Klio #03 (183) 2022

Vasyarkieva Ts.O., Goryaeva S.T., Sangadzhi-Goryaev S.A., Yusupov T.S. (Elista). Military archives as part of the naval section EGAF (1918–1925)

Bachelor, Department of IRDA, Faculty of Humanities,
Kalmyk State University named after B.B. Gorodovikov,
358011, Russian Federation, Elista, st. Pushkin, 11,
 e-mail: vasyarkieva@list.ru 

Bachelor, Department of IRDA, Faculty of Humanities, Kalmyk State University named after B.B. Gorodovikov,
358011, Russian Federation, Elista, st. Pushkin, 11,
 e-mail: goryaevas00@icloud.com 

Bachelor, Department of Agronomy, Agricultural faculty, Kalmyk State University named after B.B. Gorodovikov,
358011, Russian Federation, Elista, st. Pushkin, 11,
 e-mail: ssandzhi@list.ru 

Bachelor, Department of Agronomy, Agricultural faculty, Kalmyk State University named after B.B. Gorodovikov,
358011, Russian Federation, Elista, st. Pushkin, 11,
 e-mail: tima.yusupov.2014@bk.ru 

Abstract. This scientific article attempts to study the fate of military archives in the first post-revolutionary years – from 1918 to 1925. This chronological framework is explained by the fact that the military archives were combined during this period. Scientific work is based on a wide range of documentary sources, periodicals and monographs. The work is structured in the traditional way: 1) relevance; 2) the degree of development of the research topic; 3) the main task of the study; 4) methodological basis of the study; 5) statement of the problem (main part); 6) brief conclusions; 7) list of sources and literature. It is worth noting that it was precisely 1918 – 1924. were a period of concentration of military-historical documentation within the framework of the Unified State Archival Fund, formed on the basis of the Decree of the Council of People’s Commissars of June 1, 1918, and by the same Decree the management of the EGAF was entrusted to the Main Archive. Thus, the Lefortovo archive became the only place where military-historical documentation of the pre-revolutionary period is stored in Moscow. On April 7, 1925, it was renamed the Military Historical Archive (VIA). It should be noted that our task at the present stage is to change the attitude towards archives, especially on the part of the state, and it is desirable to allocate financial support necessary for the successful and prosperous development of any archives.
Keywords: archive, sources, historiography, documents, Main Archive, repository

Dozmorov V.A. (Simferopol). Ego-documents on the history of the vocational and technical education system in the Soviet period (regional aspect)

Postgraduate student of the Department of Russian History of the V.I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University, 295007, Russia, Simferopol, ave. Academician Vernadsky, 4.
e-mail: Dozmorov-Valeriy@yandex.ru 

Abstract. Of great practical importance for the formation of modern educational policy is the appeal to the history of vocational education. It is no exaggeration to note that the currently existing Russian system of vocational education received significant development during the Soviet period. At the same time, the study of the regional component contributes to the consideration of mechanisms for the implementation of education policy on concrete examples. The article presents personal memoirs of veterans of pedagogical work of the system of vocational education of the Republic of Crimea. The interest shown in this topic is caused by the significant contribution of this system to the training of young specialists for the regional economy. The study of microhistory, as well as the history of everyday life, is coming to the fore in historical science today. In this context, sources of personal origin (the so-called “ego documents”) play an important role in the coverage of certain historical.
Keywords: the history of everyday life, veterans of labor, ego documents, vocational and technical education of the Crimea, the Soviet Union

Bedirhan Ziyanak (St. Petersburg). Russian-Turkish relations of the 16th century through the eyes of Turkish historiography (on the example of the Volga-Don Canal and the Astrakhan Expedition)

PhD Student
Institute of History St. Petersburg State University,
199034, Russian Federation, St Petersburg, University Embankment, 7/9.
E-mail: ziyanakbedir@hotmail.com

Abstract. Ottoman-Russian relations of the XVIth century is a particular importance in history, since it was during this period that the foundations of the events that occurred in the future were laid. This article examines the Turkish historiography that is related with the relationship between Russians and Turks in the XVIth century. The purpose of the article is to analyze the works that base on this topic in Turkish historiography. The topic is actual and limited to only one event in Turkey. (Astrakhan expedition and the Volga-Don canal project).
As a result of our research, we came to the conclusion that the works written by Turkish researchers study only the question of Astrakhan, despite the fact that in Russia there are many sources and literature that are not used by Turkish researchers about mutual trade around the Black Sea and the Orthodox churches in Constantinople of the XVI century. Based on all this, the Astrakhan expedition and the Russian-Turkish relations of the 16th century are important for researchers from the point of view of finding out under what circumstances Russian domination arose in the Volga region and other territories, where their (Turks and Russians) interests contradicted each other.
Keywords: Ottoman Empire, Russian Kingdom, XVI century, Astrakhan Expedition, the project of the Don-Volga Canal, Turkish historiography

Mochalov D.P. (Orenburg). Problems of the methodology of historical research in the publications of S.S. Krivtsova

Specialist of the department of scientific programs, grants and contractual activities, Orenburg State Pedagogical University.
460014, Russian Federation, Orenburg, Sovetskaya St., 19
E-mail: dosoldschool@yandex.ru

Abstract. This article is devoted to the consideration of the heritage of Stepan Savvich Krivtsov from the point of view of the development of the national methodology of historical knowledge. The latter is justified by the organizational work to build a new historical science, which was carried out by Krivtsov throughout the 1920s. The article touches upon Krivtsov’s views on a number of local problems of historical methodology. This topic includes consideration of the theory of socio-economic formations in the perception of Krivtsov, as well as the role of abstractions, the way they are constructed and applied in historical knowledge. An essential side of the issue for consideration is also the relationship between Krivtsov’s philosophical views and the theory of the historical process that he builds. These include his views on the relationship between history and modernity, the manifestation of the problem of the general and the individual in historical knowledge, the role of spontaneity and consciousness in history. In the course of the study, a number of important parallels were drawn, both with the current state of historical knowledge and with a number of trends in the 1920s. These parallels allow us to draw some conclusions not only about the originality or typicality of the views of the author in question, but also about their prospects or ineffectiveness for the current stage of development of science.
Keywords: historical materialism, Marxism, methodology of history, philosophy of history, formation approach, Krivtsov

Osipov N.A. (St. Petersburg). Ukrainization of the 1920s-1930s in Modern Russian and Ukrainian Historiographies

1st-year postgraduate student of the Leningrad State University named after A.S. Pushkin, head of the museum of School No. 152, teacher of history and social studies, teacher of additional education
E-mail: osipov090996@mail.ru

Annotation. This article provides a historiographical overview of the study of the problems of Ukrainization of the 1920s-1930s in Russian and Ukrainian historiography, describes the stages of development, features and specifics of scientific works, as well as trends characteristic of Russian historiography on the one hand, and Ukrainian historiography on the other, and makes a comparative analysis between them. This topic began to be written about in the 1920s. immediately after the beginning of the policy of Ukrainization, however, research was not conducted until the 1990s. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, many archives were opened, there was no need for scientific works to correspond to Marxist-Leninist ideology, and therefore this problem became again in demand in the scientific community. The popularity of this topic began to be reflected in the appearance of a huge number of monographs, articles and books on “Ukrainization” in both Russian and Ukrainian historiographies. At the conclusion of this work, it was concluded that Ukrainian and Russian historians singled out different reasons for conducting national policy on the territory of the Ukrainian SSR in the 1920s and 1930s. and setting different accents on the course, goals and results of its implementation.
Keywords: Ukrainization, de-Russification, historiography, scientists, USSR, RSFSR, national cultural revival, national elite, Bolsheviks.

Tribunsky S.A. (Samara). Cultural and educational work in the Red Army in the so-called interwar period: Soviet historiography of the problem. Article three. Analysis of Soviet historiographic sources (second half of the 1950s – first half of the 1960s)

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Russian History, Samara National Research University named after academician S.P. Korolev”,
443086, Volga Federal District, Samara region, Samara, Moscow highway, 34,
E-mail: ser.6791@yandex.ru

Abstract. In the vast and diverse Soviet historiography of the so-called interwar period (1920s – June 22, 1941), a certain array of historiographic sources published in the second half of the 1950s – first half of the 1960s took its place, in which various aspects of cultural and educational work in the Workers ‘and Peasants’ Red Army (RKKA) – this unique component of party and political work in the Armed Forces of the young Soviet state are highlighted. This article is a logical continuation of the articles “Cultural and educational work in the Red Army in the so-called interwar period: Soviet historiography of the problem. Article one. Analysis of Soviet historiographical sources (1920s – first half of the 1930s)” and “Cultural and educational work in the Red Army in the so-called interwar period: Soviet historiography of the problem. Article two. Analysis of Soviet Historiographic Sources (second half of the 1930s – first half of the 1950s)”, published in this journal [Klio. 2022. No. 1 (181) January. pp. 13-28); Кlio. 2022. No. 2 (182) February. P.32-44]”. The subject of her research is the established Soviet historiographic research tradition of studying the topic of cultural and educational work in the Red Army in the so-called interwar period, the views of Soviet historians, the analysis of the process of accumulation and increment of historical knowledge, the depth of scientific development of the topic mentioned above, in the second half of 1950s – the first half of the 1960s. Based on the results of studying our problem, some of its main historiographical tendencies are synthesized. The article is made in the format of problem-thematic historiography. There are no copyright claims for the completeness of the coverage of the problem.
Keywords: Red Army, cultural and educational work; party political work; historiographic source; historiographic analysis; historiographic trends; the second half of the 1950s – the first half of the 1960s

Kimlenko K. (Moscow). Convocation of the conclave in the estimates of the governments of Victor Emmanuel II (1870-1877)

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of History, Department of Modern and Contemporary History, PhD student.
119991, Russian Federation, Moscow, Lomonosovskiy ave., 27-4.
e-mail: k.kimlenko@gmail.com

Abstract. The article focuses on the conclave that should have elected a successor of Pius IX as seen by the Italian government. Notably, the conclave was at the center of Italy’s attention long before the Pontiff’s death in 1878. The attitude of the Italian government to the future conclave is related to the Roman question. The Italian side pursued to resolve it and perceived it as a largely internal problem. Therefore, it studied the prospect of a conclave from the early 1860s. The capture of Rome in 1870 has reinforced interest in the future conclave as it acquired a new meaning. Now it was about the election of the Head of the Catholic Church and no more of the Head of the Papal States. The article deals with the issues connected to the conclave in estimates of the Italian government before the conclave itself.
Keywords: the Sacred College of Cardinals, conclave, Pius IX, the Italian government, the unification of Italy

Schmidt W. (Regensburg, Germany). From the Kaiser´s Germany to III Reich: stages of development of the German antisemitism and its forms

Waldemar Schmidt
Magister of History,
University of Regensburg,
Humboldt street 48 a, 93053 Regensburg, Germany,
E-mail: wolodjaschmidt@gmx.de

Abstract. The article deals with the issues related to the development of anti-Semitic movement in Kaiser Germany. The author of the article tried to give more specific information about the figures of the anti-Semitic movement in Kaiser Germany. In addition, the issues of anti-Semitic congresses and their role in the development of anti-Semitism in Germany were discussed. Parallels between anti-Semitism of Kaiser Germany and Nazi Reich are shown.
Keywords: Anti-Semitism, anti-Semitic parties, anti-Semitic congresses, Kaiser Germany and the Third Reich

Krasnoshchekov N.А. (Moscow). Development of a unified US foreign policy towards Spain (1949-1951)

Research Associate of the Faculty of Educational Studies of Lomonosov Moscow State University.
Russian Federation, Moscow, 119991,
Leninskie gory, 1, building 52.
E-mail: nickrasoft@gmail.com

Abstract. This article examines the problem of the development of the United States consolidated foreign policy towards the F. Franco’s regime by the American establishment after the end of the Second World War. The author presents a comparative analysis of the positions of the H. Truman’s Administration, the State Department and the US Congress, as well as the American military leadership in the period from 1949 to 1951. The article traces the overcoming of differences in the American political elite associated with different attitudes to the Francoist regime in Spain. Based on the analysis of the archive documents, the author comes to the conclusion that by 1951 the American establishment had developed a unified position on the Spanish issue and decided on bilateral military-political cooperation between the United States and Spain, which assumed the use of Spanish air and naval bases by the American armed forces in the event of a potential military conflict with the USSR.
Keywords: US history, US foreign policy, American-Spanish relations, H. Truman, D. Acheson, S. Griffis, perception of F. Franco’s regime, strengthening the flanks of NATO, the Spanish question in the US Congress

Strebkova L.I. (Uzlovaya). Formation of the ceremonial of the anniversary celebrations dedicated to the 500th anniversary of the Battle of Kulikovo

Postgraduate student of Tula State University
301607, Russia, Tula region, Uzlovaya, st. Magistralnaya, 49, apt. 41.
Telephone: 8-962-279-18-73
e-mail: Larisauzl@mail.ru

Abstract. The article discusses the formation of the program of anniversary celebrations on the Kulikovo field in 1880, its modification and implementation. The role of the church, the zemstvo, the nobility, the military in the formation and implementation of the program of anniversary celebrations is analyzed. The main elements of the ceremonial of the celebrations held on the Kulikovo field and in Tula are considered – a memorial service, a religious procession, a gala dinner, a military parade, the laying of a nursing home. The main characteristic features of the anniversary of the Battle of Kulikovo in 1880 can be called its all-class character, a wide scope that went beyond the boundaries of the Tula province. In general, the anniversary of the Battle of Kulikovo corresponded to the ceremonial of the festive celebrations of that time, which was reflected in its division into secular and church components, but had a number of features. The absence of the emperor among the guests of honor attributed the anniversary to a number of “provincial”, but it cannot be called such in full. Participation in the celebrations on Kulikovo Field by representatives of the Trinity-Sergius Lavra and the troops of the Moscow Military District brought the anniversary of the Battle of Kulikovo to the level of the most important events of the Russian Empire in the 80s. XIX century. It is important to note that a number of elements of the church component of the created ceremonial continued to exist in subsequent years during the celebration of the anniversaries of the Battle of Kulikovo in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Keywords: Battle of Kulikovo, Tula province, anniversary, D. I. Ilovaisky, commemorative practices, historical memory

Parakhin A.S. (Samara). Common and Dividing Issues of the Party of the Right and the Union of October 17

postgraduate student of the department of
Russian history and historiography
Samara National Research University,
Street Moskovskoe Shosse, 34, Samara, 443086.
 E-mail: parahin_1996@mail.ru

Abstract. Soviet historical science has long been dominated by the idea that the party “Union of October 17” in its tactics and program was absolutely identical to the party of the Right. However, there are historical sources and studies that refute this opinion. There is no doubt that A.I. Guchkov’s party supported measures to combat revolutionary sentiments and actions. The purpose of this article is to refute the Point of View that the Octobrists were always in agreement with the Right, and to prove that the Union of October 17 was not exclusively a reactionary force. Our research is based on historical sources dating from February-June 1907, as well as monographs and scholarly articles. On the basis of analysis of these sources and special literature the main directions of the Union of October 17 activity, the social composition of the faction, its tactics in the course of parliamentary work are highlighted. It is necessary to note that during the Octobrist faction’s work there were extremely polar opinions about it, in many respects due to the wide spread of political journalism. In order to fulfill the goal, the relationship of Octobrists with the right, the main issues that divided them, through the information about the social composition, it was determined which of the Octobrists could support the interests of the left or right part of the Duma. The novelty of the study is expressed in the fact that the points that significantly divided Octobrists and the right are investigated.
Keywords: political history, state Duma, Octobrists, rightists, cadets, military field courts

Belyakov V.V. (St. Petersburg). Invention а rationalization in the early years of Soviet power

course officer-teacher of the faculty (missile а MLRS)
Mikhailovsky Military Artillery Academy
195009, St. Petersburg, Komsomol, 22,
E-mail: cheguevarashiv1989@mail.ru

Abstract. The article considers the formation а development of the system of inventive а rationalization work in the initial period of the creation of the young Soviet state. The main directions of studying the problem in the research of modern historians are indicated. Attention is focused on attracting documents а materials from the Russian State Archive of the Navy (St. Petersburg), in which the process of inventing а rationalizing military equipment was most important for the state policy of “deterring opponents.” The development of industrialization in all areas of providing for the population made it possible to bring the social policy а economic system of the country to a new level, while the problems identified were stopped as soon as possible due to the use of military technologies in civilian circulation. This process made it possible to progress in all areas of the Soviet Union, and by the beginning of World War II to build a stable system of accounting and introduction of scientific developments in technological processes.
Keywords: Inventive work, Rationalization work, industrialization, scientific developments, NEP

Tyurkova A.A. (Khabarovsk). Сountering drug addiction and drug criminality in Soviet Russia (1922–1930)

Post–graduate student
of the Far Eastern Law Institute
of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia
680020, Russian Federation, Khabarovsk, st. Kazarmenny lane, 15.
E–mail: nastya.tyurkova@mail.ru

Abstract. The article outlines the main directions of state policy on countering drug crime in Soviet Russia (1922–1930). The emphasis is placed on the fact that legislative, law enforcement, medical, and cultural and educational measures were taken to prevent the spread of narcotic drugs in the country, which together had a complex and effective impact on the population. Attention is drawn to the fact that during the period under review, criminal legislation expanded the list of articles, introducing new elements of crimes. The health authorities, in turn, strengthened control over the release of medicines containing narcotic substances, and also initiated the creation of special preventive institutions for drug addicts. It is noted that cultural and educational work was carried out among the population, which, by staging performances, lecturing, contributed to drawing acute attention to this problem from all segments of the population. The author emphasizes that the activities of law enforcement agencies were of particular importance, which, with the help of operational actions, brought traffickers of narcotic substances to justice. It is concluded that these measures are a certain progress in the history of the state in combating drug crime, but, unfortunately, this problem has not been eliminated and poses a serious threat to society in the modern world, which requires the search for new solutions.
Keywords: drug criminality, Soviet Russia, Soviet legislation, militia, fighting criminality

Pilishvili G.D. (Kursk). Combat and operational activities of the NKVD destroyer battalions on the territory of the Central Chernozem region in 1942

Candidate of historical science
Associate Professor of the Department of State and Municipal Administration
Kursk State University
305 000, Kursk, 5 Kirova Street, ap. 59-b
E-mail: pilishvili.georg @ yandex.ru

Abstract. In his scientific article, the author, using not only a large amount of archive data, but also extensive material from the scientific literature of military historians of Voronezh and Kursk, attempted to show the role and significance of the NKVD fighter battalions in protecting the rear against the background of the hostilities taking place on the territory of the Central Black Earth Region.
Fighter battalions of the NKVD began to form from the first months of hostilities in 1941. It was a difficult time during the retreat of the Red Army on all fronts. The time of the enemy’s occupation of a significant amount of Soviet territory. Time of the battle for Moscow. 1942 is the year of the counteroffensive of the Red Army. During this period of time, fierce hostilities continue on the territory of the Central Black Earth Region. There is a battle for the city of Voronezh.
In such difficult conditions: military operations, occupation, retreat and a new offensive of the Red Army, it is important to trace the process of leadership of the fighter battalions by the party, Soviet and NKVD bodies. After all, the protection of the Soviet rear was one of the most important state tasks. The fighters of the destroyer battalions showed their effectiveness not only in maintaining strictly military order in the rear throughout 1942, but also in combat operations with the enemy, as was the case, for example, during the defense of Voronezh in the summer of 1942.
Keywords: extermination battalions, World War II, Central Chernozem region People’s Commissariat of Internal Affairs of the USSR, combat activities, service activities

Tikhomirov A.V. (St. Petersburg). The coat of arms of St. Petersburg: unknown page of history

Artyom Valdekovich Tikhomirov
PhD (History), Assistant Professor,
Professor of the Department of Military-Political Work in the Military (Forces) of Military Academy of Communications
Russian Federation, 194064, St. Petersburg, aven. Tikhoretsky, 3
E-mail: vas@mil.ru 

Abstract. The study is dedicated to one of the early stages of development of the St. Petersburg coat of arms and its approval in the legal acts in the late 18th – first half of the 19th century. The research is based on materials from the funds of the National Library of Russia, the State Museum of the History of St. Petersburg, the Russian State Historical Archive and the Russian State Archive of Ancient Documents. The article characterizes the heraldic figures of the version of the coat of arms of St. Petersburg placed on the pages of the newspaper “Sankt-Peterburgskiye Vedomosti” in 1758–1826 and also reveals features of the development of the Senate report of May 7, 1780 “On the coat of arms of the cities of St. Petersburg province” that was published in the Complete Collection of Laws of the Russian Empire in 1830. For the first time in historiography, the author points out to the fact that materials published in 1843 in the “Book of Design and Drawings (Drawings of the coat of arms of cities)” have distorted the actual content of the highest approved Senate report of May 7, 1780 “On the coat of arms of the cities of St. Petersburg province”. During the research, the author established that the widely accepted in modern historiography image of the St. Petersburg coat of arms approved May 7, 1780 with sea and river anchors crossing (paws upwards) does not correspond to the historical image of the St. Petersburg coat of arms as then it comprised two identical sea anchors (placed with their paws downwards). Therefore, the author suggests to consider the prototype of the modern historical St. Petersburg coat of arms – the one from the “Charter of Empress Catherine II, for the rights and benefits of the cities”, given to St. Petersburg on January 29, 1786.
Keywords: heraldry, St. Petersburg, Catherine II, Сoat of arms, Sea anchor, River anchor

Fedina I.M. (Krasnodar) Daily life of the population of black sea coastal settlements amid conditions of Crimean war (1853-1856)

Cand.Sci. (History), Assistant Professor of Russian History,
 FGBOU VO Kuban State University, 149 Stavropolskaya St.,
 Krasnodar, 350040; e-mail ir_Lap@mail.ru 

Abstract. The article discusses the daily life of the Black Sea coastal settlements and their economic arrangement in the conditions of the Crimean (Eastern) War. Based on the documentary materials, information is provided both on the economic activities of the inhabitants of the northeastern Black Sea region, and on the damage caused to the inhabitants of coastal settlements during the Anglo-French aggression in 1853-1856.
The study of the historical everyday life of the inhabitants of coastal settlements provides a full-fledged scientific study of the lifestyle of the Black Sea Cossacks, the essence of which was the active protection of state interests in the South of Russia. The relevance of the study is based primarily on the strategically important area of interests of the Black Sea region in the history of this country.
Keywords: Crimean War, settlements, Black Sea coastline, stanitsas, fortifications, Black Sea Cossack army

Rybak O.V. (Maloyaroslavets). The evolution of state-Church interaction in the monasteries of the Kaluga Diocese according to the views of Archimandrite Leonid (Kavelin): the social aspect

Postgraduate student of the Faculty of Humanities, Russian State Social University (RSSU), public relations specialist at the Center for Orthodox Media FKM RSSU,
249096, Russian Federation, Maloyaroslavets, Kaluzhskaya str. 4,
e-mail: rybakov@rgsu.net

Abstract. The article examines the nature of the evolution of state-church interaction in the monasteries of the Kaluga diocese in the social aspect according to the views of Archimandrite Leonid (Kavelin). Methods of cliometry, mathematical statistics, content analysis and comparative analysis were systematically used in the study. As a result, it was possible to identify the conditions and factors of an objective and subjective nature that determined the changes in the social service of monasteries. The analysis of the regulatory framework and Kavelin’s works made it possible to establish that the main directions of the development of state-church interaction in the social sphere were the financial and spiritual attractiveness of monasteries, property and real estate issues, educational activities and special issues of social service. Dependencies were revealed: the activity and effectiveness of the social activities of monasteries, the increase in the number of brethren depended on the personality of the abbot of the monastery; the status of the monastery depended on its financial and economic activity: with an increase in the status, the importance of the monastery in the social environment of the local community increased, the chances of investments by local and state structures, patrons increased. Special issues of social service differed from the place and time of their solution.
Keywords: state-church interaction, social service of monasteries, works of Kavelin, Kaluga Diocese

Kiyashko N.V. (Moscow). Resistance of believers to renovationist schism and the struggle for parishes in Stavropol and Terek (1922-1924)

Post-graduate student Section of Russian History of XX-XXI centuries of Department of History Lomonosov Moscow State University
Russia, Moscow, Lomonosovsky prospect, 27/4
E-mail: kiyashkonv@gmail.com

Abstract. The article deals with the problem of confessional identification of believers in the Stavropol and Terek provinces and resistance to the introduction of the renovationist schism inspired by the security forces at the initial stage of its evolution in the North Caucasus (1922-1924). Particular attention is paid to the decisions of the “Second Local Council” in 1923 and the condemnation of Patriarch Tikhon, which provoked mass protests and the exit of parish communities from subordination to the renovationist government. The article is based on the analysis of the protest documents that are being introduced into scientific circulation for the first time, sent by believers to Moscow in defense of their communities and repressed clergy. Unsuccessful attempts to intercede with local authorities and increasing repressive pressure forced members of parish communities to complain to the very top of the power vertical. The complex of revealed documents reflects the picture of church life during the stay of Bishops Gervasy (Malinin) and Innokenty (Letyaev) in the Stavropol Territory and the organization of the Provisional Spiritual Administration in Essentuki, which united the communities of the Pyatigorsk and Vladikavkaz dioceses loyal to the Patriarch. A characteristic feature of the protests is the appeal of believers to the current legislation on religion and the perception of the renovationists as violators of church canons.
Keywords: religious policy, renovationism, «The Living Church’s», Russian Orthodox Church, Stavropol diocese, Pyatigorsk diocese, GPU, OGPU

Popov A.A., Linkova N.Y. (Syktyvkar). Stages of material and technical modernization of the telecommunications industry in the Komi Republic (1960 – 2020)

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Chief Researcher at the Institute of Language, Literature and History of the Federal Research Center of the Komi Scientific Center of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
 167982, Russian Federation, Syktyvkar, Kommynisticheskaya, 26,
e-mail: doctor_popov@mail.ru

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Director of the State Television and Radio Broadcasting Company “Komi Gor” 2005-2016,
167982, Russian Federation, Syktyvkar, Kommynisticheskaya, 26,
e-mail: tvlink@list.ru

Abstract. In the article, based on the analysis of archival and published sources, scientific literature, the authors consider the stages of material and technical modernization of the telecommunications industry in the Komi Republic (1960–2020). The article explains the term “television” and determines the factors of its development. The authors state in the article that with the development of the material and technical base, television coverage of the inhabitants of the Komi Republic has been constantly increasing. The relevance of the article is determined by the importance of “television” in the structure of the communication industry in the present historical period. In the future, television broadcasts may become one of the most significant historical sources.
Keywords: Komi Republik, teleommunications industry, modernization, 1960 – 2020