Klio #02 (194) 2023

Novikov M.D. (St. Petersburg). The Day of the Foundation of the USSR in the Soviet press. Images, concepts, memory

Assistant at the Department of Social Sciences at the Humanities Institute,
Peter the Great St.Petersburg Polytechnic University
Russia, 195251, St. Petersburg, Polytechnicheskaya, 29
e-mail: maximnovikov3-@mail.ru

Abstract. This article is devoted to the study of the reflection of events related to the Day of the USSR Foundation (December 30, 1922) in the periodical press. The main attention was paid to the anniversary years of the existence of the Soviet state. The sources for the study were publications from central and Leningrad newspapers, as well as from the magazine «Crocodile», which reflected the events related to the date of the formation of the USSR. These articles also summarized and celebrated the achievements of the state during its existence. Apart from articles directly related to the day of formation of the USSR, other materials (poems, feuilletons, caricatures, posters) were studied that allow to assess the nature and importance of this event for the Soviet people and the state information policy in quite detail. An analysis of these materials shows that during the whole period of the existence of the USSR as a state (1922-1991), the Day of Foundation did not become a major public holiday (except for the 1972 and 1982 anniversaries), although the event itself never disappeared from the information picture of Soviet people, acquiring various images, concepts and meanings depending on the specific political circumstances.
Keywords: USSR foundation, periodical press, anniversaries, historical memory, public holidays

Tribunsky S.A. (Samara). Cultural and educational work in the Red Army during the Great Patriotic War: Soviet historiography of the problem. Article one. Analysis of Soviet historiographic sources (second half of the 1950s – first half of the 1960s)

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of National History and Historiography, Samara National Research University named after Academician S.P. Koroleva,
443086, Volga Federal District, Samara Region, Samara, Moskovskoe shosse, 34,
E-mail: ser.6791@yandex.ru 

Abstract. By repeated efforts of more than one generation of Soviet historians, it was proved that one of the significant reasons for achieving the victory of the Soviet people in the Great Patriotic War was that it functioned in the Armed Forces of the Soviet state, moreover, effectively and efficiently, was the system of party-political work. Its constituent element was cultural and educational work, which had a small degree of independence. In the process of studying these unique phenomena, a large array of historiographical and historical sources has accumulated in Soviet historical science. Moreover, many of them saw the light in the period of Khrushchev’s “thaw” (the second half of the 1950s – the first half of the 1960s). That is, at a time when Soviet historians, following the directives of the Communist Party ruling in the country to overcome the consequences of the personality cult of I.V. Stalin, made (although not completed) a breakthrough in the study of the history of the Great Patriotic War. Including, and in the scientific development of the problem of cultural and educational work in the Red Army. The author of this article, considering the second half of the 1950s – the first half of the 1960s as a historiographic period in the Soviet historiography of the Great Patriotic War, made an attempt to analyze the historiographic sources related to the history of studying the problem of cultural and educational work in the Red army and saw the light during the Khrushchev “thaw”. The subject of the research is the established Soviet historiographic research tradition of studying the topic of cultural and educational work in the Red Army during the Great Patriotic War, the views of Soviet historians, the analysis of the process of accumulation and increment of historical knowledge, the depth of scientific development of the topic mentioned above, in the second half 1950s – the first half of the 1960s. The analytical material is designed according to modern theoretical and methodological patterns of problem-thematic historiography. Based on the results of studying our problem, some of its main historiographical tendencies have been synthesized. The article is written in the format of problem-thematic historiography. There are no copyright claims for the completeness of the coverage of the problem. Based on the results of studying the problem, some of its main historiographic trends are synthesized.
Keywords: Red Army, cultural and educational work; party political work; historiographic source; historiographic analysis; historiographic trends; second half of the 1950s – first half of the 1960s, Khrushchev’s “thaw”

Sivkina N.Yu. (Nizhny Novgorod). The Fatal choice of the Olympias: History in a mythological context

Doctor of historical Sciences, associate Professor,
Professor of the Department of history of the Ancient world and the Midlle Ages of the Lobachevsky national University,
603022, Nizhny Novgorod, 23 Gagarina Ave.
E-mail: natalia-sivkina@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article attempts to analyze the corpus of sources traditional for the era of the Diadochs using the conceptual achievements of the psychogenetic and role-based approach. The cognitive theory of personality allows us to reveal the peculiarities of making important decisions by historical figures and explain the negative image of the Queen of Macedonia formed in ancient sources. In 317 BC, the Olympias returned to Macedonia and took an active part in the political events of that period. However, the decision to return was the first step towards her death. Traditionally, it is believed that the tsarina longed for power, wanted to take revenge on her enemies and strengthen her grandson Alexander IV on the throne. But we know these goals from the writings of ancient authors. Their works are based on various constructs – patterns of perception of the world and personality. The decision of the Olympias was also based on its own constructs – experience, knowledge of the main actors in the political arena. Thanks to this, she could predict several scenarios of the future and chose the most realistic option. Mythological traditions in historiography, the emphasis on the emotional side of events, as well as the desire of ancient authors to rationalize the actions of the queen distorted her historical image. In fact, her decision was the result of a pragmatic calculation. The Olympias were able to strengthen the position of their dynasty for a while and secure the borders of their homeland.
Keywords: Macedonia, Olympias, Philip II, Alexander the Great, historiography, mythological tradition, Queen of Macedonia

Zimina E.S. (Moscow). Polish-Lithuanian diplomatic relations with the Grand Duchy of Moscow before the Great Stand on the Ugra River

Teacher of Higher School of Translation and Interpreting, Lomonosov Moscow State University; Russian Federation, Moscow
119991, Russian Federation, Moscow, Leninskie Gory, 1.
E-mail: ziminaevg@mail.ru

Abstract. At the end of the 15th century, for several decades, relations between Poland and the Grand Duchy of Moscow completely changed the vector of their development: from Casimir IV’s “guardianship” over the children of Basil the Dark (1462) to direct military clashes in the 1480s. During that period, a hostile foreign policy course was formed, which later became the reality of relations between Moscow and Poland for many centuries. By 1474, the main adversaries and potential allies emerged in the Eastern European region. On the one hand – Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and on the other – the young Moscow state under the rule of Ivan III. And although this confrontation has not yet acquired an open character, its prospects were obvious. The strategic foreign policy line of Poland was aimed at confrontation with Hungary for the sake of conquering the territory of the Czech Republic. Devoting all its strength to this struggle and solving other foreign policy problems in Western Europe, Poland lost control over the dynamics of events in the Moscow principality, which was rapidly strengthening its political and economic positions. Thus, Poland received the main foreign political competitor in the face of the Moscow Principality, which could only be weakened by hoping for a clash between Moscow and the Golden Horde.
Keywords: Poland, Grand Duchy of Moscow, Casimir IV, Ivan III, international relations, Crimean Khanate, Golden Horde

Bikmaeva K.I. (Moscow). Eradication of Illiteracy through the cultural campaigns in the Mongolian People’s Republic (1930 – 1960-s)

Lomonosov Moscow State University, IAAS, PhD student
125009, Moscow, Mokhovaya st., 11/1
e-mail: karina.bikmaeva@mail.ru

Abstract. The article studies the eradication of illiteracy and the methods that were used for this, during the period of the cultural campaigns in the Mongolian People’s Republic. The issue of literacy was acute in Mongolia at the beginning of the 20th century. And cultural campaigns were an important tool to spread the new politics and culture among the rural population of the country. Cultural campaigns, as well as the eradication of illiteracy, were long-term activities and were carried out in several stages. To highlight the main periods and measures taken during the cultural campaigns, we used various sources, mainly in the Mongolian language. As a result of the analysis, we determined that cultural campaigns have become a significant support for the spread of literacy, new writing systems and cultural transformations in the Mongolian People’s Republic.
Keywords: cultural campaigns, eradication of illiteracy, language policy, MPR, religious education, red yurts

Biletskaya I.V. (Moscow). Legislative regulation of debt relations between Jews and Christians in Castile in the middle of the XIII century

Postgraduate student, Department of history of Middle ages,
Faculty of History,
Lomonosov Moscow State University.
119991, Russian Federation, Moscow, Leninskie Gory, 1.

Abstract. The problem of the legal status and conditions of the Jewish population of the Kingdom of Castile in the XV century is the subject of numerous studies. Due to the “classical” works in historiography of the subject, was fixed the idea that for the Jews who lived under the rule of Christian kings (not only in Castille, but also in Aragon), and enjoyed to a certain rights and privileges, the XV century was a time of steady, consistent movement towards exile. Recently, however, there have been works in which researchers, rejecting a retrospective view of the problem, question the reasonableness of such an unambiguously negative characterization of the situation in which the Jews lived in the last decades of their stay on the Iberian Peninsula. In this article we will also consider the problem of the situation of Castilian Jews in the XV century. And as a research platform, we will choose that sphere of activity of Jews and their interaction with the Christian population of the kingdom, which can certainly be called the most significant and the most conflict — the sphere of credit and debt relations.
Keywords: the legal status of the Jewish population, the Kingdom of Castile, XV century, credit and debt relations between Jews and Christians, usury, legislative regulation

Shaipov T.K. (Moscow). The image of Venice in the Russian culture and diplomacy in the 15th – first half of the 17th century

post-graduate student of the department of the History of Russia before the beginning of the XIX century, History faculty,
Lomonosov Moscow State University.
119991, Russia, Moscow, Leninskie gory, 1.
e-mail: sandwraith1104@gmail.com 

Abstract. The article analyzes the notions of Venice formed among Moscow scribes and officials of the Ambassadorial Chancellery by the middle of the 17th century — the time of renewal of diplomatic contacts under the tsar Aleksei Mikhaylovich. A wide range of sources we were able to trace the stages of the formation of the image of the “Republic of St. Mark” during the 15th – first half of the 17th centuries and the actualization of some of its details in different epochs. The irregularity of contacts prevented the formation of a coherent image so it was as multifaceted as fragmentary. The key details of the Venice’s image were its close ties to the sea, the presence of Christian relics exported from the Orthodox East, the prosperity provided by trade and the military confrontation with the Ottoman Empire. There was much less information about the political structure of the Republic that can also be attributed to the irregularity of diplomatic contacts. Russian ambassadors Ivan Chemodanov and Alexei Posnikov, who travelled to Venice in 1656, were therefore forced to find out the necessary information by themselves during their mission.
Keywords: diplomacy, perception, Venice, Russia, the Ambassadorial Chancellery, Aleksei Mikhaylovich, Ivan Chemodanov, embassy

Routchkine A.A. (Moscow). Rostov and the plague epidemic of the 1360s

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russian Federation,
Faculty of History
119192, Russia, Moscow, Lomonosovsky prospect, 27, bldg. 4
e-mail: a.ruchkin@school-cpm.ru 

Abstract. The article examines the situation of the Rostov land during the “plague” of the 50–60s of the XIV century, while the main attention is paid to the plague epidemic of 1364–1365. Drawing on a range of chronicle evidence and research materials, the author identifies the key problems of the history of the Rostov land in this period – the probable change in external contacts of Rostov of the development of the plague epidemic, the supposed introduction of quarantine measures to prevent the spread of the “black death”. In addition, in the context of the plague, church-political relations in the Rostov land in the mid-1360s are considered: questions are raised about the personality of Bishop Parthenius, the position of the archiepiscopal see, the principles of interaction between Rostov and neighboring Russian lands during the epidemic, as well as the actions of the Rostov princes during the period epidemics. Thus, the conclusions obtained by the author in the course of the study about the influence of the “pestilence” on the political situation and church development of the Rostov land, in general, can be relevant for the entire second half of the 14th century, since they characterize the dynamics of the weakening of the Rostov lands in the context of the church-political situation.
Keywords: Plague, Rostov land, 1360s, Bishop Parthenius, church-political relations

Tikhomirov A.V., Kotkov V.M., Kononov S.A. (St. Petersburg). The ceremonial laying of the building and the opening Officers Assembly House of the Army and Navy in St. Petersburg (to the 125th anniversary of the opening of the Assembly House)

Sc. (History), Assistant Professor, Professor of Humanitarian and Socio-Economic Disciplines Department of Military Academy of Communications
194064, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Tikhoretsky Prospekt, 3
E-mail: vas@mil.ru 

Sc. (Ped.), Professor, Professor of Humanitarian and Socio-Economic Disciplines Department of Military Academy of Communications
194064, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Tikhoretsky Prospekt, 3
E-mail: vas@mil.ru

Head of the Officers Club of the Western military district
191028, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Liteyny Prospekt, 20
e-mail: dozvo@bk.ru

Abstract. The article examines the initial period of organization of the activities of the St. Petersburg Military Assembly, as well as the main events during the solemn laying of the building on November 9, 1895 and the grand opening of the Officer Assembly House of the Army and Navy on March 22, 1898. For the first time in historiography, the composition of the Special Commission and the main governing documents on the organization of the Assembly’s activities are given, as well as the memoirs of Emperor Nicholas II and the list of persons awarded by him who took an active part in the organization of the Assembly. The article concludes with a list of military cultural institutions located in the Assembly building in subsequent years. The publication is based both on well-known historiography and on rare pre-revolutionary publications, as well as on sources that are being introduced into scientific circulation for the first time. The article provides information about numerous personalities who played a significant role in the preparation of the project, construction and operation of the building of the Officers’ Assembly of the Army and Navy in the first years after its commissioning.
Keywords: Imperial Army, St. Petersburg, Liteyny Prospekt, Officer Assembly House of the Army and Navy, Officers Club

Erdokesko E.A. (Moscow). From the history of the development of the transport system of the southern districts of the Taurida province in the second half of the 19th century

Postgraduate Student, Department of Russian History of the 19th and early 20th Centuries, Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University
119234, Russia, Moscow, Lomonosovsky Prospekt, 27-4
E-mail: ekaterina-erdokesko@yandex.ru

Abstract. On the basis of published and unpublished sources, some of which are introduced into scholarly discourse for the first time, the article examines the development of the transport system of the southern disticts of the Tauric province, located on the territory of the Crimean Peninsula, in the second half of the 19th century. The author provides information about the key traffic, means of transportation, the cost of travel on various vehicles, and shows the relationship between the socio-economic development of this region and the development of the transport system. The author concludes that in the second half of the 19th century a powerful impetus was given to the development of the transport system of the Crimean Peninsula, which was associated with an active government policy, aimed at restoring the socio-economic development of this region after the Crimean War, attracting investment and trade relations. Since that time, the process of building ground communications has been streamlined, full-fledged ports appear, the construction of railways begins, which contributed to the integration of economic relations not only between the districts of the Crimean Peninsula, but also the districts of the Tauric province, which were located in the mainland of the province, as well as with other administrative units of the Russian Empire.
Keywords: Tauric province, Crimea, transport, dirt roads, highways, railway construction, seaports

Artsybashev E.N. (Tula). Lecturers of readings for the people in the Russian provinces at the turn of the 19th-20th centuries: a psychological and axiological portrait (on the example of materials from the Tula province)

Postgraduate student of Tula State University
300012, Tula, Lenin Ave, 92
e-mail: egor030492@mail.ru

Abstract. At the turn of the XIX – XX centuries, folk readings were one of the most important forms of educational activities of the provincial intelligentsia. Using the materials of the Tula province as an example, the article discusses the question of the characteristics of lecturers who conducted public readings. Since the composition of lecturers in the provincial center and counties differed, the question of the class, professional composition of provincial lecturers, as well as the conditions for obtaining permission to engage in lecture activities, is important. The specifics of the activities of lecturers in the provinces, in particular in rural areas, as well as the topics of lectures and motivation of lecturers, about the tasks they set for themselves are considered. Much attention is paid to the description of the personal experience of individual lecturers on the pages of the provincial press, in particular, the Tula Diocesan Gazette. The issue of perception among the intelligentsia of the thematic set of lectures and their relevance to the challenges of the time is touched upon. Lecturers’ thoughts are given about what topics should be most useful and what mission folk readings perform. Based on the data obtained, an attempt is made to compile a psychological and axiological portrait of the lecturers of readings for the people.
Keywords: Intelligentsia, clergy, educational activities, Tula province, popular reading, Tula diocesan gazette

Mazin A.V. (Moscow). Structure of the Ministry of Trade and Industry of the Russian State (1918-1920)

Postgraduate student of the 3rd year of study of the department
History of state and municipal administration
Faculty of Public Administration
Lomonosov Moscow State University
119991, Russian Federation, Moscow, Leninskie Gory, 1.
E-mail: r.s.nizamfor@gmail.com

Abstract. The article is devoted to the review of the structure of the Ministry of Trade and Industry of the Russian State (A.V. Kolchak). The reasons for the need to create such a department for the successful functioning of the state economy are indicated. The historiography of the topic of industrial policy in Siberia during the Civil War in Russia was reviewed, the succession of management structures from the Committee of the Constituent Assembly and the Provisional Siberian Government was studied, the departments of the Ministry, their areas of competence and functions were considered. The issues of industry management in Kolchak’s Siberia, the main areas of work of the relevant department and the principles of its functioning were touched upon. Attention is paid to salaries and staffing. Also, a study was made of changes in the intradepartmental structure in connection with the dynamics of external and internal conditions. The main problem faced by the leadership of the Ministry in the performance of their duties is the level of discipline among employees. The relationship with other government bodies, as well as the decision-making process in the central office and directly in the field, are affected. In conclusion, an assessment was made of the level of efficiency of the management activities of the Ministry of Trade and Industry.
Keywords: Siberia in the Civil War, A.V. Kolchak, industrial policy, Ministry, management structure

Kashevarov A.N. (St. Petersburg). On some results of the anti-church campaign of 1922

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor,
Honored Worker of Higher School of the Russian Federation,
Professor Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University,
Russia, 195251, St. Petersburg, Polytechnicheskaya Str., 29.
E-mail: kashevar12@mail.ru

Abstract. The article is devoted to the centenary of the anti-church campaign of 1922, which unfolded on the basis of the seizure of valuables from churches and monasteries and was carried out under the slogan of raising funds to help the victims of the famine that began in the second half of 1921 and covered more than 22 million people. The author, for the first time in the historical literature, analyzed the process of formation of the system of central authorities for the conduct of religious policy during this campaign. At the head of this system was the Politburo of the Central Committee of the Party, the Anti-Religious Commission of the Central Committee of the RCP (b) coordinated and directed the anti-church activities of various departments and institutions, the direct executor of punitive measures and the conductor of religious policy were mainly the bodies of the GPU-OGPU-NKVD. Thus, the V (“church”) department of the People’s Commissariat of Justice gradually lost the opportunity to influence the practical implementation of religious policy at the local level, turned into a kind of expert advisory body in relation to state departments and institutions, to one degree or another related to the activities of religious organizations. In August 1924, the 5th department of the NKJ was abolished, and its functions were mainly transferred to the Secretariat of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee. The existing system of the authorities noted above allowed the Soviet state to move from the implementation of various anti-church campaigns after 1922 to the systematic and consistent ousting of the Russian Orthodox Church from all spheres of public life, which was replaced in the late 1920s by a course towards the complete elimination of religion and the church in society.
Keywords: Russian Orthodox Church, anti-religious campaign of 1922, tactics of “decomposing the church”, Politburo of the Central Committee of the RCP(b), Anti-Religious Commission of the Central Committee of the RCP(b), punitive and repressive bodies, V (“church”) department of the People’s Commissariat of Justice

Burnasheva N.I. (Yakutsk). The Far East and Yakutia: ways of interaction in the conditions of the planned economy of the 1920s

doctor of historical sciences, associate professor,
Institute for Humanities Research and Indigenous Studies
of the North of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of
Department of History and Arctic Research,
Leading Researcher.
677020, Russia, Yakutsk, st. Petrovsky, 1.
e-mail: n_burnasheva@mail.ru

Abstract. The article is devoted to the issues of economic cooperation between the regions of the USSR in the 1920s. The transition of the country to a planned system of state administration was closely connected with the development of the economic life of the territories, regions and national entities. Having passed the stage of restoring the economy, destroyed during the Civil War, the regions began to reconstruct the national economy on a planned basis. A detailed study of the tasks of the reconstruction of the national economy was presented in the first five-year plans of the USSR and affected the economic life of almost all regions of the country. The State Planning Commission intended to introduce territorial planning through the mechanism of economic zoning, the ideal of which was the transformation of the country’s national economy into a single whole. Economic zoning provided for an inter-district division of labor, a clear specialization of each region, and their close interaction for discussing and choosing the best ways and development priorities. Such a system was supposed to significantly accelerate the industrialization of previously backward regions, outskirts, national republics, and promote the creation of new industrial centers. Directions of cooperation between regions in the conditions of the planned economy of the 1920s are shown in the article on the example of the development of prospects for cooperation between the Far Eastern Territory and Yakutia.
Keywords: Far East, Yakutia, five-year plan, economic zoning, industrialization, mining industry

Rybakov A.A. (Nizhny Novgorod). Cultural and educational policy among national minorities in the Gorky region during the first five-year plan

Third-year postgraduate student of the Department of History, Philosophy, Pedagogy and Psychology, Nizhny Novgorod State Architectural and Construction University
603950, Ilinskaya street., 65, Nizhny Novgorod.
 e-mail: temta96@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article analyzes the national policy of the Soviet leadership in the cultural and educational sphere in the Gorky region from 1929 to 1932. during the first five years. Particular emphasis is placed on the consideration of the development of national minorities living outside the autonomies in the territories of the modern Nizhny Novgorod and Kirov regions. The study provides a statistical review of the ongoing educational work among the small peoples of the region, showing the impact of industrialization and ideology on education. Separately, the problems of introducing the Mari, Mordovians, Chuvashs and Tatars to preschool education are considered. National schools became the basis for the comprehensive development of children of national minorities in the years under review. In the region, the preparation of the future working class was actively stimulated through the formation of a network of specialized educational institutions of secondary vocational and higher education. The first five-year plan was marked by the continuation of the indigenization policy, which influenced the replacement of pedagogical positions mainly by nationals, as well as the conduct of a number of classes in the native language of national minorities. The article deals with the difficulties in providing national literature to the districts of the region, developing a network of reading huts and libraries, as well as the process of introducing a new Latin alphabet among the Tatars.
Keywords: Gorky region, indigenization, national policy, first five-year plan, national minorities

Krasnyuk I.I. (Moscow). Echo of Breslau. The fate of the Soviet JS-2 tank No. 537, known from the photograph of A.V. Egorov «Musical Moment» (part II)

doctor of pharmaceutical sciences, professor, PhD, Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University), A.P. Nelyubin Institute of pharmacy, department of analytical, physical and colloidal chemistry.
127254, Russia, Moscow, Goncharova str., 8/13, apartment 12.
E-mail: krasnyuk.79@mail.ru

Abstract. The article is devoted to the historical investigation of the circumstances of the last battle of the JS-2 heavy tank No.537, widely known from the photograph of A.V. Egorov «Musical Moment». A comprehensive study of the key photos of the tank before and after the fighting in april-may 1945 during the storming of the german city of Breslau by the Red Army (currently, the polish city of Wroclaw). Based on the study of archival materials (reports, orders, maps), as well as the memories of the participants in the storming of the city, the exact location of the action was established, and a historical reconstruction of the events in chronological order was proposed, the participants of which were the heroic crew and its combat vehicle. The author comes to the conclusion that the JS-2 tank No.537 marked in the photo, belonging to the 222nd separate tank Ropshinsky Red Banner Order of Bogdan Khmelnitsky and Kutuzov regiment (222 otp), attacked 271 infantry regiment from 181 infantry division in the offensive zone (from 04/23/1945 as part of the 22 rifle corps), and was lost in battle on april 26, 1945 in Breslau at the junction of Legnitska street to Striegauer platz. Considerable attention is paid to the analysis of the warring parties in this area. The composition, number and affiliation of the enemy units defending these quarters have been established. The damage to the tank has been studied in detail. On the basis of which assumptions are made about the reasons for the tank’s failure – the fire of enemy artillery or assault guns. Special attention is paid to the identification and fate of the JS-2 tank crew, No.537, which literally reached victory.
Keywords: JS-2 heavy tank No.537, musical moment, assault on Breslau, lieutenant Degtyarev B.I., foreman Kargopolov K.A., private Kazeikin I.A., private Kalyagin B.V., 222 separate tank regiment

Suverov E.V., Manuilov E.V. (Barnaul). The system of control and inspections in the internal affairs bodies of Western Siberia (50-60s of the XX century)

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor,
Professor of the Department of Theory and History of Law and State Barnaul Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia,
656038, Barnaul, Chkalova str., 49.
e-mail: suverovev69@mail.ru

duty inspector
Barnaul Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia,
656038, Barnaul, Russia, Chkalova str., 49.
e-mail: e.manujlov@mail.ru

Abstract. By the 50s of the last century, the Soviet law enforcement system had developed a complex system of control and inspections aimed at increasing its effectiveness. This was due to a chronic personnel shortage, a high level of “turnover” from the police units of Western Siberia and other previously unresolved problems. The management had to constantly check the quality of the executed orders, the state of discipline and professional training among the personnel. However, the employees of the internal affairs bodies were subordinate not only to their Moscow leaders, but also to the local party and Soviet elite, which led to a conflict of interests. In addition, the implementation of short-term political decisions did not increase the authority of the police among the local population. Divisions of the Ministry of Internal Affairs -the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the RSFSR-USSR and prosecutor’s officers were periodically checked. In addition to inspections from the central police apparatus, numerous inspections were carried out at the regional level. The storage and use of firearms and ammunition, the state of financial discipline, and the level of political literacy of the personnel remained under special control. In public places, patrols assessed the appearance of policemen, detaining violators of the uniform. Visits of departmental journalists to the place of service of policemen were also common, where the identified violators were criticized on the pages of newspapers.
Keywords: Control, inspection, police, internal affairs agencies, managers, Western Siberia

Sobolev V.G. (St. Petersburg). The Pamiris in the Russian and Soviet Imperial Politics

PhD in History, Associate Professor of the Department of the Post-Soviet studies, the School of International Relations, Saint Petersburg State University,
199034, Russia, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya embankment, 7-9
e-mail: vsobolev@mail.com

Abstract. The purpose of the article is to reveal the characteristic dynamics in the positive and negative discrimination of the population of the Pamirs from the Russian and, later, the Soviet administration, as well as the reasons that caused this approach to the Pamir ethnic identity. As a result of the study, it was concluded that the legal and ethnic status of the Pamir population was closely connected with the specific tasks of imperial policy in Central Asia. Positive discrimination was characteristic to the end of the XIX century and, especially, for the beginning of the XXth century. Such a policy reaches its peak in the mid-1920s. Since the mid-1930s. The republican authorities of the Tajik SSR passed to the policy of negative discrimination and, in general, receive tacit approval from the central authorities of the USSR. However, during the 1940s and 1970s, the status of the Pamiris continued to be ambiguous, which led to a resumption of the discussion and attempts to change the policy of the authorities towards them in the late 1980s.
Keywords: The Pamir Mountains, the Pamiris, Russian Politics in Central Asia, ethnicity, nationality, Ismailism

Lapina I.Yu., Kargapoltsev S.Yu. (St. Petersburg). Globalization Transhumanism as a destructive doctrine of legitimization of neo-pagan occultism, neocolonialism and Russphobia (Part II)

Head of the Department of History and Philosophy of SPbGASU, Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor
St. Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SPbGASU),
190005, 2nd Krasnoarmeyskaya street., 4, St. Petersburg
e-mail: clio@spbgasu.ru

Associate Professor of the Department of History and Philosophy of SPbGASU,
Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor
St. Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SPbGASU),
190005, 2nd Krasnoarmeyskaya street., 4, St. Petersburg
e-mail: clio@spbgasu.ru

Abstract. The publication analyzes the circumstances of the globalization processes in the modern world, also known as the “Fourth industrial revolution” or the “Great Reset”. The system components of this doctrine are determined: total digitalization and population control, hybrid wars, genetically modified viruses, epidemics, medical-sanitary dictate, hunger, gender transhumanism, primitivization of cultural educational standards, neopagan occultism, ecumenism, Russphobia, Americanism, neocolonialism, etc. The organized chaos of “Arab Spring”, the Nazi takeover in Ukraine, and the COVID-19 pandemic are cited as examples of globalist expansionism. The point of view is argued that Russia is an independed “Center of Power”, forming a geopolitical median between the Collective West (USA, Great Britain, Euro Union), Southeast Asia (China, India) and the Middle East (Arab countries, Turkey, Iran). In combination with resource self-sufficiency and a “Nuclear Shield”, this is a basic advantage in protecting the national interests and territorial integrity of the state.

An opinion is expressed that the mail problems of the Russian Federation are import dependence and the split of the elites into patriots and pro-Western liberals. A clear vision by the President of Russia of ways to implement the necessary solutions to overcome external challenges and achieve stabilization of the domestic political space and the revival of a self-sufficient national economy is noted.

The presented material is supported by a set of quotations and statistical data with links to primary sources, regulatory framework and representative literature. The first part of this article was published in Klio No. 1, 2023, pp. 169-177.
Keywords: Globalization, gender transhumanism, Collective West, Special military operation, COVID-19, pandemic, medical-sanitary dictate, Satanism, tolerance, liberalism, Russphobia, neocolonialism, Russia, Vladimir Putin, Ukraine, USA, Great Britain, European Union

Baranovsky A.L. (Minsk, Republic of Belarus). Leningrad, Minsk, New York, Moscow: Life and Fate of Igor Valentinovich Zholudev (1925–2005)

Chief Bibliographer
of the Research Department of Bibliography
National Library of Belarus
116 Independence Ave., Minsk, 220114, Republic of Belarus
E-mail: andre-b2005@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article tells about the life and work of Igor Valentinovich Zholudev, a native of Leningrad (1925–2005), who graduated from the 9th grade of secondary school No. 183 of the Dzerzhinsky district of Leningrad, a blockade runner, a participant in the Great Patriotic War, a graduate of the Minsk State Institute of Foreign Languages, an employee of the State Library of the BSSR named after V.I. Lenin (now the National Library of Belarus). The genealogical branches of the Zholudev family, his career movements, a business trip to the USA – work as the head of the bibliographic group of the reference section of the library of the UN Secretariat’s Conference Services Office in New York, senior supply engineer of the K.D. Ushinsky State Scientific Pedagogical Library in Moscow, zigzags and twists of personal life, comradely and friendly ties, hobbies and hobbies are traced.
Keywords: St. Petersburg, Leningrad, Igor Valentinovich Zholudev (1925–2005), the Great Patriotic War, Minsk, the National Library of Belarus, New York, Moscow, genealogy, biography