Klio #04 (208) 2024

Vorobyev N.S. (Vladivostok). The Attitudes of the Expert Community on the Zoning of the Russian Far East in the 1920s

Postgraduate student, Department of History and Archeology, Far Eastern Federal University
10 Ajax, Russky Island, Vladivostok, Primorsky Krai, 690922 Russia
e-mail: cantimaginemail@gmail.com

Abstract. The article is devoted to the analysis of the opinions of the expert community on the problem of zoning the Russian Far East in the 1920s – at the beginning of its Sovietization and integration into the economic space of the USSR. The study analyses publications of 1923–1925 in the economic journals “Far Eastern Economy” and “Economic Life of Primorye”, a circle of experts involved in zoning problems (researchers and practitioners) was determined, and the main approaches to developing zoning problems were shown, which consist of criticizing the prior one and searching for new approaches. Claims against the old zoning were reduced to describing its negative features (inconsistency with the needs and new tasks of national economic development, administrative division regardless of the economic structure of the region, etc.), without explaining the negative economic consequences of such zoning. Two main approaches to determining zoning paths have been identified. The first one is conventionally called “Gosplan’s”, the essence of which was economic zoning in accordance with the “production specialization” of regions for the most efficient organization of economic activity. The second one is “administrative”, which consisted of merging sparsely populated volosts to reduce the administrative apparatus and related expenses for the sake of ease of administration and budget savings. However, the desired result of the new zoning being prepared was formulated vaguely, without citing specific indicators that should be achieved during its implementation.

Based on the results of the study, it was concluded that during the methodological research of specialists, an evolution of their views occurred, which resulted in a unified approach to zoning, combining both mentioned above, with a clear predominance of the administrative one. Provinces and districts were abolished, and economically homogeneous okrugs and district volosts were created in their place. The essence of zoning during the creation of the Far Eastern Krai in 1926, thus, boiled down to the creation of districts based on the principle of their economic specialization and a slight redistribution of enlarged volosts from one district to another.
Keywords: Far East, Far Eastern Krai; zoning; economic zoning; expert community; economic views

Beliaev A.Yu. (Moscow). The factor of individual at war in the chronicle of Thomas Walsingham

postgraduate, Department of History of the Middle Ages, History Faculty, Lomonosov Moscow State University
119192, Moscow, Lomonosovsky Prospekt, 27, building 4
e-mail: bel1198@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article is devoted to perceptions of the individual’s role at war in late medieval England. Research is based on the chronicle of Thomas Walsingham (c 1340 – 1422), a monk from St. Albans Abbey. The chronicler left detailed depiction of events occurred during the reigns of Richard II and Henry IV. In his views unfold itself the changing ideas about the role of the individual. The chronicler entirely belongs to the monastic society, and it determines the form of his text. Divine intervention often matters much more than the actions of humans. The collective subject often prevails over the individual one, oppressing him physically and morally. However, the author is clearly interested in outstanding figures demonstrating their strong will. The ideas of the Renaissance have not yet fully taken shape, but their foundation has already been completed.
Keywords: medieval history, military history, Hundred Years War, historiography, Thomas Wilsenham

Neretin A.I. (Moscow). Reflections on the ideological origins of Italian fascism

is a graduate student of the Department of Ethnology
at Lomonosov Moscow State University.
27 Lomonosovsky Prospekt, building 4, Moscow, 119192, Russia,
e-mail: a_neretin@inbox.ru

Abstract. The article examines the causes of the emergence and formation of fascist ideology. The article describes the works that influenced the founder of fascism, Benito Mussolini, and the historical events that provoked the birth of this ideology in 1919. The unification of Italy, which took place in 1861, that is, relatively shortly before that date, indicates that this country was a young state in which national unity had not yet developed. After the First World War of 1914-1918, Italy, which was part of the victorious countries, did not receive many of the Balkan territories that it claimed, which served as the basis for its withdrawal from the Triple Alliance in 1915 and joining the military bloc called the Entente. The latter was advocated by Italian soldiers, offended by the conduct and outcome of the war. It was in this mood that Benito Mussolini played, who saw in them the force that contributed to his rise to power. The article examines the essence of fascism, its characteristic features such as irrationalism, racism, cultural syncretism, the cult of heroism and the cult of death, frustration of the middle classes, chiefdom.
Keywords: fascism, ideology, idea, mass, regime, nationalism

Ksenofontov I.A., Nenasheva Z.S. (Moscow). Czechs and Russia: the problem of relations in the crisis of the early 1870s in the Habsburg Monarchy

graduate student of the Department
of History of the South and West Slavs
of Moscow State University
119192, Russian Federation, Moscow, Lomonosovsky avenue, 27/4
e-mail: igor.ksenofontov1@gmail.com

PhD in History, associate professor
of the Department of History of the South and West Slavs
of Moscow State University
119192, Russian Federation, Moscow, Lomonosovsky avenue, 27/4
e-mail: bonner2@yandex.ru 

Abstract. The article examines the relationship between the leadership of the National Party as the main political force of the Czechs in the second half of the 19th century and official Russia on the eve and during their struggle for the Czech-Austrian agreement of 1871. The analysis of archival documents introduced into historical science for the first time reveals the perception of Czech intentions and the position of Vienna by the Russian Embassy in Austria-Hungary (Envoy E.P. Novikov) and St. Petersburg (Alexander II and Chancellor A.M. Gorchakov). In this way, the authors managed to answer in detail the question of why the eastern neighbor did not support Czech figures during negotiations with the government of Cisleithania. Materials from the Archive of the Foreign Policy of the Russian Empire also shed light on the general line of St. Petersburg in relation to the Austrian Slavs, which is interpreted in an uncomplimentary way by modern Czech historians.
Keywords: Bohemia, Habsburg monarchy, federalization, Fundamental articles, Rieger, Palacký, Novikov, Czech-Russian relations

Tretyakov A.D. (Moscow). The theory of hegemonic stability as an element of the foreign policy strategy of the Clinton administration

graduate student of the Faculty of History
Department of Modern and Contemporary History of Europe and America
Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov
119991, Moscow, Leninskie Gory, no. 1
e-mail: wilhelm.meister@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article analyzes the role of the theory of hegemonic stability in the formation of the foreign policy strategy of the Clinton administration. It is noted that the two presidential terms of the 42nd US President (from 1993 to 2001) corresponded to the period of the highest flourishing of American hegemony. After the end of the Cold War, Washington, with its overwhelming military, economic and moral potential, sought to consolidate its status as a world leader, promote economic globalization, and formulate the rules of a new world order. Under these conditions, the foreign policy establishment of the United States demanded the theory of hegemonic stability, which substantiates the constructive role of the dominant state in the system of international relations. The paper examines the role of this theory in the worldview of one of the key architects of the Clinton administration’s foreign policy, E.W. Lake. An analysis is made of statements by members of the Clinton administration, as well as strategic documents of the United States during this period. The changes in approaches to foreign policy that occurred during Clinton’s second presidential term are pointed out, during which the transition to a realistic interpretation of the theory of hegemonic stability, which later characterized the policies of George W. Bush, began. It is concluded that the theory of hegemonic stability is necessary for a deeper understanding of US Grand Strategy, both in the 1990s and today.
Keywords: US foreign policy, theory of hegemonic stability, hegemony, W. Clinton, E. Lake, M. Albright

Belaia E.K. (St. Petersburg). South Korea-U.S. relations through the prism of space cooperation (1958-2022)

Assistant Professor, Department of Korean Studies, Faculty of Asian and African Studies, Saint Petersburg State University
3rd year graduate student, History of the peoples of Asia and Africa, Faculty of Asian and African Studies, Saint Petersburg State University
199034, Saint Petersburg, Universitetskaya embankment 11,
e-mail:  belaia.ekaterina08@mail.ru 

Abstract. South Korea is actively developing its own space program and is making efforts to strengthen cooperation with the USA in the space sector. The article considers the evolution of South Korean-U.S. space relations, identifies the reasons for South Korea’s interest in such cooperation and the factors hindering it. The analysis results show that bilateral relations in the field of space exploration can be divided into two large periods – 1958-2007 and 2008–present time. The year 2008 was a watershed year. Until 2008, the United States was not interested in developing bilateral space cooperation with South Korea and pursued a policy of containing South Korean rocket and space initiatives. Since 2008, due to changes in the geopolitical situation, Washington began to pursue a policy aimed at more active cooperation with Seoul. Today in the field of space South Korea and the US are tied by a number of agreements and platforms for dialogue. Full-fledged space alliance has not yet been formed but the parties intend to comprehensively expand and deepen space cooperation. It seems that in the third decade of the 21st century, South Korea which has acquired its own space technologies can become an equal partner of the United States.
Keywords: South Korea, USA, space, ROK-US alliance, space cooperation

Sokirkin D.N. (St. Petersburg). The beginning of Russian-Turkish diplomatic relations during the reign of Ivan III

Associate Professor of the Department of History and Philosophy of SPbGASU,
Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor
St. Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SPbGASU),
190005, 2nd Krasnoarmeyskaya street., 4, St. Petersburg
e-mail: sokirkin1976@mail.ru

Abstract. This work examines one of the most important stages in the history of international relations and domestic diplomacy. It dates back to the era of the completion of the formation of the Russian centralized state and the final liberation of the lands of North-Eastern and North-Western Rus’ from Mongol-Tatar rule. The young Russian state entered the international arena, while new relations were established and pre-existing relations with the countries of Europe and the East were intensified. In the context of the multi-vector foreign policy of the Moscow state, the southern direction, associated with countries such as the Ottoman Empire and its vassal Crimean Khanate, played an important role. Both the political and economic interests of the Grand Dukes of Moscow were concentrated in this direction. At the same time, the political position of the Grand Duke of Moscow Ivan III was in a certain sense ambiguous. On the one hand, he became related to the Palaiologans, who ruled the Byzantine Empire until its fall under the blows of the Ottoman Turks and acted as a defender of Orthodox Christians on the territory of the Ottoman Empire. On the other hand, the idea of ​​the Russian state joining the anti-Turkish union of European states did not meet with sympathy in Moscow due to the interest in maintaining allied relations with the Crimean Khanate, directed against the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the desire to maintain friendly relations with the Turkish Sultan in order to develop Russian trade in the Black Sea region.
Keywords: Russian state, Ottoman Empire, Crimean Khanate, Russian-Turkish relations, Black Sea

Vyalykh P.V. (St. Petersburg). Dvina gyrfalcon pomytchiki in the context of identifying social identity in the 16th – 17th centuries

St. Petersburg Bar Association “Triumph”, St. Petersburg,
Head of the Pomeranian community in
St. Petersburg “Arkhangelsk province”
191186, St. Petersburg, st. Malaya Morskaya, 11
e-mail: Vyalder@gmail.com

Abstract. The article presents a historical, comparative and methodological analysis of the features and specifics of the professional community of crescent washers in the context of the social history of the 16th – 17th centuries. The author applies a comparative analysis of the relationship of historical events with the processes of formation of professional self-determination (family crafts) of Pereyaslavl and Dvina crescent washers. The assessment of the specifics of the community’s activities was carried out within the framework of identifying the features of evolution and social ranking. The study of the social and cultural status of crechet washers is presented on the example of individual genera (families), the disclosure of their activities and the methodology for identifying social codes (statuses). The results of a comparative historical analysis of the trends in the formation and decay of fishing, the peculiarities of family traditions and artel fishing in the period of the XVI-XVII centuries are presented, the correlation of state needs for grand-ducal and then royal hunting with the peculiarities of fishing in extreme climatic conditions. The relationship between the historical everyday life of crechet washers and social reality was revealed in the descriptions of the class gradation of society of the era and the normative and legal consolidation of their status. The analysis of the formation of the initial stage of the formation of the category of creche washers is presented in the context of methodological approaches to the history of everyday life, using a special conceptual apparatus (social stratification, social structure, professional community).
The materials were collected based on the results of a study of archival documents, some of which are the personal collection of P. Vyalykh, sequentially collected over 8 years and presented in a personal blog, as well as domestic and foreign historiography.
Keywords: crechet washers, history of everyday life, methodology of everyday life, classes, social stratification, social structure, identification, extreme crafts, history of royal hunting, falconry, artels, merchants, Kholmogorsk district, Pomeranian community

Litvinov V.P. (Yelets). Police surveillance behind prostitution in Imperial Russia: The Turkestani variant

Associate Professor of the Department of History and Historical and Cultural Heritage Bunin Yelets State University, doctor of Historical Sciences
Bunin Yelets State University
Senior Researcher Institute of Strategic Analysis and Forecast KRSU named after. B.N. Yeltsin.
399770, st. Kommunarov, 28, Yelets, Lipetsk region
e-mail: vladlenli@yandex.ru 

Abstract. Clause is devoted to police surveillance behind prostitution in Russia in general and, in particular, on surburb – in Central Asia (Turkestan). In opinion of the author, prostitution as the public phenomenon, it was everywhere generated by the economic reasons. The state initially struggled with it police methods, publishing corresponding acts. Especially actual counteraction of prostitution became in XVIII century when Russia has followed a way of the European transformations. Police prosecution of vicious women, their reference in the remote places of the country have been strengthened. It was categorically forbidden to prostitutes to appear in army. In first half XIX century the government continued to pursue prostitution, however in the middle of a century it has understood, that it is useless and it is better to resolve prostitution, but under strict supervision of police and the medical control. Such policy in this respect proceeded before falling tsarism. Considering a problem of prostitution in Turkestan, the author specifies, that it has been widespread in region even before occurrence here Russia. It furnishs to that proofs, referring on authoritative authors and original sources. In its opinion, the establishment of Russian authority in region promoted display of the defects which are for a long time grown ripe in bowels of the Central Asian Moslem. Development of prostitution among “natives” of Central Asia was promoted by the Russian legislation resolved legal existence public at home. They opened only from the sanction of police and were supervised by her. This business did not manage and corruption from its party. Local moslems have quickly joined vicious “business” also. The contingent of prostitutes was made both women of immigrants, and by radical inhabitants of edge. «Native» prostitutes were not a little among the prisoners in prisons. Cases when the police in Turkestani edge was involved in protection of public houses and the order in them took place, however it has caused the extremely negative reaction from the military ministry to which it submitted.
Keywords: Central Asia, Turkestani edge, khanates, the legislation, police surveillance, prostitution, public houses, Muslim women

Karimov R.T. (Kazan). Population of the village of Mryasevo, Gareysky land volost (first half of the 18th – mid-19th centuries)

applicant, head of the Department for Coordination of Interaction in the Humanities of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan
420111, Kazan, st. Bauman, 20
e-mail: ruzalkarimov@gmail.com

Abstract. The article pays much attention to the study of the composition and population of the village of Mryasevo (now a village in the Aktanysh district of the Republic of Tatarstan), known after 1825 under the names Verkhnee Mryasevo and Nizhnee Mryasevo. They were inhabited by tatars of the bashkir (village of Verkhnee Mryasevo) and teptyar (village of Nizhnee Mryasevo) classes. The author emphasizes that until 1811 they could form one village (the 1816 census did not indicate the cohabitation of tatars of both classes). The tatars of the bashkir class of the village of Mryasevo became participants in the campaign of the Russian army in East Prussia (1757) and the Polish campaign of 1771-1773. The leasing of patrimonial lands of the Garey volost to Russian peasants was carried out with the direct participation of the Mryasevites, who showed tatar enterprise and openness. The revision material examines in detail the composition of the tatars of the bashkir and teptyar classes. Based on the revision tale of 1859, it is concluded that previously only patrimonial people were called «bashkirs», but with the transfer to the Bashkir army (1855), the tatars of the teptyar class also became «bashkirs». After the abolition of this army, in many statistical publications (as well as in metric books) until 1917, they continued to be recorded as «bashkirs», therefore, these publications and metric books incorrectly reflect the class of residents of the former land volosts.
Keywords: votchinniki, Garey land volost, single tatar ethnocultural space, Polish campaign (1771-1773), tatars of the bashkir class, tatar land volosts

Chyornaya N.V. (St. Petersburg). Genesis and rituals of Symbolic Grand Lodge of Russia of the Ancient and Primitive Rite of Memphis-Mizraim

Master’s student of the F. M. Dostoevsky
Russian Christian Humanitarian Academy,
Faculty of Religious Studies,
Specialist of the Scientific Archive of the Russian Academy of Arts
199034, Russia, St. Petersburg, 3rd Vasilyevskogo Ostrova line, 2A
e-mail: natatasky@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article is considered with the history of the Charter of Memphis-Mizraim and analyzes the Symbolic Grand Lodge of Russia of the Ancient and Primitive Rite of Memphis-Mizraim in order to identify the compliance of the studied object with the criteria of esotericism, proposed by the Russian scholar S. V. Pakhomov. In addition to this problem, the study pays attention to the difference between the rites of «Memphis» and «Mizraim», describes their genesis, mutual influence and differences. Also it traces the evolution of «Egyptian» rites of Freemasonry from ideas and methods of their founder Count Cagliostro to the present day. To date, the «Egyptian» rites of Freemasonry remain the least studied among other types of Freemasonry. This circumstance determines the scholarly novelty of the proposed research, as well as the description of the Ritual of the Open «White» works and the Ceremony of St. John of the Summer of Memphis-Mizraim given in the study, which is introduced into scholarship for the first time. The use of authentic sources allows an objective presentation of the subject matter of study described. The article uses a descriptive method that allows to determine characteristic features of Memphis-Mizraim Rite. The conclusion characterizes the esoteric orientation of the described Masonic Rite and identifies its key features.
Keywords: Masonry, Masonic Lodge, Memphis Mizraim, Esotericism

Zhengnan Zhao (Moscow). Libraries and the role of reading in the everyday life of women’s communities (on the material of Moscow and Nizhnii Novgorod dioceses of the first half of the XIX century)

Zhengnan Zhao
Postgraduate student of the Department of Church History, Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University.
119234, Moscow, Leninskie Gory, 1.
e-mail: zznnatasha@gmail.com

Abstract. The libraries of the women’s communities were both part of the material possessions and an important source to the spiritual growth of the sisters. The inventory of property, especially its third part “Inventory of the Book Depository and Writings” is an important source of the information about the books of the communities. This article examines the inventories of property of eight women’s communities of Moscow and Nizhnii Novgorod dioceses of the first half of the XIX century. The modes of presentation of books in the inventories are analyzed, as well as the general approach to the description of books. It was noted that the decree of 1853 on the creation of the inventory of monasteries’ property played an important role in standardizing the preparation of such documents. Information on the place and time of publication makes it possible to trace the editions of important books such as the Bible. The proportion of books published in different centuries is uneven. Books published in the XVII even XVII century are usually gospels, Bibles, or books for worship. Their high value indicates the importance the communities placed on such books and the importance of religious and worship activities to them. The writings of the holy fathers have played an important role in the spiritual growth of the sisters. Special preference is given to such representatives of asceticism as Basil of Caesarea, John Chrysostom, John Climacus, etc. In general, the libraries of the Moscow communities surpass those of the Nizhnii Novgorod communities in number and variety. This was partly due to the stronger economic strength of the Moscow communities, and partly because book printing was more prosperous in Moscow than in the provinces. Reading plays an important role in all aspects of the daily life of women’s communities.
Keywords: inventory of property, library of women’s communities, description of books, reading, Moscow diocese, Nizhnii Novgorod diocese

Burnasheva N.I., Kovlekov I.I. (Yakutsk). Artisanal gold mining in Yakutia in the context of socio-economic transformations (second half of the 19th – first third of the 20th centuries)

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor,
Institute for Humanitarian Research and
North Indigenous People Problems of
Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Department of History, Chief Researcher
677020, Russia, Yakutsk, st. Petrovsky, 1.
e-mail: n_burnasheva@mail.ru

Doctor of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor,
North-Eastern Federal University
named after M.K. Ammosov, professor
677013, Russia, Yakutsk, Belinskogo, 58
e-mail: Kovlekov@mail.ru

Abstract. The article examines the process of changing the meaning and role of gold mining during changes in the socio-economic development of Yakutia in the second half of the 19th – first third of the 20th centuries. It is shown that artisanal gold mining, as a special type of self-employment activity, became famous in the Yakut region back in the 1880s. With its spread in gold mining, market relations were introduced into the economy of the region, the practice of work for hire expanded, based on contractual, rental, and contract relations, miners’ artels were created, and stampeder gold panning was encouraged. The Soviet gold mining industry began to be built on the principles of the new economic policy, which radically changed approaches to both small-scale gold mining and entrepreneurship in general. In the 1920s Through the efforts of the government of the Yakut Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, the gold industry was created in the republic on the terms of free lease-contractual relations and the development of artisanal gold mining under the control and management of the state. But in the 1930s the transition of the economy to a planned system and the accelerated reconstruction of the national economy again led to a limitation of entrepreneurial principles in the gold mining industry, which had a devastating impact on the development of artisansl gold mining, leading to a decrease in its role in the economy.
Keywords: artisanal gold mining, Aldan gold mining, entrepreneurship, Yakut Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, 1920 – 1930

Yakovlev A.N. (Vladivostok). Activities of N.L. Gondatti as Authorized Chairman of the Special Meeting on Food Affairs in the Amur Region

postgraduate student 3 years of study
School of Arts and Humanities, Far Eastern Federal University
Russian Federation, Vladivostok, 690922
e-mail: aleksandr_yakolvev_97@mail.ru

Abstract. In 1915, new emergency management bodies were formed – Special meetings. Among them was a special meeting on the food business to provide the army and the population with food. To implement and control the decisions of the meeting, special commissioners of the Chairman of the Special Meeting with broad powers were sent to the province, who actually managed the entire food business on the ground. One of these commissioners was the Amur Governor-General N.L. Gondatti. Based on the archival funds of the Russian State Historical Archive of the Far East, the activities of N.L. Gondatti as the authorized chairman of the Special Meeting on Food Business in the Amur Region during the First World War are highlighted. The study showed that N.L. Gondatti prioritized the fulfillment of military orders for the purchase and requisition of fish for the needs of the army. In parallel, he controlled the supply of food and essential goods to the population. Combining the positions of the Commissioner and the Amur Governor-General, N.L. Gondatti was able to build an effective food management system in the Amur Region, successfully fulfilling military orders, fighting against shortages and artificial price increases, supplying the population with food and essential goods.
Keywords: First World War, Special Meeting on Food Affairs, Amur Region, N.L. Gondatti, food commissioner, food

Alexeev A.N. (St. Petersburg). Anniversary medals of the Nikolaev Engineering Academy and School and the Mikhailovsk Artillery Academy and School

Candidate of Historical Sciences,
Associate Professor of the Department of History and Philosophy
St. Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering,
190005, 2nd Krasnoarmeyskaya st., 4, St. Petersburg

Abstract. Based on documents stored in the collections of the Russian State Historical Archive (RGIA) and the Russian State Military Historical Archive (RGVIA), the author of the article traced the complex process of preparation for the minting of anniversary medals dedicated to two memorable dates. The first medal was dedicated to the fiftieth anniversary of the Nikolaev Engineering Academy and School, which operated in the building of the notorious former imperial residence – the Mikhailovsky Castle, renamed for well-known reasons into the engineering castle. It is emphasized that the design of the medal was personally approved by Emperor Alexander Nikolaevich, making significant corrections. The article submitted for publication describes the process of preparation for the production of a medal dedicated to the fiftieth anniversary of the Mikhailovsky Artillery Academy and School. The process of specifying the circulation of a medal made from gold, silver and bronze is described. The reasons for the change in circulation are substantiated. Archival information significantly expands readers’ understanding of the process of preparing Russian military educational institutions for anniversaries and celebrations and their use in encouraging officers and graduates of educational institutions.
Keywords: Anniversary medals, Nikolaev Engineering Academy, Mikhailovsky Artillery Academy, Engineering School, Artillery School

Kalashnikova E.B., Stanotin A.V. (Samara). The regulatory and legal framework of ideological activity in the units of the Workers’ and Peasants’ Red Army

Candidate of Historical Sciences,
Associate Professor of the Department
of Theory of Law and Philosophy
Samara state University of Economics
443090, Russian Federation, Samara, Sovetskoy Armii Street, 141
e-mail: Kalashnikova-helen @yandex.ru

Candidate of Historical Sciences,
Associate Professor of the Department
of Theory of Law and Philosophy
Samara state University of Economics
443090, Russian Federation, Samara, Sovetskoy Armii Street, 141
e-mail: sav163.rus@gmail.com

Abstract. Normative legal ideology is a system of values, ideas and views, fixed at the legislative level, which explains the structure of the world and society, as well as offers certain goals and methods to achieve the desired social changes. Ideologies can be associated with political parties, social movements, or individuals. They may have different goals, for example, such as protecting the rights of certain groups of the population, achieving economic equality, or establishing a certain form of government. The main attention is paid to the construction and development of the regulatory framework that resulted from the formation of the Red Army and the construction of the army of the Soviet republics in the 1920s. Using the historical and chronological method, the work lists and analyzes a number of normative legal documents adopted by the highest party bodies and legal authorities. Normative legal documents adopted by the highest party and state leadership and military leaders of the Union Republics on the preparation and implementation of military reform in the period 1921-1928.
Keywords: ideology, Workers’ and Peasants’ Red Army, armed forces, army, regulatory framework, reforms

Astanina E.A. (Khabarovsk). The situation of female youth in the Far East based on the materials of the Regional Conference of Khetagurovok (September 15-17, 1938)

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Higher School of Pedagogy and History Pacific State University, Khabarovsk
680035, Russia, Khabarovsk, Pacific Street, 136
e-mail: eaa-m@mail.ru

Abstract. The interest of modern researchers in the problem of relations between government and society in the Soviet period draws attention to the regional aspect of this issue. Work among female youth was one of the important areas of youth policy of Soviet party and Komsomol organizations. The subject of the article’s research is the female youth of the Khetagur conscription of the late 1930s. in the Soviet Far East. Based on archival material, the situation, expectations and difficulties faced by young women who came to the Far Eastern region at the call of V. S. Khetagurova are examined. The main sources of the work were the transcript of the Regional Meeting of Khetagurovok (September 15-17, 1938), as well as the minutes of meetings of the Bureau of the Far Regional Committee of the Komsomol, which clearly illustrate the topic of the study.
Keywords: Far East, female youth, youth policy, Komsomol organization, Khetagur movement, Khetagurovkas

Smirnitsky A.E., Starikova N.V., Shurshikova A.V., Nartymov D.M. (Nizhny Novgorod). The experience of patriotic education of Soviet school youth in the first post-war years (1946-1956)

Associate Professor of the Department of Theory and History of State and Law, Nizhny Novgorod Academy of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, 603144, Nizhny Novgorod, Ankudinovskoe sh., 3, building 2,
e-mail: ya.alex-smir1974@yandex.ru

Head of the Department of Russian History and Auxiliary Historical Disciplines, Minin Nizhny Novgorod State Pedagogical University,
603000, Nizhny Novgorod, Ulyanova, 1,
e-mail: ninast78@yandex.ru

Associate Professor of the of Russian History and Auxiliary Historical Disciplines, Minin Nizhny Novgorod State Pedagogical University,
603000, Nizhny Novgorod, Ulyanova, 1,
e-mail: annashurshikova@yandex.ru

Senior Lecturer of the Department of Theory and History of State and Law, Nizhny Novgorod Academy of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, 603144, Nizhny Novgorod, Ankudinovskoe sh., 3, building 2,
e-mail: NartymouDM@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article is devoted to the identification and analysis of the practices of patriotic education that were used by the Soviet school in the first post-war decade. The authors have identified the features of the development of patriotic education, the factors and social conditions that influenced them, the advantages and disadvantages of educational methods of the studied period. The authors paid special attention to the study of the main directions of patriotic education and their impact on the development of school society in the first post-war decade. The role of the heroics of the Great Patriotic War in the process of education of patriotism is shown. The authors have identified such forms of patriotism as “patriotism of action” and “patriotism of appeal”, identified their features and ways of interaction, as well as their impact on the school community. The methods of education of patriotism, which had the greatest success among schoolchildren, are shown, difficulties and their causes are identified, and the characteristics of the school community of 1946-1956 are given. The authors describe informal school organizations of the specified period, show the reasons for their appearance and their impact on the school community, and also reveal the attitude of the state towards such organizations. The influence of state policy on the success of the application of methods of patriotic education is determined. The study was carried out on the basis of an analysis of unpublished archival sources, fiction, and office documents.
Keywords: Soviet patriotism, school, Soviet state, education, society, methods of patriotic education, state policy in the field of education, social conditions

Tiange Chu (Vladivostok). Soviet oriental studies at the State Far Eastern University

Independent researcher
690922, Primorskij kraj, Vladivostok,
Ostrov Russkij, p. Ayaks, 10.

Abstract. The article is dedicated to reviewing the development of Oriental studies at the State Far Eastern University (SFEU) (hereafter referred to as Far Eastern State University (FESU)) during the period from 1920 to 1941, with subsequent attention to the contribution to the post-war recovery of the university and the development of the discipline up to the 1960s. The aim of the study is to thoroughly examine the influence of Professor A.V. Rudakov, his colleagues, and students on the continuity and innovation in the field of Oriental studies, as well as their significant contribution to the preservation and development of this discipline during the Soviet era. The novelty of the research lies in the analysis involving a wide range of archival information. The conclusion is made about the importance of the methodological approaches developed by A.V. Rudakov and his students, which form the basis of teaching and research at the modern Far Eastern Federal University; the importance of preserving the legacy of the Eastern Institute and strengthening intercultural connections is emphasized.
Keywords: Oriental studies, Chinese studies, Far Eastern State University, Far Eastern Federal University, A.V. Rudakov, Chinese language teaching

Mishchenko A.V. (Togliatti). Peonies of Luoyang and the “soft power of China” in the relations of twin cities of non-contiguous regions of the Russian Federation and PRC – Togliatti and Luoyang

Applicant for the Department of History and Philosophy, Togliatti State University
445020, Russia, Togliatti, st. Belorusskaya, 14
e-mail: AnnaMischenko@tltsu.ru

Abstract. In Russian-Chinese relations between non-contiguous regions, cultural ties are one of the leading areas. A cooperation agreement between Tolyatti and Luoyang was signed on April 25, 2000. Since that time, constant friendly ties have been established between the twin cities, aimed at getting to know the economic and cultural life of the parties. Most of the contacts take place in the field of cultural interaction. Traditionally, the occasions for the exchange of delegations are Tolyatti City Day and the Peony Festival in Luoyang. The article explores the significance of the peony in the system of cultural interaction between the twin cities of Tolyatti and Luoyang in non-contiguous regions of Russia and China, and examines the role of the tree peony in the tradition of Luoyang and as an example of the action of “soft power of China” in international relations.
Keywords: Togliatti, Luoyang, Samara region, Henan, regional relations, Peony in Chinese floral symbolism, Peony Festival in Luoyang, Toglyatti Art Museum, Luoyang House of Artists, “soft power of China”

Mishchenko O.V. (Togliatti). Technological transformation of “pavilions of books and pictures” during a pandemic COVID-19 (on the example of the library of the cultural center “Avtograd” of the city of Togliatti)

Applicant for the Department of History and Philosophy
Togliatti State University
445020, Russia, Togliatti, st. Belorusskaya, 14
e-mail: saitbibl@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article examines the experience of the Library of the Avtograd Cultural Center (Tolyatti) in transforming library processes and modernizing the automated library complex management system, in the context of global changes in reader service that occurred during the period of coronavirus infection (COVID-19). The research and publications of Russian and foreign experts covering such events of recent history as lockdown and the pandemic and their impact on cultural and art institutions are analyzed. Using the example of the technological transformation of the library of the cultural center, the adaptability of modern libraries to unpredictable life situations is studied. The opportunities that opened up during the transition to a remote form of work, ensuring the safety of readers after the introduction of the “quarantine of publications” and expanding the range of competencies of employees undoubtedly required libraries around the world to restructure all processes as quickly as possible, including automated ones.
Keywords: library services, process transformation, quarantine, pandemic, Avtograd library

Sosnitsky D.A. (St. Petersburg). Images of Russian rulers in monumental sculpture of modern St. Petersburg

Ph.D. in History, senior lecturer
Institute of History, Saint Petersburg State University
199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Universitetskaya emb., 7/9.
e-mail: d.sosnitskij@spbu.ru 

Abstract. This article analyzes the features of the representation of images of Russian rulers (representatives of the Rurik and Romanov dynasties) in the monumental sculpture of modern St. Petersburg. Based on an analysis of reference and research literature, as well as a list of cultural heritage sites and identified cultural heritage sites on the territory of St. Petersburg, a list of monuments erected between 1991 and 2024 was determined, in which the images of the rulers of Russia were recreated. 34 monuments were identified, which were subsequently analyzed. The article studies the features of competitive procedures and public reaction to monuments erected in St. Petersburg in the period from 1991 to 2024. It also explores how these monuments reflect and influence collective ideas about Russian history. The influence of state and public orders on the appearance of a particular monument in the urban space of St. Petersburg is demonstrated. Based on the studied material, the article draws conclusions about the relevance of various Russian rulers in the collective historical consciousness and their place among other monuments installed in St. Petersburg over the past 33 years.
Keywords: historical memory, monuments, rulers of Russia, images of the past, monumental sculpture

Mazaev R.S. (St. Petersburg). Non scholae sed vitae discimus: student of the Imperial St. Petersburg University P.A. Stolypin (on the 300th anniversary of St. Petersburg State University)

student, Department of Russian History from Ancient Times
to the XX century, Institute of History
Saint Petersburg State University,
199034, Saint Petersburg, Universitetskaya embankment, 7/9
e-mail: st096586@student.spbu.ru

Abstract. This study examines the student years of P.A. Stolypin, which were superficially studied in Russian and world historiography. The author mainly uses numerous documents from the fund of the Imperial Petrograd University in the Central State Archive of St. Petersburg, as well as materials on Stolypin’s completion of school education from the State Archive of the Orel region and materials related to the early stages of his public career, stored in the Russian State Historical Archive. In addition, the analysis includes memoirs of the reformer’s daughters and classmates, photographs and other relevant materials. Based on these sources, this article reconstructs Stolypin’s academic experience at the Department of Natural Sciences at the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics of the Imperial Saint Petersburg University and analyses his choices at key points in his life, assessing the factors that impacted him. The study also highlights the significance of university years in the subsequent life of P.A. Stolypin, with emphasis on the development of his worldview. Additionally, the article explores how the personal circumstances of the student Stolypin impacted his studies, resulting in the future reformer having to address numerous crucial issues relatively quickly, the solutions to which would determine his future course of action. In general, the paper is divided into distinct sections corresponding to the significant events in P.A. Stolypin’s life during the study period, and it is dedicated to the 300th anniversary of Saint Petersburg University.
Keywords: P.A. Stolypin, student, St. Petersburg University, 300th anniversary, natural sciences department

Kozhevnikov S.V. (Krasnoyarsk). The work of the exiled surgeon and scientist V. F. Voyno-Yasenetsky (Bishop Luka) in the city of Yeniseisk in 1924 under the Soviet rule

Candidate of economic sciences
Siberian Federal University
Institute for the Humanities
Department of History of Russia, world and regional civilizations
Svobodny prosp. 79, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia.
e-mail: semenk2011@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article examines the activities of the outstanding surgeon V. F. Voyno-Yasenetsky in the little-studied period of his first Siberian exile in Yeniseisk in 1924. The case of V. F. Voyno-Yasenetsky shows the attitude of the Soviet government towards exiles and undesirables in the 1920s, imprisonment conditions and the journey to the place of exile, which negatively affected their health and mental state. The article highlights medical, staffing and other problems in the field of healthcare that emerged in the city and in the Yeniseisk district after the October revolution of 1917. V. F. Voyno-Yasenetsky’s unique and relevant contribution to their solution is noted.  In addition, the article describes the professional contact of V. F. Voyno-Yasenetsky, exiled surgeon and A. V. Bashurov, a Yeniseisk doctor as an example of respectful relationships for many years. V. F. Voyno-Yasenetsky’s scientific activity in the field of purulent surgery in the exile is briefly touched upon.
Keywords: V. F. Voyno-Yasenetsky, surgeon, hospital, Yeniseisk, SPD, GPU, exile, A. V. Bashurov

Nikiforenko E.M. (St. Petersburg). On the history of the creation of watercolors by R.R. Frenz “Return of Lenin and Krupskaya from exile”

Ph.D. in History of Arts,
member of the Union of Artists,
Associate Professor, Higher School of Design and Architecture,
Peter the Great St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University
195251, St. Petersburg, st. Politekhnicheskaya, 29
e-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article is devoted to the attribution of the watercolor by the famous Russian artist of the first half of the twentieth century, Rudolf Rudolfovich Frenz, “The Return of Lenin and Krupskaya from Exile.” For many years the work was in a private collection and, finally, in 2015 it was presented for museum purchase, which made it possible to attribute it and introduce it into scientific circulation. The author traces the creative path of the outstanding artist R.R. Frenz, his studies at the Academy of Arts, military service. It is noted that in 1916 he was drafted into the active army as a military artist. He managed to create drawings and watercolors in Sevastopol, on the Black Sea Fleet, on the Western Front, in Belarus at the Commander-in-Chief Headquarters in Baranovichi, in the Osovets fortress, and on the Caucasus Front. All this significantly influenced the formation and development of this extraordinary person. As a result of the research, the author comes to the conclusion that the work has a special collection value.
Keywords: Rudolf Frentz, watercolor, genre scene, war artist, social realism

Lapina I.Yu., Kargapoltsev S.Yu. (St. Petersburg). Civilization challenges and systemic problems of domestic sociogenesis. Part 2

Head of the Department of History and Philosophy of SPbGASU,
Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor St. Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Ingineering (SPbGASU),
190005, 2nd Krasnoarmeyskaya stree t, 4, St. Petersburg
e-mail: clio@spbgasu.ru

Associate Professor of the Department of History and Philosophy of SPbGASU,
Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor St. Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Ingineering (SPbGASU),
190005, 2nd Krasnoarmeyskaya street, 4, St. Petersburg
e-mail: clio@spbgasu.ru

Abstract. This article opens a series of publications by the authors in the Klio journal, dedicated to understanding the process of Russia’s confrontation with civilizational challenges based on an analysis of the historical experience of the development of our state. Conventionally dividing them into external and internal, the authors come to the conclusion that both of them at different stages of the development of Russian statehood threaten its existence. It is necessary to know the lessons of history so as not to repeat past mistakes. Assessing the current state of Russian society, the authors agree with V.V. Putin, who claims that at present our country, having gone through the deception of the collective West, is becoming more self-sufficient, more sovereign, more confident in its own abilities. Agreeing with the opinion of the outstanding scientist A.Ya. Danilevsky, the authors of the article express confidence that Western civilization has always been hostile towards Russia, and also that the ideas of Pan-Slavism are shaking the foundations of the existence of our fatherland. The first part of the article was published in Klio journal. No. 3(207). pp. 226-234.
Keywords: Civilization challenges, Rus, Russia, Marxism, Pan-Slavism

Khomenko D.P. (Moscow). The collapse of the USSR in the context of the split of the “Russian World”

history and social studies teacher
GBOU School «Pokrovsky Quarter»
101000, Lyalin lane, 12, Moscow
e-mail: KhomenkoDenisPetrovich@yandex.ru

Abstract. Due to the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Soviet people found themselves divided by state borders between former union states. More than 140 million Russian compatriots in the countries of the post-Soviet space and more than 30 million speakers of the Russian language, culture and Russian history in Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Belarus and other countries found themselves without the opportunity to quickly obtain citizenship of the Russian Federation and were subject to threats of breaking and oblivion of centuries-old and thousand-year historical ties with civilizational homeland. Representatives of the Russian diaspora were especially strongly affected. The cultural and historical split even affected the sphere of religious relations. 

Therefore, the collapse of the USSR in the context of the split of the “Russian World” had an extremely destructive impact on the historically established unity of the East Slavic peoples and became the cause of post-Soviet crises. Historically established socio-economic and cultural relations were severely destroyed. Tens of millions of compatriots were influenced by other sociocultural values and attitudes.

The author also comes to the conclusion that the “Russian World” is a more than thousand-year-old cultural and historical center of Russian civilization, which, for the purpose of self-preservation in the realities of globalization and solving global problems of humanity, unites East Slavic peoples (Russians, Ukrainians, Belarusians), Orthodox Christians , the peoples of the Russian Federation (historically living on the territory of Russia), the Russian diaspora, Russian compatriots (native speakers of the Russian language, culture and history of Russia) and supporters of Russia in the countries of the post-Soviet space and around the world. Currently, the process of further integration of representatives of the “Russian World” continues. However, this is hampered by several decades of disunity resulting from the collapse of the USSR.
Keywords: USSR, Russian World, compatriots, civilization, Ukrainian crisis

Hippolitov G.M., Filatov T.V. (Samara). An extraordinary historiographical source on the history of the First World War. Marginalia in the margins of the manuscript of Pavel Valentinovich Vinogradov’s doctoral dissertation

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor,
Professor of the department of philosophy of the Povolzhskiy State University of Telecommunications and Informatics
443010, Samara, st. L. Tolstoy, 23.
e-mail: gippolitov@rambler.ru 

Doctor of Philosophical Science, Professor,
Head of the Department of philosophy of the Povolzhskiy State University of Telecommunications and Informatics
443010, Samara, st. L. Tolstoy, 23.
e-mail: tfilatoff1960@mail.ru

Abstract. In a diverse body of historiographical sources, dissertation research, which is scientific and qualification work submitted for public defense for the degrees of doctor or candidate of historical Sciences, occupy a peculiar place. The fact is that they are in the form of works that have been assigned the stamp “on the rights of the manuscript”. Practice shows that many researchers prefer, meanwhile, to use the abstracts of dissertations in the historiographical analysis of their problem instead of analyzing their manuscripts. This is especially typical for historical research proper (in works performed in the format of problem-themed historiography, this phenomenon is less common). According to the authors of this article, the practice stated above somewhat narrows the research possibilities. Therefore, we decided to analyze the text of the manuscript of an original doctoral dissertation by Pavel Valentinovich Vinogradov “Military-technical cooperation of Russia with the Allies during the First World War: The Far Eastern direction”. (Specialty – 5.6.1. “National history”). At the same time, it should be emphasized that, firstly, our article is not a scientific review; secondly, it is, moreover, not made in the style of an official opponent’s review. This work is a scientific reflection related primarily to the essential and substantive aspects, and not to the qualification criteria of the text of the manuscript of the dissertation. Although the latter will still have to pay some attention.
Keywords: manuscript; doctoral dissertation; World War I; military-technical cooperation; Far East; Entente; historical source; P. V. Vinogradov; “the arms crisis in the Russian Army”