Klio #05 (197) 2023

Poltorak S.N., Zotova A.V. (St. Petersburg). The influence of the First World War on the formation of the Leninist concept of the World socialist revolution

Sergey Nikolayevich Poltorak
Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor,
Leningrad State University named after A.S. Pushkin.
196605, St. Petersburg, Pushkin, Petersburg highway, 10.
e-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru

Anastasiya Valeryevna Zotova
Doctor of Historical Sciences, Docent,
Saint-Petersburg State University.
199034, Russia, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya nab., 7-9.
e-mail: anastasiyazotova@mail.ru

Abstract. The authors trace the dynamics of Lenin’s thought associated with the development of his concept of the World socialist revolution. The prerequisites for the formation of this concept are briefly analyzed, as well as the influence of the events of the First World War on the formation of the main provisions of Lenin’s theory, which assumed that military operations on a planetary scale would provoke the process of accelerating the international unity of the broad proletarian masses of the whole world, especially in Western Europe. The authors draw attention to the fact that V.I. Lenin, unlike his comrades in the revolutionary struggle, was the first to notice miscalculations in his own theory and tried to make adjustments to it at the beginning of 1918. These adjustments were not supported by the comrades-in-arms, since Lenin’s concept of the world socialist revolution by that moment had already ceased to be only an intellectual product of Lenin’s constantly developing revolutionary judgments. In a frozen form, formed by the spring of 1918, it became the ideological basis for further practical actions of the young Soviet state.
Keywords: World socialist revolution, concept, Marxism, Leninism, First world war

Lysenko D.N., Barakhovich P.N., Kudryashova K.S., Galukhin L.L. (Krasnoyarsk), Kolesnik A.V. (Donetsk). Voivodship court of the Yenisei prison of the XVII-XVIII centuries according to written sources and archeological data (preliminary publication)

“Krasnoyarsk Geoarchaeology” LLC
660049, Mira Ave, 25, Krasnoyarsk,
e-mail: lysed@yandex.ru

Ph.D., “Archaeological Design and Research” LLC,
660049, Mira Ave, 25, Krasnoyarsk,
e-mail: spqr509@yandex.ru

Doctor of History, professor,
Donetsk State University,
283001, Donetsk, st. University, 24
e-mail: akolesnik2007@mail.ru

postgraduate, Department of Archeology and Historical Local Studies, Faculty of Historical and Political Studies, Tomsk State University,
“Archaeological research of Siberia”,
660099, st. Gorky, 34, Krasnoyarsk
e-mail: kudryashka_suy15@mail.ru

“Krasnoyarsk Geoarchaeology” LLC
660049, Mira Ave, 25, Krasnoyarsk,
e-mail: leon_blues@mail.ru

Abstract. The article introduces for the first time into scientific circulation the results of archaeological work on the territory of the “Voivodeship Yard” in the Yenisei fort (modern Yeniseisk, Krasnoyarsk Krai). The work was carried out on two sites, within which residential and outbuildings and part of the defensive structures were studied. Based on the work, two tiers of buildings were identified reflecting the change in the composition and layout of the buildings of the “Voivodeship Yard” during the second half of the XVII – the first quarter of the XVIII century. These changes reflected a change in the administrative status of the Yenisei fort and an increase in its role in the commercial development of Siberia and the Far East. The buildings of the lower tier, which are combinations of log cabins and an entrance hall attached to them, are attributed to the third quarter of the XVII century. The buildings of the upper tier are attributed to the second period – the last quarter of the XVII – the first quarter of the XVIII century. The accompanying material found in and around the buildings (hand-minted pennies, fragments of tiles, gun flints, etc.) substantiates the proposed dating.
Keywords: Yenisei fort, «Voivodeship yard», archaeology of Modern times, development of Siberia, stove tiles, gun flints

Giniatullina L.M. (Ufa). Memories of veterans – valuable sources about the Great Patriotic War

head of the Scientific archive Ufa Federal research center of the
Russian Academy of Sciences
450054, Republic of Bashkortostan,
Ufa, Oktyabrya Ave., 71
e-mail: giniatullina71@bk.ru

Abstract. This article examines the memories of veterans as sources for the study of the history of the Great Patriotic War. After the war, collective scientific works about the war and the exploits of Soviet citizens appeared, later separate memoirs of commanders, ordinary participants in battles, collections of memoirs of Heroes of the Soviet Union began to appear. The author studied collections, memoirs of veterans, scientific works of historians, as well as manuscripts and typescripts of memoirs stored in the archives of the Republic of Bashkortostan.

Among the scientific works of scientists, works of writers, artistic and journalistic essays, memoirs and memoirs of the witnesses of the war years themselves occupies a special place. Based on the materials studied, an analysis was made. The bulk of the published memoirs were written many years after the war. According to the memoirs of the front-line soldiers, it is clear that this is a whole chronicle of the peoples of Russia, testifying to the tragic and heroic past of our people. In all the memories of the front-line soldiers, the pain of the war is felt. The war taught them to live, to survive in the most difficult and cruel conditions. Published memoirs, archival sources show the combat and post-war life of the front-line generation. They reflect the spiritual world of front-line soldiers, portraits of servicemen who defended the independence of the country are recreated. In many works, memoirs of writers and journalists of Bashkortostan, the heroic path of the 112th Bashkir Cavalry Division and its soldiers was highlighted.
Keywords: The Great Patriotic War, Bashkiria, memories, front-line scientists, a foundation of personal origin

Somov V.A. (Nizhny Novgorod). Test for “Sovietness”. On some aspects of the development of domestic pedology in the 1920s-1930s

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the Department of Theory and History of Law, State and Judicial Power of the Volga Branch of the Russian State University of Justice.
Gagarin Avenue, 17а, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia 603022
e-mail: somoff33@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article deals with the problem of using test methods in the process of implementing pedological ideas in the early USSR. It is noted that testing as a key method of pedology, in addition to fixing the level of intellectual development of the population of the USSR, also contributed to its formation. Value judgments and psychological attitudes hidden in the test could significantly correct the personality structure of the test subjects, especially children. In the future, the spread of test methods without a critical attitude towards them could be considered by the authorities as a threat to the existence of the Soviet social order. The author sees the relationship of pedology, eugenics, testing with some theoretical and practical aspects of the formation of Soviet power in the 1920-1930s. The struggle for leadership after the death of V.I. Lenin reflected not only the personal, but also the worldview attitudes of its participants, which was expressed, in particular, in relation to pedology and eugenics. The prohibition of pedology was associated not only with the prevalence of totalitarian approaches to the education of young people, but above all with its hidden effect of long-term impact. The author comes to the conclusion that pedology and testing are inconsistent with the fundamental political and legal principles of the Soviet state.
Keywords: USSR, Soviet society, education system, eugenics, pedology, test, historical pedagogy

Kononenko A.M. (St. Petersburg). Popularization of the twentieth-century Irish Republican movement in Soviet entertainment culture of the 1920s and 1930s

postgraduate student at the Faculty of International Relations, SPbSU,
191124, St. Petersburg, Smolny St. 1/3 (Smolny Campus, SPbSU)
 e-mail: st098974@student.spbu.ru

Abstract. The publication describes some historical aspects describing international cooperation between the USSR and Ireland at the time when there was no diplomatic relations between the countries. The Soviet experience of veiled propaganda of the policy of exporting the revolution as an attempt to create a future socialist system of international relations is studied on the basis of the available evidence concerning Ireland’s struggle for independence. Little-known domestic sources from the 1920s and 1930s are analyzed, some of them being introduced into scientific circulation for the first time.

The author argues that during this period the hopes of an Irish socialist awakening were still occupying the minds of Soviet leaders. Britain was still the main imperialist predator, and the struggle against world imperialism was always on the agenda in the USSR. It is noted that the Soviet point of view on the Irish question in international affairs existed in those years, according to which the Irish movement against British imperialism was a progressive social process and therefore it should be supported in every possible way, both by public and tacit means.

The material presented is supported by a set of quotations and statistical data with references to primary sources, normative and legislative frameworks and representative literature.
Keywords: Ireland, Soviet Union, Irish Free State, Soviet-Irish relations, popularisation, socialism, independence, illegal operations, rebels

Ziyaev A.A. (Moscow). Education and training of citizens in the Universal Military Training system on the territory of the Uzbek SSR during the Great Patriotic War

of Research Institute (military history)
of the Military Academy of the General Staff.
119330, Moscow, Universitetsky Prospect, 14.
Е-mail: ziyaevabdulaziz@gmail.com 

Abstract. The first months of fierce battles on the Soviet-German front showed that the war would be protracted, severe and would require a huge number of skilled soldiers with high moral and combat qualities.

During the years of the most difficult trials of the Great Patriotic War, when the question of the life and death of the Soviet state was being decided, the party and governments again turned to their rich, proven experience path and method of preparing massive human combat reserves for the army. One of the ways and means of strengthening the combat capability of the army was the introduction in the country of compulsory Universal Military Training (hereinafter referred to as UМТ) for workers and all working people. Universal Military Training played a huge role in strengthening the armed forces of the young Soviet Republic and in the victorious outcome of the armed struggle during the war years.

The article presents a number of organizational activities carried out by the leadership of the Uzbek SSR during the Great Patriotic War, which touched upon the issues of military training of conscripts in the republic and those liable for military service of the entire population in the Universal Military Training system. Their quality of conducting and training reserves in the ranks of the Red Army of the Soviet Union.
Keywords: Universal Military Training, military affairs, military training, party organizations, military commissariats, military training centers

Ivanova N.A. (Moscow). U.S-Israeli relations in the context of the crisis management in the Middle East in 1958

Post-Graduate Student, Modern and Contemporary History Department, Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University
119192, Russia, Moscow, Lomonosovsky Ave., 27 k 4
e-mail: nadinivanova97@mail.ru

Abstract. The article considers examples of interaction between the United States and Israel in 1958 on the settlement of the revolution in Iraq, the Lebanon crisis, anti-government sentiments in Jordan, as well as the creation of new states – the United Arab Republic and the Arab Federation. It is concluded that after the Suez crisis of 1956 the relations between the countries have not changed their vector, and only formally entered a cooling phase. Interaction on security issues was in the interests of both sides. The U.S. did not want to lose Israel as a partner in the Middle East or allow the USSR to strengthen its cooperation with the Middle Eastern states. Moreover, the preservation of the balance in the region depended directly on the actions and decisions of the Israeli administration. For its part, the Jewish state sought security guarantees from the United States that would enable it to defend itself against its Arab neighbors in case of a military conflict, as well as to secure in a legal framework the existence of Israel within the borders in which it existed at that period. Cooperative action in managing the crisis of power in the Middle East helped to formalize the improvement of relations and strengthen interaction between Israel and the United States.
Keywords: U.S.-Israeli relations, Middle East, Iraq Revolution in 1958, Lebanon Crisis in 1958, British intervention in Jordan in 1958, Eisenhower Doctrine, formation of the UAR

Trapeznikov D.A. (Moscow). The military biography of Prince Ivan Vasilyevich Golitsyn in the mirror of military ranks and chronicles

2nd year Master’s student
Moscow State University,
Department of Source Studies
119991, Moscow, Leninskiye Gory, 1
e-mail: trapeznikoff.dima2018@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article analyzes the military and administrative activities of Prince Ivan Vasilevich Golitsyn. In addition to the activities of I. V. Golitsyn himself, the situation of the Golitsyn group in the period from the reign of Fyodor Ivanovich to the reign of Mikhail Romanov is considered. The scientific novelty of the work consists in a comprehensive study of a specific representative of the Golitsyn family at the end of the XVI – beginning of the XVII century on the basis of sources that are priority for the reconstruction of military biographies of representatives of the military elite of the Moscow state, i.e. books of various categories and, to a somewhat lesser extent, chronicle testimonies.

Foreign sources suffer from subjectivity, and ego sources and assembly materials have been preserved in small quantities. The military biography of I. V. Golitsyn is a special case in which the categories give the most abundant information. Discharge sources provide the necessary evidence to trace the movement along the career ladder, and chronicle evidence, although it needs to be verified with documentary materials, allows you to reconstruct the biography of a particular representative of the service elite in more detail and in detail.

The events of the Time of Troubles set the vector of development of the Russian state for decades to come. I. V. Golitsyn, the middle of their brothers Golitsyn, was not only at the forefront of the processes of his time, but was also one of the main actors of the period. His role was especially pronounced in the coming to power of False Dmitry I, the accession of V. I. Shuisky and his subsequent overthrow, as well as the war with Bolotnikov.
Keywords: voivode, military affairs, history of wars, Russian aristocracy, Prince I. V. Golitsyn, chronicles, discharge books

Lapina I.Yu. (St. Petersburg). “So that they try to instill the rules of honesty and virtue in their pupils and students …”

Head of the Department of History and Philosophy of SPbGASU, Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor
St. Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SPbGASU),
190005, 2nd Krasnoarmeyskaya street., 4, St. Petersburg
e-mail: clio@spbgasu.ru

Abstract. In the article, the author makes an excursion into the history of the development of domestic education. At the same time, the author focuses on the dynamics of teaching history. It is noted that the main task of teaching history is educational. The teaching of history is aimed at educating Russian citizens as patriots of their country. The author analyzes examples of the creation of various history textbooks that corresponded or did not correspond to the spirit of their time. The article analyzes the content of textbooks written in the 18th-20th centuries. Specific examples are used to study the reasons for the success of a number of popular textbooks of different years. At the end of the article, the author concludes that the main methodological work on the creation of perfect history textbooks is ahead. One of its main qualities should be interdisciplinarity, which allows us to look at our past as fully as possible.
Keywords: Russia, history, teaching history, patriotism, methods of teaching history

Druzhevsky A.O. (St. Petersburg). European matrimonial plans of the Russian court during the reign of Ivan the Terrible

postgraduate student of the Department of History of Russia from ancient times to the beginning of the 19th century, Russian State Pedagogical University named after A.I. Herzen
191186, St. Petersburg, emb. R. Moiki, 48;
executor of the project of the department of support of scientific projects of the Russian Christian Academy for the Humanities named after F.M. Dostoevsky
191011, embankment of the Fontanka River, 15, St. Petersburg
e-mail: adruzhevskij@mail.ru

Abstract. In the article, the author analyzes matrimonial plans with foreign chosen ones of the first Russian Tsar Ivan the Terrible. The ruler understood that such marriages could change the political situation of Muscovy. Marriage unions with foreigners were still the grandfather and father of the sovereign, foreigners often came to Russia. They took part in the royal feasts, had a number of private conversations with the ruler. Ivan the Terrible considered for himself a choice of two promising options: Polish or English marriage. Anna and Catherine Jagiellonki, as well as Queen Elizabeth of England and her relative Mary Hastings, were considered as contenders for the hand and heart of the ruler. The conclusion concludes that the matrimonial alliances of the sovereign were quite real. However, they were ruined by a number of circumstances: the Polish could not be realized due to frightening rumors about Ivan the Terrible, which spread in Poland and Lithuania, as well as due to religious differences between the ruler and his chosen ones. he English version was not implemented due to the death of Ivan the Terrible in March 1584.
Keywords: matrimonial plans, Ivan ІV Grozny, Yan Kokhanovsky, Katerina and Anna Jagiellonki, Elizabeth І English, Mary Hastings, Jerome Gorsey

Lobacheva G.V., Kostiaev E.V. (Saratov). Russian Culinary Traditions in folklore

doctor of historical sciences, professor,
Head of the Department “History and Political Science”
Saratov State Technical University
named after Yu.A. Gagarin,
410054, Saratov, Politekhnicheskaya street, 77
e-mail: lgv@sstu.ru

doctor of historical sciences, associate professor,
Professor of the Department of History and Political Science
Saratov State Technical University
named after Yu.A. Gagarin,
410054, Saratov, Politekhnicheskaya street, 77
e-mail: edikost@bk.ru

Abstract. One of the reliable sources for the study of such complex phenomena as mass consciousness and everyday traditions in their historical retrospective is folklore, including specific texts, for example, proverbial sayings. The illiterate population of Russia for the most part in folklore works embodied its worldview, views, judgments, habits. Proverbs, fairy tale reflect the essential aspects of people’s life, folk philosophy and moral norms, cultural values and specific experience. Imagery and evaluative component, conciseness and semantic capacity, social and cultural background, symbolic images make proverbs and sayings a unique material for the study of national culture in all its diversity. Culinary preferences and peculiarities of Russian cuisine are fully traced in the oral folklore. A set of products and menus, cooking technologies and methods of serving, typical situations of culinary culture are to some extent recorded in proverbs and fairy tales. The presented texts evoke strong associations, and are successfully used by native speakers of the Russian language today. Various collections of proverbs and fairy tales were involved in the study, primarily the collection of Vladimir Dahl. Thematic blocks of proverbial texts were studied.
Keywords: proverb, fairy tale, culinary practices, Russian cuisine, gastronomic traditions

Verbovoy A.O. (St. Petersburg). The process of beginning Russian Naval Fleet and creating river military flotillas

candidate of historical sciences,
lector of the cathedra Military-political work in troops (forces)
Naval institute, Russia, 199162, Saint-Petersburg,
Lieutenant Schmidt embankment, 17
e-mail: a.verbovoy@mail.ru

Abstract. The article is dedicated to the history of creating Russian Naval fleet. It was processing during some centuries of any tries and in finish was ended with creating Russian Naval fleet in ruling of Peter I. The experience of creating and military using Russian river military flotillas is counting equally years. Russian river military flotillas used an army of Ivan the Terrible, donnish and zaporozhe kazaks in wars of XVI-XVII centuries. It helped acquired Kazan, Astrakhan, Azov and an exit to Caspian Sea in pre-Petrine period. But the real epoch of Russian river military flotillas was beginning only from Azov campaign of 1696 year when Peter I made the base of creating Russian Naval fleet whose operative forces began Russian river military flotillas. In the article refracted the main events of Russian history connected with processes of creating Russian Naval fleet and military using Russian river military flotillas from the period of Ivan the Terrible ruling till Azov campaign of 1696 year. So in the article was asked why Russian Naval fleet was not creating by Ivan the Terrible and first Romanovs. And in the article was said how was the Crimean hunnish making and why it was the enemy of Russia the cut of it from Black Sea. In conclusions of the work asked why Peter I after successesfull Azov campaign of 1696 year and creating Russian Naval fleet decided not to refund the exit to Black Sea but decided to refund the exit to Baltic Sea and why the trying to refund the exit to Black Sea in the ruling of Anna Ioannovna failed but this mission was successesfully completed in the ruling of Catherine II.
Keywords: Naval Fleet, flotilla, ship, boat, galley, plough, shipyard, tsar, Azov, Astrakhan, Kazan, Caspian Sea, Don, Dnepr, Kazaks

Klimachkov V.M. (Khabarovsk). Secret Law Societies and opposition to the authorities in the circles of Russian Jurists (1860s – early 1900s)

Deputy head (on work with personnel)
of the far Eastern law Institute of the Ministry of internal Affairs of Russia.
680020, Russia, Khabarovsk, 15 Kazarmenny Lane.
E–mail: klimachkov64@mail.ru

Abstract. On the basis of historiographical material and archival materials that were not introduced into scientific circulation earlier, the article examines the process of evolution in the Russian Empire of liberal legal ideas in the professional legal environment in the second half of the XIX – early XX centuries. The liberal reforms of Alexander II, the removal of a number of censorship restrictions and freedom of thought in the field of law led to a new view of the Russian society on the legal reality in the country. The introduction and spread of radical social views from Europe to Russia also contributed to the fact that in the professional environment of lawyers and law students, peculiar circles began to arise to discuss legal problems, both theoretical and practical levels. Thus, legal societies were organized, including secret ones, where revolutionary-democratic ideas about the further development of social and legal relations in Russia were circulated. Based on the data obtained, it is concluded that quite well-known domestic jurists of that time joined the secret legal societies. The activities of these societies had a significant impact on the minds of a large number of professional lawyers, the formation of their thoughts on the development of the democratization of the state system and law.
Keywords: law societies, legal worldview, liberal democratic legal ideas, gendarmerie

Tiange Chu (Vladivostok). The opinion of Chinese researchers about Professor A.V. Rudakov

Postgraduate student of the Department of History and Archaeology, School of Arts and Humanities, Far Eastern Federal University
690922, Primorskij kraj, Vladivostok,
ostrov Russkij, p. Ayaks, 10.
e-mail: tiange64@qq.com 

Abstract. The article is devoted to publications in Chinese about Apollinaryi Vasilyevich Rudakov (1871–1949, Vladivostok), professor of Chinese studies and director of the Oriental Institute in Vladivostok, the author of a large number of works on Oriental studies and methods of teaching Chinese. For more than forty years he has been a teacher and mentor to students from the Far East who have devoted themselves to the study of China. Despite a serious illness, he worked hard until the last years of his life, closely followed the events in China. Rudakov traveled to China several times, including four trips to northeast China. He published many studies on the political organization of China, commercial and industrial activities in China, and works on teaching methods. His archival heritage includes many materials and manuscripts, especially on the issues of new and classical Chinese literature and Chinese art. Chinese professor Qian Yali (Xi’an) published an article about the contribution of A.V. Rudakov in the development of Sinology (2020). Researcher Peng Chuanyong published “Study of Northeast China by Sinologist A.V. Rudakov and his place in the history of Russian Sinology” (2013). Also, the well-known professor of Nankai University, Yang Guodong, published a translation of the work of A.V. Rudakov, Bogdykhan Palaces and Book Depositories in Mukden. The results of a business trip in the summer of 1901 to Mukden (2008), which helps Chinese scholars to better understand the situation in 1901 and so on.

The author conducted field research in Shenyang, in which A.V. Rudakov identified rare Chinese publications, studied at the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts of the Russian Academy of Sciences (St. Petersburg), and also analyzed the personal collection of Rudakov’s daughter Tatyana Apollinaryevna Karakash (Vladivostok).
Keywords: A.V. Rudakov, sinology, oriental studiest, Oriental Institute, Shenyang Palace Museum

Trukhin M.A. (Barnaul). Counteraction to shadow economic relations, by law enforcement officers, in places of deprivation of liberty (on the example of Western Siberia in the 30-50s of the XX century)

Candidate of Law, Associate Professor
Director of the Altai Institute of Economics of St. Petersburg
University of Management Technologies and Economics
656011, Barnaul, Lenin Ave, 106
e-mail: trukhin1975@bk.ru 

Abstract. Shadow economic relations during the period under review were expressed in a variety of illegal activities (bringing profit), including in places of detention. These were various “postings” in the financial sphere, cash payments on fictitious documents, secret theft of food. Building materials, basic necessities, clothes and shoes, medicines, medical alcohol intended, including for the maintenance of a special agent, were plundered. The labor of prisoners, a number of law enforcement officers, was used for their own selfish purposes, directing them to construction, repair of residential premises and vehicles, agricultural work, fuel procurement, etc. Cases of sale of prohibited items by prison staff, carrying alcoholic beverages into the “zone”, illegal sale of tobacco and food were recorded. As a rule, they also sold stolen government clothes, shoes, tools, personal belongings of prisoners at market prices. Representatives of the bandit-thieves community received part of the illegal income as a result of gambling, when the sharpers were beaten at cards by the former hapless inhabitants who got behind bars. Some of the heads of penitentiary institutions were unwittingly drawn into the sphere of illegal economic relations, due to the need to solve numerous economic issues with an acute shortage of materials and insufficient funding. Law enforcement officers took vigorous measures to eradicate the prerequisites and consequences of the shadow economy in places of detention in Western Siberia at the prescribed time.
Keywords: Shadow economy, law enforcement agencies, places of imprisonment, prisoners, Western Siberia

Dusin A.V. (St. Petersburg). On the negative impact of the consequences of mass political repressions on the main components of the combat capability of the troops of the North Caucasian Military District in 1937-1938


Lecturer of the Department of Military-Political Work in the Troops (Forces), Mikhailovskaya Military Artillery Academy, 

191187, St. Petersburg, Liteiny prospect, 3

e-mail: cadet73-75@mail.ru


Abstract. This article presents the results of a study of the impact of losses among the commanding staff of the North Caucasian Military District (SKVO) during the mass political repressions of 1937-1938. on the combat readiness of the troops of the district. Issues of repressions in the Red Army in the period 1937-1938. in Soviet historical science they tried to bypass.

In official propaganda, the thesis was firmly established that the elimination of the “conspirators” only strengthened the Armed Forces, allowed them to strengthen themselves before the Great Patriotic War. This position was expressed in the order of the People’s Commissar of Defense of the USSR dated June 7, 1937 No. 72, in which K.E. Voroshilov assured that the army after the arrest of the “Tukhachevsky group” was cleared of “putrid rubbish” and became “even stronger and more invulnerable” [1, l.187]. However, the ensuing local clashes, and even more so the Soviet-Finnish war (1939-1940), refuted the arguments of the marshal. In the historiography of this topic, one can note a number of approaches to highlighting the impact of mass political repressions in the army on the combat effectiveness of troops on the eve of the Great Patriotic War. Most of the authors of scientific publications limited themselves to stating the severity of the consequences of the “repressive policy” and did not bother themselves with a comparative analysis of all the available factors in their totality.

With renewed vigor, the discussion flared up from the beginning of the 2000s, when it became possible for researchers to study in detail the once classified documents stored in state and departmental archives. A new layer of the historiographic basis of the study was made up of the works of authors who devoted their works to studying the phenomenon of political repressions in the Red Army: O.F. Suvenirova [2], N.S. Cherushev [3], M.I. Meltyukhov [4], A.A. Pechenkin [5], I.M. Veselnitsky [6], S.E. Lazarev [7], V.S. Milbach [8].

The results of the work presented in this article are based on a study of archival documents from the funds of the Russian State Military Archive dedicated to the state of combat and political training of the troops of the North Caucasus Military District during the period of mass political repressions of 1937-1938. 

Keywords: North Caucasian Military District, commanding staff, repressions, combat readiness of troops, staffing, state of combat training, level of management organization, state of equipment and weapons, organization and military discipline, morale and combat qualities of personnel

Tupikin P.A. (Moscow). From confrontation to alliance: the formation of allied relations between Moscow and Washington in June–December 1941

applicant of Department of Russian History XX-XXI centuries
Lomonosov Moscow State University,
119192, Moscow, Leninskie Gory,
Lomonosovsky Prospekt, 27k4
E-mail: tupikin.p@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article analyzes the problem of the formation of the Soviet-American union after the flogging of the German military machine to the East in June 1941. The question of the transformation of relations between the two powers from confrontation to alliance is being studied, when the USSR begins to be perceived by the head of the White House and his entourage as part of the “family circle”, a long-term strategic partner with whom one can and should deal. Similar changes in views took place among the Soviet leadership. According to archival documents, we can see how distrust gives way to willingness to cooperate, which is most clearly manifested during the Moscow Battle, when the USSR needed the maximum concentration of all available forces and means to defeat a common enemy. However, even under these conditions, the distrust of Stalin and his inner circle did not fade away, and any attempts to deviate from the principles of interaction outlined by Moscow were suppressed or led to crises in the relations between the two powers.
Keywords: The Big Three, Lend-Lease, the First Protocol, Soviet-American cooperation, the First Moscow Conference, the Great Patriotic War

Fedulov S.V. (St. Petersburg). The motor ship “Kremlin” combat activity in 1941

Dr. Sci. (Historical), Professor
of the Department of Military-Political Affairs in the Troops (Forces)
Mozhaisky Military Space Academy,
corresponding member of AVN,
197198, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Zhdanovskaya street, 13,
E-mail: serg.val.fed.661000@yandex.ru

Abstract. After the attack of Nazi Germany on the USSR, all sea, river and lake vessels were mobilized for defense. The mobilized civilian ships of the North-Western Shipping Company were subordinated to the Red Banner Baltic Fleet, as well as the Ladoga military flotilla subordinate to it, and went through severe trials caused by an unprecedented blockade.

The article reveals the combat activity of the motor ship “Kremlin” (built at the Leningrad Petrozavodsk shipyard) in the initial period of the Great Patriotic War (1941). The crew of the ship was almost entirely civilian, however, it was actively involved in the combat operations carried out first in Ladoga Lake, and then in the Gulf of Finland. The crew of the ship had to go through the most severe tests during the evacuation of the wounded people and then evacuation of the 168th Rifle Division soldiers from the Rautalahti Peninsula to the Valaam Island on August 18, 19, 20, 1941.Under the furious artillery and mortar fire of the Finnish invaders, the crewmembers tried to place the wounded people so that they would not be wounded again, without thinking about themselves. Despite the serious damage received from artillery fire, the ship continued to perform its tasks. On August 21, 1941, by the order of the command, the ship departed for Leningrad for repairs. After the repair being carried out, the ship “Kreml” had been performing combat missions in the Gulf of Finland, including the transportation in 1943 of the military units of the 2nd Shock Army participating in the operation “January Thunder”, which made it possible to completely lift the blockade of Leningrad.
Keywords: Great Patriotic War, defense of Leningrad, motor ship “Kremlin”, Ladoga Lake, Gulf of Finland, evacuation of wounded people, military operations, transportation

Prokhorova E.S. (Moscow). The history of the creation of the State Defense Council – the highest military administration body of the Russian Empire

Senior Lecturer at the Department of International Management of the Institute of Social Sciences,
Russian Academy of National Economy under the President of the Russian Federation.
119571, Moscow, Vernadsky Avenue, 82
e-mail: Prokhorova-es@ranepa.ru

Abstract. The article, based on little–known documents and materials introduced into scientific circulation, examines the creation and beginning of the activity of the first supreme body of the military administration of Russia – the State Defense Council at the beginning of the twentieth century. The author shows that already at that time the defense capability of the state depended not only on the activities of the military and maritime departments, which had the army and navy at their disposal, but also on other structures, such as, for example, industry, transport, energy. This was the first experience of creating a body whose tasks included coordinating the activities of all government departments and institutions related to the defense power of the state. Attention is paid to the contribution of individual personalities to the development of the State Defense Council. In particular, the role of the activities of the Minister of War, a major military theorist and practice of General A.F. Rediger. The author not only draws attention to the timeliness and effectiveness of the activities of the SDC, but also to the fact that this new state body did not have time to implement a number of significant measures to transform the Russian army, which subsequently significantly affected the combat capability of the army and, as a result, the defense capability of the entire states.
Keywords: The State Duma, the State Defense Council, the Ministry of War, the Maritime Ministry, the General Directorate of the General Staff, the Higher Attestation Commission, military reforms, armament, army, navy

Franсev A.P. (Moscow). Activity of the Soviet Military Administration in Germany to nationalize industry in the Soviet Occupation Zone 1945-1946

Postgraduate student in the 2nd year of
Lomonosov Moscow State University,
Faculty of History,
Department of Russian History XX-XXI centuries.
1 Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation.
ORCID: 0000-0002-4955-1853.
E-mail: allekkssf@gmail.com

Abstract. After the defeat of the Third Reich, a Soviet military administration was organized in the Soviet occupation zone. Its main task was to implement the Potsdam Accords, part of which were the democratization and decartelization of industry. In order to realize these tasks, the Soviet military administration restructured industry in the Eastern Zone. Based on archival documents of the State Archive and the Foreign Policy Archive of the Russian Federation, the article examines the process of industrial decartelization: its stages are singled out, the causes are revealed, and the interaction of the military administration with public organizations and the Soviet leadership’s view of this process are analyzed. The urgency of the article is stipulated by the fact that for the first time in the national historiography the evolution of the Soviet leadership’s position on the process of decartelization in Germany is studied. Both internal and external factors have been analyzed, drawing attention also to the conflicts within the structure of the SWAG. The study concludes that the Soviet leadership’s position on the nationalization of industry was variable and depended on interaction with the Allies in the Allied Control Council.
Keywords: USSR, Red Army, military administration, Soviet occupation zone, nationalization

Berkutov A.S. (Moscow). The impact of the amnesties of 1945 and 1953 on ensuring public security in the USSR

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Senior Researcher,
Research Center Fundamental Military-Historical Problems
Military University of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation
123001, Russia, Moscow, B. Sadovaya str., 14
E-mail: berkutov-andrey@mail.ru

Abstract. The article analyzes the impact of the amnesties of 1945 and 1953 on ensuring public security in the post-war period. The aim of the study is to prove the hypothesis that amnesty was an important factor influencing the entire subsequent law enforcement policy of the Soviet state. For this purpose, the documents of the State Archive of the Russian Federation on public security issues in the post-war period, including the materials of the funds R-9401sch 2nd inventory (“Stalin’s Special Folder”), 12th inventory (NKVD-Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR) and R-9415 (Main Police Department), were analyzed. The article considers the tasks facing the state, which determined the need for amnesties and subsequent measures to ensure public safety, the impact of mass release of criminals on the state of the fight against crime, organizational changes and the main activities of law enforcement agencies to eliminate the consequences of amnesties, as well as the main results. To identify the specifics of the implementation of amnesties, their comparative analysis is carried out, the main regulatory documents and quantitative data are provided.
Keywords: amnesty, amnestied, agent work, crime fighting, police, released, passport regime, decree

Vafin M.O. (Khabarovsk). Activities of BHSS units in the Far East in the post-war period

Postgraduate student of the
Far Eastern Home Ministry Law Institute of the Russia.
680020, Russian Federation, Khabarovsk, Lermontov st., 5 – 36.
E-mail: vafin_1992@mail.ru

Abstract. The article analyzes how, in the conditions of the transition of Soviet society to peaceful life after the end of the Great Patriotic War, the economic basis of the country was protected by the BHSS units in the Far East. The main directions of the activities of the militia units to combat the theft of socialist property and speculation, which were aimed at countering economic crimes, are shown. Within the framework of the latter, high-quality work was carried out with networks of secret sources of information. The author emphasizes that the most affected by economic crime in the Far East were consumer and commercial cooperatives, to which the close attention of the operational staff of the BHSS services was drawn. Certain provisions reflected in the work are supported by concrete practical examples of revealing the facts of criminal encroachments on socialist property. In addition, regional statistics on the amount of damage caused to the economic basis of the country as a result of illegal activities of criminal elements, which gradually declined in the post-war years, were also given. In the final part, it is emphasized that the Far Eastern apparatuses of the BHSS were able not only to adapt to the new conditions of the post-war period, which was completed by the 1950s, but also on a regular basis sought to increase their effectiveness in protecting the economic basis of the country in the Far East.
Keywords: post-war period, police, BHSS units, protection of the economic basis of the country, economic crime, the Far East

Grivastova A.N. (Moscow). The Society for Visiting the Poor and the Problems of Providing Aid to the Needy in the Mid-Nineteenth Century

Postgraduate Student,
Department of Russian History of the
Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries,
Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University.
Russian Federation, 119234, Moscow,
Lomonosovsky Prospekt, 27-4.
E-mail: grivastovaa@yandex.ru

Abstract. Russian charity and the state system of support for the needy in the nineteenth century faced a number of problems, which hindered the construction of an effective system of social assistance. Their identification and subsequent analysis allow us to highlight the peculiarities of pre-revolutionary charity. The aim of the research is to study begging as a social phenomenon of the Russian society, drawbacks of arrangement and activities of charitable institutions and their influence on the formation of social policy in the empire. Using the Society for Visiting the Poor as an example, the article demonstrates the problems which Russian charity had to face in the mid-nineteenth century. The main attention of charity institutions in this period was aimed at solving the problem of professional begging, which was actively spreading in the capital. In order to reduce the number of the poor begging on the streets of the city and to support the needy, private and state social institutions tried to develop a mechanism for separating professional beggars from people who really needed help. The process of finding a new model for conducting charitable work that could solve emerging social problems was accompanied by organizational difficulties. Charities were forced to constantly refine their operating principles according to evolving forms of professional begging. At the same time, private charity, which was more flexible and attentive to the interests of the needy, was in a more unstable position than public charity. The imperfection of private aid lay primarily in the financial instability of its institutions, which were not always able to cover the costs of the maintenance of the arranged institutions without state support. Another peculiarity of the activity of private institutions was the importance of moral and ethical values of the people who participated in charitable societies. The activity of such institutions, built on the voluntary and gratuitous work of their members, relied on the trust that was established between them. Such an order, on the one hand, increased the effectiveness of assistance due to the real interest of the society’s members in their work, on the other hand, it increased the possibility of destabilizing the institution, which was in direct dependence on the personal qualities of its members. The history of the Society for Visiting the Poor highlights the phenomenon of begging in the capital and shows the general condition and development of charitable institutions in the mid-nineteenth century, which tried to build in a practical way a functioning system of social assistance in the Russian Empire.
Keywords: philanthropy, social policy, professional begging, the Society for Visiting the Poor, the Maximilian Hospital.