Klio #06 (186) 2022

Yasakov V.S. (Izhevsk). The history of the study of objects from the shell of Turbinella pyrum in the archaeological sites of Eurasia

Udmurt State University, specialist in educational and methodical work of the study room of the Department of History of Udmurtia, Archeology and Ethnology of the Institute of History and Sociology,
Russian Federation, Izhevsk, 426034, Universitetskaya str. 1,
e-mail: jasakovvictor7@gmail.com

Abstract. A huge number of objects from Turbinella pyrum shells were discovered in the archaeological sites of Eurasia III thousand BC – I thousand AD. These products have continued to attract the attention of archaeologists since the beginning of the XX century. Foreign research is mainly devoted to the finds of objects from shells on the territory of the Hindustan Peninsula and nearby regions. The attention of Russian researchers is focused on the finds of Turbinella pyrum shell products in the archaeological sites of post-Soviet territories (mainly the Kama region).
Keywords: Turbinella pyrum shells, India, Kama region, foreign and Russian researchers

Andreev A.A., Rezvan M.E. (St. Petersburg). The First Ultimatum of Khosrov-Khan to the Astrakhan and Terek Voivodes

PhD in Historical sciences, Associate Professor, the Faculty of Political Science, St. Petersburg, Smolnii str. 1/3, entrance 7.
E-mail: a.a.andreev@spbu.ru

PhD, Leading Researcher, Institute of History, St. Petersburg State University
St. Petersburg, Smolnii str. 1/3, entrance 7;
Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography (Kunstkamera)
of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Russia, St. Petersburg)
E-mail: mrezvan@kunstkamera.ru

Abstract. The paper aims to release a source on the history of the Russian-Iranian conflict of 1651-1653. It is a translation from the letter of the Shirvan beglerbeg Khosrov-Khan addressed to the Astrakhan governors. Attention to the text is due to the fact that, apparently, this is the first ultimatum message from the governor of Shirvan to the Russian regional administration. Khosrov Khan sent a message published below trying to force the Astrakhan voivodes to prevent Cossack piracy in the Caspian. In the text, in addition to the ultimatum component, attention is drawn to evidence of the presence of a previously unrecorded practice of capturing merchants for ransom.
The text confirms the historiographical concept on the main reasons for the aggressive actions of the Shah’s governors on the Caucasian frontier in the middle of the 17th century. In addition to a whole range of threats the message contains a categorical statement regarding the prospect of a strategic change in Iran’s foreign policy from the previously accepted “loving friendship” between the shahs and kings to open enmity.
Keywords: Russo-Iranian relations, Astrakhan, Terky, archival documents, Safavids

Schmidt W. (Regensburg, Germany). The problem of Eastern European Jews and their position in the German-speaking Jewish press

Magister of History,
University of Regensburg,
Humboldt street 48 a, 93053 Regensburg, Germany,
E-mail: wolodjaschmidt@gmx.

Abstract. The proposed article aims to familiarize researchers with certain factual material concentrated in the German-language Jewish press concerning the situation of Eastern European Jews during the Weimar Republic. The article examines the issues of the activities of the press bodies of European Jews in German–speaking countries, their positions and assessments, as well as their attitude to the problem of Jews from Eastern Europe in Germany and beyond after the end of World War I until the mid-20s of the Weimar Republic period. It should be noted that the attitude of European Jews to the situation of Eastern European Jews in Germany during the Weimar Republic was different. This is evidenced by the German-language Jewish periodicals, which expressed various political opinions that existed among European Jews in relation to this contingent of the country’s population. The author tried to show the different points of view of the European Jewish press on the problem of Jews from Eastern Europe, as well as their assessment of the activities of the imperial government in relation to this problem, which was reflected in the pages of the periodical press.
Keywords: Eastern European Jews, Weimar Germany, anti-Semitism, Jewish press of German-speaking states, pogroms

Gekht A.B. (St. Petersburg). Historiographic and source bases for the formation of a scientific view on the position of the financial and industrial group of the Wallenberg family in the economic and political life of Sweden in the second half of the 19th and early 21st centuries

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Docent, Head of the Department of History and Regional Studies, Faculty of Social Digital Technologies, The Bonch-Bruevich St. Petersburg State University of Telecommunications.
193232, Russia, Saint-Petersburg, Bolshevikov prospect 22, building 1
Tel: 8(921)307-60-49. E-mail: a.geht@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article analyzes mainly foreign historiography devoted to the formation of the largest financial and industrial group in the Northern Europe countries, which has been ruled for a century and a half by the Wallenberg dynasty – Swedish bankers and industrialists. This historiographic study is significant due to the lack of knowledge of the source base within the framework of domestic historical science. A wide range of works in English and Swedish on the research topic is used for a qualitative analysis of materials, including scientific, scientific-journalistic and journalistic, their brief description from a meaningful point of view is given. The article presents the main sources studied by the author during the research work: archival materials, sources of personal origin, publications and speeches in the media, etc.
Keywords: Sweden, Wallenberg dynasty, banking, Northern Europe, financial and industrial group of the Wallenberg family

Pukhovskaya N.E. (Rostov-on-Don). Music and Totalitarianism: Musical Culture of the Third Reich

Candidate of History, Associate Professor,
Southern Federal University, St. B. Sadovaya,
Rostov-on-Don, 344082,
E-mail: nepuhovskaya@sfedu.ru

Abstract. The article analyzes the musical life of Germany in the 1930-40s, which was associated with a serious transformation due to the establishment of the Nazi regime. Music was used in the Third Reich as a springboard for promoting Nazi ideas contributing to the formation in German society of ‘generally accepted’ (by the Nazis’ point of view) totalitarian norms, attitudes, value systems and behaviours. The Nazi regime demonstrated that music was not a free, autonomous, creative sphere, but it was subject to socio-political and ideological demands, and therefore had to serve to form a new national identity, due to which significant totalitarian markers of the era would be created.
The article examines the process of actualization and socio-cultural reception of individual elements and works of the previous musical era and the fundamental rejection of modern music, which ran counter to Nazi attitudes, due to its great potential for freedom and the inability to perform the functions of re-educating German society in the ideological coordinates set by the Nazis.The policy of the Nazi regime was aimed at a significant renewal of the musical arsenal by carefully selecting not only the musical heritage of the past, but also the creative intellectuals, which were divided into unreliable and in-demand, and the latter had to reformat their musical preferences and interests in favour of the demands of the Nazi regime.
The article focuses on the role of music as an integral part of life in Nazi concentration camps. The authour of the article highlights the presence of two discourses – official and illegal musical culture in Nazi concentration camps, within which different group identities were formed. Their fundamental difference was that the musical strategy of the camp leadership was aimed at performing the function of cultural terror, destroying the spirit, will, memory of prisoners. In addition to the main destructive function, the official musical culture made it possible to form a kind of rating of concentration camps that were the most successful in the musical sphere, demonstrating the ambitions and vanity of the camp superiors, which, while fulfilling their misanthropic mission, presented themselves as musical aesthetes.
The illegal musical culture of the Nazi concentration camps performed a colossal positive function, the essence of which was to strengthen solidarity and cohesion among the prisoners, as well as to maintain a special archetype of consciousness, due to which the will to resist and the strategy of survival in inhuman conditions were born.
Keywords: Musical culture in Germany, atonal music, jazz, the Third Reich, Reichspalat for Music, R. Strauss, W. Furtwängler, P. Hindemith, opera, symphonic music, marches, concentration camp orchestras, Birkenau, Theresienstadt, musical culture in the Nazi concentration camps

Safarov Yu.B. (Moscow). The plan of the military-political leadership of the United Kingdom to conduct operation «Consent»

researcher of Research Institute (military history)
of the Military Academy of the General Staff.
119330, Russian Federation, Moscow, Universitetsky Prospect, 14.
Е-mail: yusufali.safarov@mail.ru

Abstract. In the period from August 25 to September 17, 1941, the Soviet-British military group conducted an operation known in modern historiography as Operation Consent. The main participants in the operation were the USSR, Great Britain and Iran, which was removed from the orbit of military and political influence of Germany. The operation was preventive in nature.
The purpose of Operation Consent was to neutralize German influence on Iran’s foreign and domestic policy, deter a potential threat from Turkey, create a transport corridor for the delivery of goods and military equipment to the USSR through Iran, and develop a favorable political and economic situation for the allies in the Iranian direction.
The article focuses on the disclosure of the mechanism of the decision-making by the military-political leadership of the United Kingdom on the invasion of Iran during Operation Consent, the analysis of the plan for the operation, the composition of the troops (forces) involved, as well as issues of coordination of British diplomatic and military plans with the plans of the Red Army.
Currently, the joint Soviet-British military operation “Consent” occupies a special place in the history of relations between Russia and Great Britain.
Keywords: USSR, Great Britain, Iran, Germany, operation, coordination, offensive, landing, air support, W. Churchill, A. Wavell, E. Quinan

Shcherbakova M.E. (St. Petersburg). “Staying calm, think about possible risks”: lessons from the collapse of the USSR in the view of Xi Jinping

PhD Student at the Faculty of Asian and African Studies
of Saint Petersburg State University
199034, Russia, St.Petersburg, Universitetskaya emb., 7/9
E-mail: st043116@student.spbu.ru

Abstract. People’s Republic of China pays great attention to the studies of USSR collapse reasons. The conclusions drawn from the results of such studies are important basis for keeping power by the Communist Party of China and are materialized into real political decisions. Considering this topic as specially important, both academics and state and party officials express their opinion on it in China.
The current leader of the People’s Republic of China, Xi Jinping, has undoubtedly done great reform work in all spheres of Chinese society. With his coming to power, the topic of the collapse of the USSR went beyond just a scientific problem and acquired the status of public discussion. Today, this issue exists in all key areas of polemics supported by official propaganda, and above all in the sphere of criticism of “historical nihilism”. In this regard, the article pays great attention to Xi Jinping’s opinion on the lessons that China needs to learn from the collapse of the Soviet Union. The article focuses on analysis of Xi Jinping’s opinion and traces which new accents in the study of USSR collapse reasons appears when he comes to power.
The object of research is the oral statements, official speeches and interviews of Xi Jinping, as well as party documents. The subject is the reflection of the causes of USSR collapse reasons in the above-mentioned documents. The article concludes what conclusions Xi Jinping drew from the collapse of the Soviet Union and whether the results of rethinking the experience of the USSR are translated into real political decisions.
Keywords: socialism, reasons of the USSR collapse, Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), Communist Party of China (CPC), Xi Jinping

Kalitin V.A. (Pushkin). The first religious procession with the miraculous icon of the Mother of God of the Sign, performed in Tsarskoye Selo in 1831

Candidate of Technical Sciences,
parishioner of the Church of the Sign in Pushkin.
196601, Russia, St. Petersburg, Pushkin, st. Embankment, 1
E-mail: vladimirkalitin@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article is devoted to the history of the first religious procession on July 5 (18), 1831 with the miraculous icon of the Mother of God of the Sign in the city of Tsarskoe Selo to rid the inhabitants of cholera. It provides information about the prayers that were held by the Tsarskoye Selo clergy during the epidemic. The circumstances preceding the first religious procession are revealed, and the outstanding role of the headman of the Church of the Sign Ignatius Leontyevich Zimin (1772-1839) as its inspirer and organizer is shown. The given archival documents, most of which are introduced into scientific circulation for the first time, help to highlight the unexplored facts of the biography of I.L. Zimin about his life, work and death. The study reports the discovery of the grave of I.L. Zimin, who died on December 19, 1839, a description is made of the surviving tombstone, which is currently in a deplorable state, and a proposal is made for its restoration.
Keywords: Mother of God, Sign, church, miraculous icon, procession, Tsarskoye Selo, I.L. Zimin, headman, inspirer, organizer, tombstone, memory

Zorina E.A., Menshikov A.V., Mutaliyeva L.S., Tikhomirov A.V. (St. Petersburg). Organization and holding of the VI International Fire Congress and International Exhibition of Fire Measures and Insurance (St. Petersburg, 1912)

PhD in Law, Associate Professor, Head of the Department of Labour law, Saint-Petersburg University of State Fire Service of EMERCOM of Russia
196105, Russia, St.-Petersburg, Moskovskiy prospect, 149
E-mail: zorina_lena@mail.ru

PhD in Pedagogical Sciences, Associate Professor, Head of the Department of Civil law, Saint-Petersburg University of State Fire Service of EMERCOM of Russia.
196105, Russia, St.-Petersburg, Moskovskiy prospect, 149
E-mail: kaf-gp@igps.ru

PhD in Law, Associate Professor, Deputy Head of the Department of Civil Law, Saint-Petersburg University of State Fire Service of EMERCOM of Russia
196105, Russia, St.-Petersburg, Moskovskiy prospect, 149
E-mail: mutalievals@igps.ru

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Assistant Professor, Professor of the Department of Military-Political Work in the Military (Forces), Military Academy of Communications
194064, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Tikhoretskiy prospect, 3
E-mail: vas@mail.ru

Abstract. The article examines the activity of the Council of the Imperial Russian Fire Society in organizing and holding the VI International Fire Congress under the highest patronage of Emperor Nicholas II in St. Petersburg, May 1912. For the first time in historiography, an overview is given on the preparatory work and activity of the VI International Fire Congress, International Exhibition of Fire Measures and Insurance and Expert Commission of the Exhibition on the thematic sections such as «Fire Prevention», «Fire Extinguishing», «Fire Insurance» and «First Aid in Accidents». The main locations for the Congress and Exhibition were the Noble Assembly, the People’s House of Emperor Nicholas II, the territory of the Mars Field and the Konnogvareyskiy Arena (Manege). The authors of the article paid special attention to a study of organizational work of the Executive committee on issuing catalogs, organization of free visits for employees of different institutions, and holding excursion programs for representatives from factories, plants and the railroad. The article provides a brief description of the displays and a list of awarded participants of the Exhibition as well as draws attention to the organizational abilities of a member of the Council of the Imperial Russian Fire Society D. N. Borodin under whose editorial production (authorship) numerous works of the Congress and Exhibition were published. As a result of this study, the authors concluded that the VI International Fire Congress and the International Fire Exhibition were held with a great success, and the experience of conducting them was used in the following years for the organization of Russian and International Congresses and Exhibitions of various contents.
Keywords: Imperial Russian Fire Society, VI International Fire Congress, International Exhibition of Fire Measures and Insurance, St. Petersburg, 1912

Zlobin A.N. (Voronezh). Filmification of the Central Chernozem region in 1928-1934

Andrey Nikolaevich Zlobin
candidate of historical sciences, associate professor of the Department of Philosophy and History of Voronezh State University of Engineering Technologies.
Russia, Voronezh, Revolution Ave., 19
e-mail: dronns@ya.ru

Abstract. In the article, on the basis of archival data introduced into scientific circulation for the first time, various aspects of the development of cinematography in the years of the existence of the Central Chernozem region are considered. The paper analyzes the results of the implementation of the plans of cinematography. It is emphasized that the plan of the first five-year plan for the number of film installations was completed by 152%, and the cinema network developed in a priority way in rural areas and in working settlements. Attention is focused on the fact that, despite the increase in the number of working cinema cameras, the coverage of the audience of the Central Television Station lagged behind many other regions of the country, while the distribution of film installations by districts was not uniform. In some localities there was a relative abundance of equipment, and in others there was an acute shortage of it. The article touches upon the aspects of the functioning of indicator cinemas, the regional branch of Soyuzkinochronika, and the development of children’s cinema. The author also explores the difficulties hindering the implementation of the planned programs of cinematography. The most important negative factors that hindered the development of the cinema business include: lack of equipment, financing, qualified specialists, lack of consistency and confusion in management. In addition, there was an acute shortage of high-quality films in demand by the audience, and the pictures available, especially those in demand by the audience, quickly wore out technically. In conclusion, the results of the development of cinematography in the CCHO are summarized. It is noted in particular that film institutions successfully coped with both ideological functions and commercial tasks.
Keywords: Filmification, cultural revolution, newsreel, children’s cinema, Central Black Earth Region.

Gerasimov D.I. (Moscow). L.M. Karakhan’s policy during the Manchurian crisis

Московский государственный университет, исторический факультет,
кафедра истории России XX-XXI вв., аспирант
Россия, Москва, Ленинские горы 1, 119234
e-mail: dmitriigerasimovtmb@gmail.com

Abstract. The article examines an important and urgent problem – the role of the Soviet diplomacy in the Manchurian crisis of 1931 resolution. The article pays special attention to the activities of L.M. Karakhan (1889-1937), who was a Soviet diplomat, deputy head of The People’s Commissariat of Foreign Affairs (NKID) of the USSR, who led the negotiations of the Soviet side with Japan and played a crucial role in establishing Soviet-Chinese relations. The author describes the Manchurian events of 1931 as the first open military-political crisis that caused an escalation of tension in international relations in Europe and Asia and led later to the Second World War. The author believes that the analysis of the events of the historical period under consideration from the point of view of L.M. Karakhan will allow us to look at them from a new angle, since he managed to avoid the escalation of the conflict in the region. In this regard, the development of scientific subjects related to Soviet-Japanese and Soviet-Chinese relations acquires particular urgency and relevance, in particular, the topics related to the formation of the Far Eastern knot of contradictions in the China-USSR-Japan triangle, the echoes of which directly determine the international agenda of today.
Keywords: The Manchurian crisis, Karakhan, Hirota, Mo Degui, Soviet-Japanese relations, reparation of Soviet-Chinese relations

Martyukova E.A. (Moscow). Soviet military mission in Greece (1944) – victory factor in the Second world war

Postgraduate of the History Faculty of
Moscow State University
Department of Russian History of the XX-XXI centuries, 125167,
Moscow, Krasnoarmeiskaya street, building 11/4.
E-mail: eamartyukova@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article is devoted to the analysis of the activities of the Soviet military mission in Greece at the end of World War II, its goals and objectives, which were set by the top military-political leadership of the USSR. The basis for studying the results of the activities of the Soviet military mission in the USSR in 1944 was the documents of the State Archive of the Russian Federation and the Russian State Archive of Socio-Political History, which deal with an important and topical topic – the history of Soviet-Greek relations in the final stage of World War II and the first post-war years. Based on a review of documentary archival materials, an assessment is made of the results of the efforts of the Soviet military mission to solve the tasks assigned to it. The materials presented in the article allow us to conclude that at the final stage of the war, the main task of the Soviet mission in Greece was to achieve unity within the Greek political blocs, which helped to accelerate the victory over the Nazi invaders. An agreement was reached between representatives of the Resistance movement and the government in exile in Cairo in 1944 on the formation of a single national government of Greece. Also, with the assistance of the employees of the Soviet military mission, the problems of Soviet prisoners of war and civilians in Greece were solved. Thus, the Soviet military mission was a unique operation of the Main Intelligence Directorate of the People’s Commissariat of Defense of the USSR, which accelerated the victory in the war.
Keywords: Soviet military mission in Greece; the 1944 Lebanon Agreement; resistance movement; Red Army; G. Popov; Second World War; USSR; Greece; victory factor.

Flegontov N.A. (Moscow). The influence of the Marxist-Leninist theory of international relations on the Soviet foreign policy during late Stalinism

4th year student of the International Institute of Energy Policy and Diplomacy of the Moscow State Institute of International Relations (University) of the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MGIMO University)
Russia, Moscow, 119454, Vernadskogo prospect, 76
e-mail: flegontov.n@mail.ru

Abstract. The article is devoted to the analysis of the Soviet foreign policy in the period of late Stalinism in terms of compliance with the main provisions of the Marxist theory of international relations. The author aims to clarify the role of the ideological factor in the adoption of foreign policy decisions by the Soviet leadership and the сcorrelation between Marxism and realism in their implementation in the international arena. Based on the analysis of the fundamental works of Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels and Vladimir Lenin, the features of the Marxist-Leninist approach to international relations and foreign policy are revealed. The author focuses on the program documents of the Soviet government in 1945-1953, devoted to the assessment of the international situation, as well as the main practical foreign policy maneuvers in this period. The author concludes that the foreign policy of the USSR in 1945-1953 is a synthesis of the realist and Marxist approach to international relations. The provisions of classical political realism and such categories as the balance of power, national interests and security begin to play a significant role in the proclamation and implementation of foreign policy. Despite the fact that the Marxist-Leninist ideology was increasingly used to legitimize the political course, the analysis shows that the provisions of the theory continued to have a certain influence in the definition and practical implementation of global and regional foreign policy priorities.
Keywords: USSR, foreign policy, bipolar system, Cold War, World War II, Marxism-Leninism, ideology

Trukhanovich E.V. (St. Petersburg). Geneva Summit 1985 (Preparation and opening)

Postgraduate student of the Faculty of History
St. Petersburg State University
199034, St. Petersburg, Mendeleevskaya line, 5
e-mail: msKattrin@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article is devoted to the problem of rapprochement between the USA and the USSR in the era of the end of the Cold War. The author traced the dynamics of the development of the initial stage of Soviet-American relations in the context of the new course of international policy proclaimed by the Soviet Union – “New Thinking”. The article is based on the documents from the American National Security Archive, which indicate a turning point in world politics. Moreover, the reader’s attention is being focused on the importance of the personalities of the two countries’ leaders. The work traces in detail the course of the first plenary session of the 1985 summit, including personal conversations between Secretary General Mikhail Gorbachev and President Reagan. The central topics of discussion were issues of reducing the nuclear potential of both countries and security in the world. However, the negotiations repeatedly reached an impasse, since ideological prejudices did not allow an open dialogue. The distrust that arose between the superpowers during the rivalry between the capitalist and Soviet systems was no less noticeable factor in the complexity of the negotiation process. Consensus on the control of nuclear weapons was not reached due to the opposing views of the United States and the USSR. Nevertheless, the great achievement of the summit was a direct conversation about the reduction of atomic weapons with a detailed outline of the intentions of the United States and the Soviet Union, which later made it possible to implement the policy of “New Thinking” and the gradual end of the arms race.
Keywords: Cold War, New Thinking, USA, USSR, M.S. Gorbachev, R. Reagan, J. Schultz, P. E.A. Shevardnadze

Getman D.I. (St. Petersburg). Sanitary condition of St. Petersburg children’s hospitals in the second half of the XIX – early XX centuries

State Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education Leningrad State University named after A.S. Pushkin
196140, Russia, St. Petersburg, Petersburg highway, 10
E-mail: diana-g2man@mail.ru

Abstract. It was not until the first half of the 19th century in Paris that the idea of creating children’s hospitals among public charitable institutions emerged. The Russian Empire followed France’s example. In St. Petersburg, the first children’s hospitals were opened on the will of private individuals and with voluntary donations. To keep children’s institutions functioning, the benefactors organized masquerades, concerts and festivities. All the proceeds went to the construction of new additions, medical equipment, furniture, clothing, and food for sick children.
The article deals with the sanitary state of children hospitals in the capital of the Russian Empire in the second half of the 19th – early 20th centuries. The question of the causes of high child mortality in Russia and the possibility of solving this problem is raised. The author describes in detail the sanitary conditions of the first philanthropic institutions: the Nicholas Children’s Hospital, the Elizavetinsk Clinical Hospital for Small Children, and the Prince Peter Oldenburg Children’s Hospital. The article shows the specifics of each hospital and its shortcomings. The author summarizes the effectiveness of the children’s hospitals. Documentary and journalistic sources were used to write the article.
Keywords: sanitation, children’s diseases, child mortality, second half of the 19th century, St. Petersburg, charity, Nicholas Children’s Hospital, Elizavetinsky Clinical Hospital for Young Children, Prince Peter Oldenburgsky Children’s Hospital

Rezukhin P.S. (Tula). Orthodox clergy and elections to the State Duma in 1905-1907 (based on materials from the Tula province)

Assistant at the Institute of Law and Management,
Department of State History and Law
Tula State University
300012, Tula, st. F. Engels, 155
Email: mitra2003@mail.ru

Abstract. The article examines the participation of the parish Orthodox clergy in the election campaigns in the I-III State Duma. Based on a wide range of sources, which were based on the materials of the State Archives of the Tula Region, the author explores the organizational features of the election campaigns of 1905-1907. It is concluded that the majority of clergy and clergy were at a crossroads between the tradition, which required submission to the state, and the interests of church and public life, which needed renewal. The materials of the Tula province demonstrate not only the involvement of clergy in the electoral process, but also a noticeable differentiation of their views on the political structure of Russia.
Keywords: empire, church, Orthodoxy, diocese, clergy, elections, electoral rights

Sushko E.O. (Apatity). Political relations between the Murmansk Krai and the Northern Oblast: August 1918 – October 1918

Postgraduate Student, Barents Centre of the Humanities –
Branch of the Federal Research Centre
«Kola Science Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences»,
senior laboratory assistant of the Digital Information Generation Center of the
184200, Russian Federation, Murmanskaya Oblast, Apatity, Akademgorodok 40-a
E-mail: Eugene55661@yandex.ru

Abstract. This article is a study that aims to analyze a rather important period of the Civil War and intervention: the relationship between the authorities of Murmansk and Arkhangelsk after the elimination of Bolshevik rule in the North of Russia. Namely, here we consider how the Murmansk krai, as an independent political unit, interacted with another political entity – the Northern Oblast. The paper presents an analysis of changes in this level of interaction over a certain period of time (August 1918 – October 1918), the reasons for the political collapse of the Murman authorities and why the Murmansk Krai ceased to exist, despite the initial illusion of maintaining its own independence, which was enshrined in a number of treaties guaranteed the special status of Murman. The study is supplemented with significant information about the prerequisites for the formation of Murman as an autonomous unit before August 1918, about the relationship with the central Bolshevik government and the Arkhangelsk provincial council on issues of territorial and economic independence. As sources in the article were used: newspapers, collections of documents, memoirs, archival documents, scientific works on the topic.
Keywords: Northern Oblast, Murmansk Krai, Allied intervention, autonomy

Lisitsyna E.N. (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk). Sakhalin Oil: the struggle for transport independence and security (second quarter of the ХХ century)

 Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor,
professor of the department
Russian and world history
Sakhalin State University
693008, Russian Federation, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Lenin, 290
E-mail: Lisitsina1997@yandex.ru

Abstract. A serious problem in the activities of the oil-producing enterprise of the «Sakhalinneft» trust, established in 1928 in Northern Sakhalin, was the export of extracted oil from the skeleton to the mainland. This difficulty was caused by a number of circumstances: the lack of a transport link connecting the oil fields of the eastern coast of Sakhalin with the port of Moskalvo, located on the western coast of the island, the lack of a sufficient number of watercraft for the transportation of oil and the required volume of storage tanks. The current situation forced the company to sell oil to Japan at extremely low prices, and allowed Japan to exert pressure on the pricing process. The aggravation of the foreign policy situation in the Far East in the late 1930-s created a threat to the transportation of Sakhalin oil to the mainland through the Nevelsky Strait. The article is devoted to the consideration of ways to solve these problems by the «Sakhalinneft» Trust.
Keywords: oil transportation, oil storage, oil pipelines, oil refineries, navigation period

Ivanenko Ya.I. (Belgorod). Labor participation of the rural population in the maintenance and construction of roads in the Kursk region during the IV five-year plan (1946-1950): problems of organization and ways to solve them

postgraduate student of the Department
of Russian history and pre-study
Belgorod State National Research University
308015, Russian Federation, Belgorod, Pobedy st. 85

Abstract. Based on the study of archival documents, the article examines the issues of organizing the labor participation of the rural population in the maintenance and construction of auto-drawn roads in the Kursk region during the 4th five-year plan (1946-1950). A general description of the normative framework for the labor participation of the population in road construction is given, and its significance for ensuring the functioning of the region’s transport infrastructure in the period under review is demonstrated. The author highlights a number of problems that existed in this area, and also analyzes the ways to solve them, undertaken by the state authorities of the Kursk region.
The sources of this article are previously unpublished archival materials related to the activities of the Kursk Regional Road Department of the Executive Committee of the Kursk Regional Council of Workers’ Deputies.
Keywords: Kursk region, fourth five-year plan, auto-drawn roads, labor participation, rural population

Antoshkin A.V. (Sterlitamak). The Problem of goods deficit in the state-owned trade system of Bashkiria in 1947 to 1953

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Teacher of History and Social Studies, MAOU “Gymnasium No. 2”, Sterlitamak, Republic of Bashkortostan,
Municipal autonomous educational institution “Gymnasium No. 2” of the urban district of the city of Sterlitamak of the Republic of Bashkortostan, 453100
Republic of Bashkortostan, Sterlitamak, st. Artem, 25-63
e-mail: aav151284@rambler.ru

Abstract. The given article analyses the deficit of goods in the retail network of the Ministry for Trade and workers’ supply departments of factories in Bashkiria after the monetary reform of 1947. On the basis of documents held in the National Archive of the Republic of Bashkortostan, an attempt is made to evaluate the effectiveness of measures taken by the authorities for supplying people in the republic with foodstuffs and manufactured goods in the free trade mode, without rationing. The research suggests that after 1947 centralized funds of manufactured goods and foodstuffs increased significantly, and the commodity weight in the state-owned trading network in Bashkiria grew dramatically. However, the methods of distribution were still mechanistic: they only took into account the weight, not the demand, season, or cultural and religious peculiarities of different areas in the republic. Low-quality goods which were not in demand stayed in the shops, and high-quality ones became a deficit. As a result, even the best shops saw speculative demand and long queues. There were facts of hiding deficit goods, and large consignments of high quality goods were sold to resellers surreptitiously – through service rooms – and subsequently found their way to city markets, with excess prices charged. Decentralized purchases did not usually reach the planned figures. At the same time, industrial organizations dispatched goods funds incompletely, irregularly, and with violations of the set assortment. Local factories and producers’ cooperatives were not able to increase their output to reach the planned levels, and the quality of their goods was still very low. The author concludes that goods deficit in the state-owned trade system of Bashkiria was accompanied by economic growth and a steady process of filling the trading network with both convenience goods and those of a more complex assortment. This all was one of the factors of increasing people’s economic welfare in Bashkiria.
Keywords: trade, deficit, commodity funds, workers’ supply department, supply bases, consumer demand, monetary reform of 1947, Bashkiria

Podoprigora B.A. (St. Petersburg). Central Asian realities in the Russian projection (analytical essay)

member of the Expert and Analytical Council
under the Committee for CIS Affairs, the Eurasian
integration and compatriots of the State Duma of the Federal Assembly
of the Russian Federation
195220, St. Petersburg, Grazhdansky pr., 11
e-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru

Abstract. The material presents a historical, as well as a socio-political analysis of the reasons for the presence in Russia and St. Petersburg of numerous immigrants from Central Asia. The relevance of the topic is confirmed by the plans of the West to introduce an interethnic split into Russian society. The value of the material lies not only in the basic oriental education of the author, but also in his long-term residence (service) in this region. And another important detail – participation in the interastate settlement in Tajikistan at the final stage of the civil war in this country in 1992-93. It is not only journalistically significant that the author, a conflictologist with international experience, was awarded the military rank of “colonel” for the result of this work.
The previous, Afghan experience of the author leads him to think about the hard-to-calculate plans of the Taliban. They clearly seek to extend their influence to the entire region. Taking into account the author’s justifications, such a prospect seems to be the more convincing, the more active the geopolitical opponents of Russia are. The recommendations proposed by the author confirm his authority as an expert of the State Duma. But conclusions of regional significance can be useful, first of all, for migration services.
Keywords: ethnofactor, Central Asia, migration, social statistics, Taliban