements
and Political Parties, Head of the Department.
Russia, 119192, Moscow,
Lomonosovsky Prospekt, 27,
building 4, office E-416.
E-mail: s712000@mail.ru

The article describes the history of the formation of the concept of “information society” in the West (Y. Hayashi, Y. Masuda, D. Bell) and the stages of building such society in Russia. The article observes the history of the development of information technologies in the USSR since the 1940s. (S.A. Lebedev, I.S. Bruk, B.I. Rameev, V.M. Glushkov), also examines the assessment of the phenomenon of the information society by domestic experts (Academician A.D. Sakharov, philosopher A.I. Rakitov). The article provides an in-depth characteristic of international documents of 2000–2005: Okinawa Charter on Global Information Society, Geneva Declaration of Principles (Building the Information Society: a Global Challenge in the New Millennium) and Geneva Plan of Action (2003), Tunis Commitment and Tunis Agenda for the Information Society (2005). The article goes well beyond the features of the development of the information society in Russia. The author discusses the following materials. Firstly, the first-key modern state documents of the Russian Federation: “Strategy for the Development of the Information Society in the Russian Federation” (2008), State Program “Information Society (2011–2020)”, “The Concept of Formation Electronic Government in the Russian Federation until 2010” (2008). Secondly, federal laws: “On Information, Informatization and Information Protection” (1995), “Information, Information Sciences Technology and Information Security” (2006), “On the Transfer of Rights to Unified Technologies” (2008), “On Providing Access to Information on the Activities of State Bodies and Local Self-Government Bodies” (2009), “On the Organization of the Provision of State and Municipal Services” (2010), “On the National Payment System” (2011). Thirdly, documents of the Moscow Government: “Concept of Moscow’s Movement to the Information Society” (2001), the target Moscow Municipal Programme “Electronic Moscow” (2003), State Program of Moscow “Information City (2012–2016)” (2011). In additional, as examples of the usage of the possibilities of informatization by the community indicates the Unified Portal for State and Municipal Services and Multifunctional Centers for the Provision of State and Municipal Services.
Keywords: post-industrial society, automation, computerization, informatization, information and communication technologies (ICTs), e-government, regulatory and legal framework.

Tkacheva V.S. (St. Petersburg). The situation of concentration camp prisoners in the temporarily occupied territory of the North-West of the USSR (1941-1944) ...........112

Postgraduate student of the Department of Russian History of the Leningrad State University named after A.S. Pushkin
Russian Federation, 196605, St. Petersburg, Pushkin, Petersburg highway, 10.
Tel.: 8-921-187-54-28, e-mail: tkacheva.valerie@mail.ru

The article analyzes the situation of the population imprisoned in concentration camps within the occupation of the North-West of the USSR by the German and Finnish authorities. There’s shown the living conditions of people and their activities in concentration camps as well as how their everyday life was organized and what constituted the basis of their existence. The regimes established by both the German fascist invaders and the Finnish occupiers did not differ in any way. The conditions in the Finnish concentration camps were the same, although they did not set the extermination of the population as an end in itself. The living conditions of the population in the camps were terrible. The rights and legal capacity of people were limited, the inhabitants were infringed on their rights and experienced strict rules of maintenance. The food for the population in the concentration camps was of inadequate quality and scanty. Medical assistance to the prisoners was not provided properly, there was no medicine, so various infectious diseases spread in the camps. As a result of the above factors, there was a large mortality rate among the population of concentration camps, the usual way of life was changed for the worse.
Keywords: Great Patriotic War, occupation, concentration camps, situation of the population, North-West.

Stepanov M.G. (Abakan). About the stay of Japanese prisoners of war in Khakassia in 1945-1947 .............................................................................................................116

PhD in History, Associate Professor,
Katanov-Khakass state university, Institute of history and law
Russia, 655010, Republic of Khakassia, Abakan, Torgovaya ul. 1-73
E-mail: StepanowM@yandex.ru

The article examines the process of stay of Japanese prisoners of war in the territory of the Khakass autonomous region in 1945-1947. As a basic historical source, mainly archival materials of the clerical orientation of the National Archive of the Republic of Khakassia were introduced into scientific circulation for the first time. The sources used allowed us to trace the process of placement, labor use, mortality, and geography of the Japanese who arrived in Khakassia. The article draws the following conclusions: 1) in the Khakass autonomous region, Japanese prisoners of war were placed in a special camp No.33, which had 7 camp departments located near large industrial facilities; 2) immediately upon arrival, Japanese prisoners of war were intensively involved in coal mines, wood harvesting and gold mining; 3) difficult working conditions caused high mortality among prisoners of war (on average, 10% of the total number of special prisoners); 4) among the Japanese prisoners of war interned in Khakassia, there were a large number of non-professional military personnel who had purely peaceful (civilian) professions before being mobilized into the imperial army.
Keywords: World War II, USSR, Siberia, Khakassia, National Archive of the Republic of Khakassia, Japanese prisoners of war, special camp No.33 of the city of Chernogorsk, burial sites, painter Kazuki Yasuo.

Keidun I.B. (Vladivostok). Formation and content of the Confucian artifact “Li ji” in the historical and cultural context of the Chinese civilization ........................................123

Doctor of Philosophy, Professor of the Department of
Chinese Studies of the Far Eastern Federal University,
Russian Federation, 690013, Vladivostok, Nevelskogo street, 15, 108
E-mail: ikeidun@mail.ru

The article’s main subject is the characteristic of the classical Confucian artifact “Li ji” which is described in accordance with the place that it occupies in the history and culture of China. The targets that were set by the Han scholars who composed the treatise were primarily tied with the idea of broadening the Confucian teaching and making it more understandable for general population during its adaptation by the authorities as an official state ideology. The article depicts the process of incorporation of “Li ji” and its separate chapters (“Da xue”, “Zhung yung”) into the list of key artifacts of the Confucian teaching. In addition to that the article also analyzes the reasons why various Chinese scholars from different eras all gave similarly high praise to this treatise and why among many texts devoted to the subject of li it was none other than “Li ji” that became a cornerstone in the structure of the Confucian canon. Universalism of the text, which comes from the bright diversity of its content, combined with all of its chapters being dedicated to the same goal – discover the essence and true meaning of li, perfectly explains the reason behind the undying importance of “Li ji” on any stage of Chinese history.
Keywords: Confucian canon, Li, “Li ji’, “Da xue”, “Zhung yung”.

Smagar М.O. (Moscow). Manuscripts and Renaissance Monarchy.................................128

Phd student of Moscow State University Lomonosov,
Department of history
Russia, Moscow, Starokonnushenny lane, 30-9, 119002
E-mail: maryoganisyan@gmail.com

This article is devoted to the self-representation of royal authority through the book culture in Spain of the late XV– early XVI centuries. This article describes the book collections of Isabella of Castile and analyzes the cultural and political connections of the Catholic Monarchs with the Flemish region. In the center of attention is the Flemish religious manuscripts from the Isabella the Catholic’s collection: The Flemish Book of Hours of Isabella the Catholic, from the Museum of Fine Arts, Cleveland and the Breviary of Isabella from the collection of the British Library, London. The specifics of this period in the manuscript culture is determined by the fact that at this time in the region Ghent-Bruges was developed a new style of manuscript illumination: trompe-l’œil (an illusion). Richly illuminated Flemish manuscripts became one of the most common gifts intended for the upper classes of society. Collecting manuscripts, patronage of manuscript production becomes an important element of political representation at the turn of the XV – XVI centuries.
Keywords: Flemish illuminated manuscripts, Isabella the Catholic, Flemish book of Hours, library of Isabella the Catholic, political representation

Iliasova L.R. (Moscow). The reaction of the populist reader to the novel «Signs of the Time» by D. L. Mordovtsev .......................................................................................132

Graduate Student,
Department of Russian History
of the 19th – Early 20th Centuries,
Faculty of History,
Lomonosov Moscow State University.
1 Leninskie gory, Moscow, 119234, Russia.
E-mail: ilyasova-lilia@mail.ru

The article examines the reader’s reaction of populist youth to one of the most notable novels about «new people» of the 1860s –1870s – «Signs of the Times» by D. L. Mordovtsev. The author makes an attempt to identify some reading practices of a young populist reader of the first half of the 1870s and to find out the factors that provided the book’s success in this environment. On the basis of the analysis of the investigative materials of the «193 trial», the memories of the participants of the movement and like-minded contemporaries, it is concluded that the reader was impressed by the call «to merge with the people» and the practical program of action. The populists used the work to recruit new members into circles, disassemble it for propaganda work in the underground. The «Signs of the Time» influenced the formation of the «going to the people» program – in the course of the circle discussions, the heroes’ legal projects were supplemented and radicalized. At the same time, part of the audience remained indifferent to the book – because of its artistic flaws or unwillingness to act according to book models.
Keywords: history of reading, Russian intelligentsia, populists, «going to the people», novel about «new people», Mordovtsev.

Shibaev M.A. (St. Petersburg). In the old rhythms? Modern Russian cinema in search of positive information about the past of our country ..............................................139

Doctor of historical sciences, Head of Information and bibliographic services division of Manuscripts of the National Library of Russia, professor Institute of History at the
St. Petersburg State University.
191069, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Sadovaya str. 18.
E-mail: michailshibaev@mail.ru

The article analyzes the Russian historical cinema over the past twenty years. On the one hand, cinema forms images for the mass historical consciousness, and on the other hand, it is a marker of public interests for certain periods, historical events and personalities. When analyzing the cinema of the last twenty years, there is a weak interest in Pre-Petrine Russia and significant “white spots” when covering the events of the XVIII – XIX centuries. From the end of the XIX – beginning of the XX centuries the “actualized time” begins, which causes the greatest interest, due to its correlation with modernity, and the Great Patriotic War is the main dominant of modern cinema. The most controversial period, represented by many assessments, which, sometimes are even diametrically opposed, is the revolutionary 1917 year and the Civil War. In the historical cinema of the last two decades, there is no logical idea of the succession from the old monarchical Russia to the new Soviet one. In general, over the past 15 years, against the background of a significant increase in the number of historical movies, a noticeable patriotic trend has been observed. More and more films are appearing about Soviet successes in space and sports. Negative, traumatic moments in the coverage of national history are being replaced, and the trend towards a positive identity is becoming more and more dominant.
Keywords. Historical cinema, memory studies, Russian history, history of the USSR.

Pustovoit I. S. (St. Petersburg). S. S. Uvarov and the beginning of university oriental studies in St. Petersburg ..........................................................................................152

Master’s degree student, Institute of History,
Saint-Petersburg State University,
199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Mendeleev l., 5
e-mail: botanpustovoit@gmail.com

The article is devoted to an extremely important episode in the biography of S.S. Uvarov, who in 1811-1821 was the trustee of the St. Petersburg educational district – the organization of oriental studies at the capital’s university. For a long time, Uvarov’s merits to Russian education and science were understated, and his role in giving St. Petersburg University the status of a center of Orientalism in the Russian Empire remained outside the research field. On the basis of archival materials of departmental and university office work, the author presents the main steps of S.S. Uvarov on the implementation of plans for the development of the sciences of the East: the creation and publication of the project of the Asian Academy (1810), the establishment of relations with European scientists, public campaigning for European education in the form of public speeches and correspondence, the attraction of foreign specialists to the university and, finally, the creation in 1818 of the two chairs of oriental languages at the university. All these undertakings were approved by Emperor Alexander I and corresponded to the government course pursued until 1821. Despite the resignation of S.S.Uvarov and the ensuing reaction in the policy of enlightenment associated with the activities of the new trustee D.P. Runich for the capital university, St. Petersburg University retained the oriental departments and students who studied at these departments. The Oriental sciences were further developed after overcoming the university crisis known as the “case of professors”. This subsequently led to the creation of an oriental faculty at St. Petersburg University.
Keywords: S. S. Uvarov, F.-B. Charmua, J.-F. Demange, orientalism, professorial corporation, counter-reforms in education 1819 – 1821, St. Petersburg University

Ialovega V.I. (Moscow). On the question of the religious component of W. K. Kalinowski’s ideology and the reflection of this aspect in historiography...............165

Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Faculty of History, Department of Source Studies. Russia, 119991, Moscow, GSP-1, Lomonosovskijprospekt, 27, building 4.
E-mail: vyaloveg@mail.ru

The article examines the religious context of the rebel activity of the famous leader of the January Uprising of 1863-1864 on the territory of Lithuania and the modern Republic of Belarus – Wincenty Konstanty (Kastus’) Kalinowski. The first part of the article gives a brief overview of the development of this issue in historiography: from the national-democrat W. U. Lastouski to the modern Belarusian researcher S. P. Ablamejka. It is stated that despite the great interest that researchers have shown to the figure of W. K. Kalinowski over the past hundred years, the religious motives of his insurrectionary activities have not yet been reflected in research works. The second part of the work is devoted to the analysis of the religious component of the most famous literary work of W. K. Kalinowski – his illegal newspaper Mużyckaja prauda. In seven editions of this newspaper, we quite often come across transcendental concepts, in addition, in the latest issues, published literally on the eve of the uprising, there is a certain religious concept associated with the protection of the Greek Catholic Church. Possible reasons are given that prompted such a very secular person as W. K. Kalinowski to turn to religious matters in order to cause greater fermentation in the Belarusian peasant environment, as well as the possible consequences of this step. The need for further work in this direction is expressed.
Keywords: history of Poland, history of Belarus, historiography, January uprising, K. Kalinowski

Andreev A.A. (St. Petersburg). «Waves» of politizing ethnicity in Russia and in the post-Soviet space in the historical retrospective .....................................................171

PhD in History, Saint Petersburg University
7/9 Universitetskaya nab., St Petersburg, Russia, 199034
E-mail: a.a.andreev@spbu.ru

The study is a brief retrospective of the development of ethno-national movements in the Russian Empire, the USSR and the post-Soviet period. Since the second half of the XIX century in the overwhelming majority, they have evolved from small intellectual circles to independent ruling national elites within the framework of independent national (ethno-national) states or national subjects of the Russian Federation. They developed not in the logic of the conflict between the conventional metropolis and the national outskirts, but rather in the dynamics of the context of the political and economic crisis of the center and its relapses. It was in this sequence from the revolutions of 1905-1907, 1917 and the events of Perestroika in 1985-1991. can be traced as representatives of the intellectual elite of the national borderlands from the struggle for equal participation in political processes in the country, moved on to autonomist ideas and then to independence or autonomy.
Keywords: Ethnicity, ethnopolitical conflicts, “waves” (boom) of ethnicity, ethnopolitics, national movements, nationalism.

Belyj K.V., Naumova G.R. (Moscow). A plant disappeared, but its history has remained.177

Postgraduate student.
Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Faculty of History, Department of Source Studies. Russia, 119991, Moscow, GSP-1, Lomonosovskijprospekt, 27, building 4.
E-mail: signboard3kb@mail.ru

Doctor of Historical Sciences.
Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Faculty of History, Department of Source Studies. Russia, 119991, Moscow, GSP-1, Lomonosovskijprospekt, 27, building 4.
E-mail: al.nikonof@yandex.ru

The article examines the current state and prospects of the research direction “history of factories and plants”, which is traditional for the national historical science. The authors give a brief periodization of this direction, characterize the main stages in the study of the history of individual enterprises, note the least studied aspects of factory history at the given moment. In a broad sense, the “social history” of industrial enterprises (associations, campaigns) has been studied, in the authors’ opinion, much less than “economic”, “technological”, “design” history. Therefore, one of the main tasks of future researchers is a comprehensive reconstruction of precisely the social, social, cultural, social, and psychological aspects of the history of factories and plants. The work notes the importance of referring primarily to industrial enterprises that have fully or de facto completed their life cycle, studying the history of which is possible throughout the entire period of their existence. As one of the main tasks facing researchers today, the authors see in the search for sources of “social” information and ways of their correct interpretation.
Keywords: factories and plants, enterprise history, social aspects, sources of information, AMO ZIL.

Chernobaev A.A. (Moscow). Review of V.F, Soldatenko’s book «Vinnichenko and Petliura: Companions or Rivals?» (Moscow, Scientific and political book. 2020. 791 p.).......................................................................................................................182

chief editor of the journal “Historical Archive”
Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the RANEPA under the President of the Russian Federation,
119571, Moscow, Vernadsky prospect, 82, building 1

The review analyzes in detail the content of the monograph by the famous Ukrainian historian V.F. Soldatenko “Vinnichenko and Petliura: Companions or Rivals?”, Published last year in Moscow. The author of the review, evaluating the work of V.F. Soldatenko as a whole concludes that this scientist is not only a major Ukrainian, but also a Russian researcher. Professor A.A. Chernobaev draws attention to the importance of posing a scientific problem, in the center of which is a successful attempt to compare the activities of two prominent historical characters, significantly different from each other in their talent, contribution to the development of historical events in Ukraine, as well as the place they occupied in modern historical memory.
Keywords. V.K. Vinnichenko, S.V. Petlyura, V.F. Soldatenko, 1917-1922, revolutionary events in Ukraine