Klio #06 (198) 2023

Tikhonova V.B. (St. Petersburg). Absence of Russian landowners of the 17th century in national historiography

PhD in Cultural Studies
 Associate Professor of the Department of Social Sciences
Saint Petersburg State University
industrial technology and design
191186, St. Petersburg,
Bolshaya Morskaya, 18
e-mail: veritas_24@mail.ru

Abstract. The article deals with the phenomenon of absence of Russian landowners of the 17th century in Russian historiography of the XIX-XXI centuries. An overview of the scientific works of Russian and Soviet scientists, to more or less extent affecting the problem of absence is given, the most pronounced approaches to understanding this phenomenon are summarized. An interdisciplinary approach is used, due to a variety of contexts that involve an appeal to the phenomenon of absence. The multidimensional understanding of this phenomenon in most scientific studies is noted; the military-disciplinary, legal, economic, social, moral and mental aspects of the absence of Russian landowners of the 17th century are singled out and considered. At the same time, it was noted that historians have not yet developed a clear idea of the essence of absence among the privileged service people of the estate of the 17th century. This phenomenon is associated either with the shortcomings inherent in the military service system, or with the crisis of the local system and the poverty of the majority of landowners, or with the peculiarities of the privileged position of service people, or with the social practices of the pre-Petrine period, or with the decline in morality among the service class, or with mental specificity 17th century landowners. The essence of the phenomenon of absence remains unclear; none of the points of view fully explains it. The legal status of netchiks also requires clarification, as well as the composition of violations related to netchiks and sanctions against them. The problem of the attitude of Russian society to absence and netchiks in the 17th century remains unexplored. In general, the conclusion is made about the insufficient development of the problem of absence, which deserves closer attention of scientists.
Keywords: service evasion, desertion, absence, netchiks, landowners of the 17th century, noble cavalry, landowning local system, Russian historiography

Zimina E.S. (Moscow). Moldavia and Poland in the second half of 15th century. Shortcut from a political vassal to the enemy

Teacher of Higher School of Translation and Interpreting,
Lomonosov Moscow State University;
119192, Moscow, Lomonosovsky prospect, 27, building 4
e-mail: ziminaevg@mail.ru

Abstract. Second half of 15th century can be described as flourishing of Moldavia. During the period falls the reign one of the most outstanding rulers in the history of Moldavia – Stephen III the Great, who was in power for 47 years from 1457 to 1504. It was a difficult time, the country belonged to sphere of influence of three different states – Hungary, Poland and Ottoman Empire. Constantly under threat, foreign policy of Stephen the Great acquired features of the political “maneuvering” between these powers. Depending on political context the country was under formal vassalage on three neighbouring States alternately. But no one could impose their political will on Stephen the Great.
Keywords: Moldavia, Poland, Casimir IV, Ivan III, Stephen the Great, Matthias Corvinus, international relations

Ermishin L.V. (Moscow). Prerequisites for the Bulgarian army’s involvement in domestic politics

Postgraduate Student, Department of the History of the Southern and Western Slavs, Faculty of History,
Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov.
119192, Moscow, Lomonosovsky prospect, 27, building 4
е-mail: lyermishin@inbox.ru

Abstract. The article deals with historical and ethno-cultural prerequisites for the involvement of the army of the Kingdom of Bulgaria in the internal politics of the country. Based on the analysis of the documents of the Russian-Turkish war of 1877-1878, the documents of the period of the Russian occupation of Bulgaria in 1878-1879, the constituent documents of the Bulgarian Army, as well as works of Bulgarian historians and philologists the author has revealed the reasons that determined the active participation of the Bulgarian military in the events of Bulgarian political history of the late 19th – early 20th century. The purpose of Bulgarian army formation by the Provisional Russian military administration was declared the ensuring of internal security of the new state formation. This goal was actualized by the complex internal political situation of confrontation between two social groups – the Bulgarian and the Turkish-Muslim population of the country. The removal of the Muslim and the retention of power in the hands of the Christian socio-confessional group dictated the need to support the new administration with armed force on the ground, that is, in the provinces and districts, as well as in the political center, which was realized through the creation of a zemstvo troops on the militia type. The idea of attraction of Bulgarian zemsky troops for regulation of internal political processes was stipulated already in the constituent documents at its creation. The ethno-cultural traditions of the Bulgarian people were a favorable background for the realization of this idea.
Keywords: Bulgarian army, public order, internal politics, ethno-cultural traditions, repressive function

Kang Shixin (Moscow). A brief history of China’s choice of Liushun (Port Arthur) for port and dock construction

PhD student,
Department of the history of Russia of the 19th–early 20th centuries
Faculty of History
Lomonosov Moscow State University
119192, Russian Federation, Moscow, Lomonosovsky Prospekt, 27,
e–mail: lilililiang123@gmail.com

Abstract. In the second half of the 19th century, under the threat of foreign invasion from the sea, particularly after the Japanese attack on Taiwan in 1874, which was a serious shock to China, the Qing court began to pay great attention to coastal defense. With the formation and development of a new type of Chinese navy, there was an urgent need to build ports and docks. At the insistence of dignitary Li Hongzhang, the Beiyang fleet was given priority over the fleets of China’s southern seas, and Liushun (Port Arthur), because of its important and unique geographical location and hydrographic conditions for protecting the capital area of the state, was built as a port and dock to match the scale of Beiyang fleet development. This article explores the reasons why Liushun was chosen by the Qing court to build a major port and dock, and analyzes in detail the development of China’s new navy as a result of China’s transforming defense policy. The article notes that by the time Port Arthur was leased to Russia, this naval base had the infrastructure necessary for further development.
Keywords: Liushun (Port Arthur), Chinese coastal defense, Beiyang Fleet, Li Hongzhang, History of the Chinese Navy

Skosyrev V.A. (Moscow). Chinese Communist Party’s Ideologeme of “Chinese-style modernization”: Historical and International Dimensions

Research Fellow, Institute of China and Contemporary Asia
117997, Moscow, Nakhimovsky pr., 32
e-mail: skosyrev@iccaras.ru

Abstract. After the 20th CCP Congress held in October 2022, the term “Chinese-style modernization” (中国式现代化) began to be actively used in Chinese official press and party publications. The purpose of this article is to outline the main content of this concept and determine its significance for domestic and foreign policy of the PRC. The research method is qualitative content-analysis of Chinese party publications, speeches of the country’s leadership, and scientific publications of Chinese scientists. In the course of analysis, author identifies main thematic blocks of the new ideologeme. Emphasis is placed on the following aspects: generalization of historical development of the PRC, guidelines for the country’s internal development, and international dimension. It is concluded that the promotion of the concept of “Chinese-style modernization” was a logical continuation of the trend noted by a number of researchers, in which the CCP increasingly appeals to nationalist feelings of the Chinese and relies on history to strengthen its legitimacy. However, “Chinese-style modernization” also outlines the prospects of the countrys future development. In particular, usage with the concept of such ideas as “general welfare” (共同富裕), harmony between material and spiritual civilizations, coexistence between man and nature indicates long-term nature of the measures to renew party-state apparatus and address acute social issues. Of particular interest is foreign policy message of the ideologeme. Chinese leadership directly calls on developing countries to abandon the Western model. This appeal to “non-Western” countries most likely indicates that Beijing is anticipating a long-term competition with the United States for influence in Asia, Africa and Latin America.
Keywords: PRC, Xi Jinping, Chinese-style modernization, “Beijing consensus”, fight against corruption, US-China confrontation

Komarova D.S., Sonets D.D. (Novosibirsk). Triangulating international cooperation between the US, China, and the Latin Caribbean region: conflicts and opportunities

2nd year postgraduate student, assistant of the Department of World Economy, International Relations and Law,
Novosibirsk State University of Economics and Management “NSUEM “.
630099, Russia, Novosibirsk st. Kamenskaya 52
E-mail: komarova.d.s@mail.ru
ORCID: 0000-0002-1070-4007

2nd year postgraduate student,
Novosibirsk State University of Economics and Management “NINH”.
630099, Russia, Novosibirsk st. Kamenskaya 52
E-mail: d.sonets@yandex.ru
ORCID: 0000-0003-3797-3191

Abstract. The article examines China’s role in the Latin Caribbean region as a non-hemispheric actor since the beginning of the 21st century and how the rise of China in the Western Hemisphere has affected US-China relations within the region. The active expansion of international cooperation between China and the countries of Latin Caribbean America provoked the emergence of new areas of potential conflict and possible partnership between China and the United States. Areas of potential conflict include strategic calculations, issues related to regional governance, military influence, commercial competition for products, resources, and the spread of political and economic influence. The US, in turn, is pursuing a sanctions policy as pressure on Latin American governments, the goals of which are to reduce Chinese influence in the US zone of influence and protect their own state interests. In fact, such a policy could lead to the regionalization of Latin-Caribbean America, depending on the choice of the main partner, which is obviously not beneficial for the LACB governments. Opportunities for the established model of international relations in the region, according to the authors, lie in cooperation on solving issues of defense and security, including medical cooperation, response to natural disasters, combating international organized crime, illegal arms and drug trafficking, as well as in organizing a multilateral approach. to trade, the interaction of regional organizations, scientific, technical and energy cooperation between China, the United States and the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean.
Keywords: China, USA, Latin Caribbean America, Taiwan, international cooperation, trade and economic relations

Akuzinov A.K. (Moscow). Formation of reserve military units in Kazakhstan During the Great Patriotic War

Doctoral student at the Military History and Military Art Department of the Military Academy of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation
PhD in political science
100, Vernadsky Prospekt, Moscow, 119571, Russia
e-mail: altinay_akku@mail.ru

Abstract. The article reveals the order of work organization of state and military administration bodies of the Kazakh SSR during the implementation of decisions of the Red Army Headquarters on the formation of reserve military units on the territory of Kazakhstan during the Great Patriotic War. The acuteness of the problem was more in military and technical equipment of the units being formed by the reserve military units. In the Soviet historiography this problem was insufficiently covered, in the modern one it is studied on the materials, which became available to a wide range of researchers in recent years. The author used the method of source study to solve the scientific problem. The research allowed us to determine the factors which influenced the combat capability of the reserve units, to establish a list of the reserve units formed in Kazakhstan during the war. The structure and composition of the marching units, which were based on the rifle companies formed in the reserve military units, is also important. The variable composition of these units mastered the combat training programs in various military occupational specialties and were fully provided with uniforms, food and the necessary weapons upon their arrival in the units and formations of the active army at the front. The multinational composition of the reserve units was one of the determining factors in the combat effectiveness of the Red Army, the atmosphere of unity with the common objective of defending the homeland, united the Soviet citizens in the struggle against fascism. In this connection, by the example of the Reserve Rifle Regiment its basic national structure is studied, the peculiarities of the organization of the work of the permanent staff of the reserve military units are shown. The order of sending formed units and subunits to the army in force and putting them into service. On the basis of the materials studied the conclusions about the well-coordinated work of the leadership of the Kazakh Republic on the mobilization of human resources for the defense of the country are formulated. The information in this article is part of the author’s comprehensive work, in which the scientific task is to show Kazakhstan’s contribution to the victory of the USSR in the Great Patriotic War and is dedicated to the 80th anniversary of the most important victory of mankind of the last century.
Keywords: Great Patriotic War, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Kazakh SSR, Kazakhstan, reserve military units, marching units

Zotova A.V., Pankratova A.A. (St. Petersburg). The dynamics of international and foreign economic relations of St. Petersburg as an experience of urban diplomacy

4th year student of the Faculty of International Relations,
St. Petersburg State University.
199034, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya nab., 7-9.
e-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the Faculty of International Relations,
St. Petersburg State University.
199034, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya nab., 7-9.
e-mail: anastasiyazotova@mail.ru

Abstract. The purpose of the article is to analyze the history of international and foreign economic activity of St. Petersburg as the second most important city of the Russian Federation. The authors define the research methods and approaches, formulate the concept of metropolitan diplomacy, assess the importance of applying St. Petersburg’s “technologies of attractiveness”, which are realized through its originality and uniqueness: its romantic brand (the city of white nights), a special spiritual place occupied among other cities of the country (cultural capital), geographical features (Northern capital), natural individuality (Northern Venice), bright historical past (imperial capital, warrior city that survived the enemy blockade), political baggage (the city of three revolutions). The article describes the history of the city’s diplomacy, as well as the need to form new international and foreign economic structures. The legal framework developed by the Legislative Assembly of St. Petersburg was analyzed to attract investors, businessmen, tourists, students and specialists, athletes and cultural and art workers to the Northern capital. Examples of adaptation of foreign economic and international activities to modern conditions of sanctions and epidemics are considered. The authors conclude that, despite the termination or weakening of many contacts, St. Petersburg seeks to focus on the development of international and foreign economic relations, attracting new partners, sometimes even from unfriendly states, whose business was previously not clearly represented on the St. Petersburg market. Thanks to the policy of import substitution, the metropolis uses every opportunity to refuse products from unfriendly countries and quickly reorient production to the domestic market.
Keywords: St. Petersburg, international relations, foreign economic relations, urban diplomacy, public diplomacy

Trapeznikov D.A. (Moscow). Reflection of the origin and initial stage of the service of A. V. Golitsyn in the mirror of discharge and chronicle sources

2nd year Master’s student
Moscow State University,
Department of Source Studies
Shvernik Street, 19k1. Moscow, Russia, 117449,
e-mail: trapeznikoff.dima2018@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article analyzes the origin and the first stage of the administrative and military activities of Prince Andrei Vasilyevich Golitsyn.

The top of the military service class in Russia has evolved over many generations. The history of many noble families is rooted far back in the 14th, 12th centuries, or even in the pre-Mongolian era.

The initial positions of any aristocrat (in fact, the first, one might say, “zero” stage of his career) were laid long before his birth. The scientific novelty of the work lies in the analysis of the connection between the origin and the first stage of a particular representative of the military service class.

The first stage of A.V. Golitsyn’s career is not rich in events and outstanding accomplishments, and this picture is most likely built not on the fragmentation of the source base, but in view of the political position of the prince’s family. The description of the origin of the genus is mainly presented in chronicle sources. However, as the clerical workflow develops, it is the discharge materials that come to the fore. They not only describe the participation of the commander in a particular military operation, but also reflect the progress of a particular representative of the military service class (and, therefore, his clan) in the local system.

The first stage of the military biography of the prince himself is almost entirely based on discharge sources. In addition, the mention of him is contained only in the Siberian chronicles (appointment to the province in Tobolsk), which cannot be compared with the information of the ranks.
Keywords: voivode, Russian aristocracy, origin, Golitsyn family, Prince A.V. Golitsyn, chronicles, bit books

Vlasov N.A. (St. Petersburg). Mikhail Nikiforovich Katkov through the eyes of Otto von Bismarck

Candidate of historical sciences, Associate professor,
St. Petersburg State University, Chair of Theory and History of International Relations
199034, Russia, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya nab., 7-9.
e-mail: n.vlasov@spbu.ru

Abstract. The subject of this research is the image of the outstanding Russian publicist M.N. Katkov (1818-1887) in the system of beliefs about Russia of the German Chancellor O. von Bismarck (1815-1898). The relevance of this problem is determined by the significance of Bismarck’s beliefs about Russia and Russians in the process of forming German foreign policy in the 1870s and 1880s. Therefore, these beliefs exerted considerable influence on the development of Russian-German relations during this critical period. A wide range of texts by O. von Bismarck was used as a source base – from business correspondence to parliamentary speeches and private conversations. As a result of the analysis of these texts, it can be concluded that the German Chancellor paid great attention to the activities of M.N. Katkov, considering him a key representative of the Moscow press and one of the main figures of Russian nationalism and pan-Slavism. Bismarck assessed Katkov’s influence on Russian politics as very high, sometimes equal to that of the emperor. The German Chancellor considered the personality and activities of the Moscow publicist one of the main obstacles to the development of Russian-German relations. At the same time, Bismarck suspected that Katkov’s position was due to his receiving money from French secret funds. The image of Katkov was an important part of the image of Russia as a whole for the German Chancellor; this image was influenced by national stereotypes and at the same time contributed to their strengthening.
Keywords: Otto von Bismarck, Mikhail Nikiforovich Katkov, pan-Slavism, Russian-German relations, national stereotypes

Sokolinskii E.K. (St. Petersburg). Chief artilleryman of the Volga-Caspian military flotilla, prisoner, pensioner

Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences
Head of the sector of the National Library of Russia
191069, St. Petersburg, Sadovaya, 18.
e-mail: sokolinskii_evge@mail.ru

Abstract. A graduate of the Naval Cadet Corps, Ordynsky began his main career as the leader of the Volga-Caspian flotilla. On the Volga, he met F.F. Raskolnikov and L.M. Reisner. In 1920, Ordynsky was appointed to the Sea of Azov, then he served as chief of staff of the naval defense of Odessa. In 1921 he became the leader of the Far Eastern Flotilla. In 1922-1926 he worked in the Central Office of the Navy. After serving at the Headquarters, Ordynsky transferred to teaching at the Naval Academy, where he lectured until 1936. In 1936, he was arrested on charges of counter-revolutionary activities. Despite the groundlessness of the accusations, he was sentenced to 7 years in the penitentiary in Ust-Vorkuta. In 1942, he was given a new, 10-year term, for allegedly organizing the Ust-Usinsk uprising of prisoners. In 1955 he was completely rehabilitated. In retirement, Ordynsky participated in the compilation of the Naval Atlas, the History of the Naval Academy, and maked presentations at the House of Scientists.
Keywords: Civil War, navy after the revolution, organizational work at the headquarters of the Navy, repression in the navy, history of the Russian navy

Pogodin S.N. (St. Petersburg). Zhou Enlai – outstanding diplomat (based on the materials of the Russian scientific press)

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Director
Higher School of International Relations, Humanitarian Institute,
Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University
Saint Petersburg, Politechnicheskaya str., 29.
e-mail: pogodin56@mail.ru

Abstract. A large number of scientific papers have been devoted to the life and work of the professional revolutionary, prominent statesman and diplomat Zhou Enlai (1898-1976). Currently, the study of his political heritage is an important scientific historiographical field. Special attention should be paid to the study of Zhou Enlai’s diplomatic activities in the coverage of Russian scientific literature. There are not so many works devoted to Zhou Enlai’s political and state activities in Russian historiography. The proposed article aims to examine the activities of Zhou Enlai as a diplomat, Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China in the coverage of Russian researchers. The article is structured in chronological order. Assessing the modern Russian literature devoted to Zhou Enlai, we can say with complete certainty: he was not only a practitioner, but also a theorist of the state structure of the new China.
Keywords: People’s Republic of China, diplomat, Zhou Enlai, Russian historiography, scientific press

Lapina I.Yu., Kargapoltsev S.Yu. (St. Petersburg). Xinhai National Revolution in China and its results: two ways of one people (historical and political aspect) (Part 1)

Head of the Department of History and Philosophy of SPbGASU,
Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor St. Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Ingineering (SPbGASU),
190005, 2nd Krasnoarmeyskaya stree t, 4, St. Petersburg
e-mail: clio@spbgasu.ru

Associate Professor of the Department of History and Philosophy of SPbGASU,
Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor St. Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Ingineering (SPbGASU),
190005, 2nd Krasnoarmeyskaya street, 4, St. Petersburg
e-mail: clio@spbgasu.ru

Abstract. The causes, nature and main results of the Xinhai Revolution of 1911-1912 are highlighted in China. The subsequent events of the civil war between the supporters of the bourgeois-nationalist and communist concepts of China’s further development are analyzed. The historical portraits of political leaders of both monarchical and post-revolutionary China are considered. Particular attention is paid to the biographies of Sun Yat-sen, Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong. Data are given on the struggle of the Chinese aggression of 1937-1945 and the second stage of the civil war in China.

The data on the achievements and problems of Chinese statehood in the second half of the 20th – early 21st century is argued. The features of the Soviet-Chinese and Russian-Chinese relations during the years of the period of the formation of a multi-molar world are analyzed. Provides extensive source material.
Keywords: Xinhai Revolution, Kuomintang, Sun Yat-sen, Chiang Kai-shek, Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaoping, Civil war in China, Japanese militarism, Manchukuo, Republic of China Taiwan

Kuzenkova M.V. (St. Petersburg). New legends for an old myth

PhD in History, Associate Professor of the department of social sciences Saint Petersburg State University of Economics
191186, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Canal Griboedova Emb., 30/32
e-mail: marinahistory@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article examines the main thesis and message of Viktor Rezun’s publications that the Soviet Union is solely to blame for the outbreak of the Second World War. The author essentially refutes with figures and facts the distortion of the facts presented in the books “Icebreaker” and “Day-M”.

The author debunks an old legend about the “preventive war” launched by Hitler against the USSR on June 22, 1941. “New” historical facts are systematically thrown into this legend in combination with relevant comments. In the books of V. Rezun, who took the pseudonym V. Suvorov. “Icebreaker” and “Day-M”, the version about the treacherous attack of Nazi Germany on the USSR is denied. His works are written in the genre of historical journalism, so they are read by millions of people. This complicates the work of historians to eradicate such theories and myths. The author in this article analyzes the reasons for the appearance of this version, by whom it was originally fabricated. The article convincingly proves its inconsistency, the facts of Germany’s thorough preparation for aggression against the USSR are given.

The author in the article illustrates the unprofessionalism of V. Rezun-Suvorov, based on errors, inaccuracies, weak factual material. The paradox of his books is that he refused to use archival data, but uses quotations taken out of context in his writings, ignoring and distorting facts that do not fit into his theory.

All this allows us to prove V. Rezun’s lies, his true ideological predilections, which he called an “unconventional view” of the beginning of the Great Patriotic War.

The work uses serious scientific materials, including the Israeli professor G. Gorodetsky, as well as the most prominent historians of the Second World War D.A. Volkogonov, G.A. Kumanev, V.V. Kurbatov, I.F. Stadnyuk, etc.
Keywords: the Great Patriotic War, preventive nature, falsification of war, revision of war assessments, invasion of the USSR, ideological struggle, fraud

Galkina S.Yu. (Kursk). The development of customs in the cities of the Kursk province of the XVII century

Candidate of Historical Sciences,
Associate Professor of the Department of Philosophy,
Socio-Legal and Natural Sciences Kursk
Academy of State and Municipal Service
305044, city of Kursk, Stantsionnaya street, 9
e-mail: galkina1901@bk.ru

Abstract. This article examines the development of customs in Russia, as well as the development of customs in the city of Oboyan, Kursk province during the XVII century. The main circumstance that determined the development of the customs system during this period was the formation of a single Russian (Moscow) state with an extensive state economy. With the creation and strengthening of the Moscow state, with the expansion of the territory, additional opportunities opened up for the development of trade relations with the West and the East. The barometer of customs was trade. Russian merchants were allowed to sell their goods in all border towns and at fairs, and to trade freely with foreigners. The information about the trade relations of Oboyan with the city of Kursk and Belgorod in the period of the XVII century is presented. The meaning of the repurchase method was that the interested person (or group of persons) contributed to the treasury in advance or in installments a certain amount of money calculated from the average customs income in the area over the past years.
Keywords: development of customs business in Russia, development of customs business in the cities of Kursk province, trade, trade relations, customs books of Kursk and Belgorod

Bakanov A.V. (Makhachkala), Sidnenko T.I. (St. Petersburg). On the question of the integration of dagestan perimeters into the boss of the Russian empire (reasons and stages) (Part 1: reasons)

Historian independent researcher
367030, Russia, Makhachkala,
e-mail: mr.bakanov85@mail.ru

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Prof., Vice-Rector for Academic Affairs MIPK
Academy of Additional Professional Education
195267, St. Petersburg, st. Ushinsky, d. 5/1
e-mail: sidnenko@list.ru

Abstract. If we consider and analyze all those multiple scientific studies that today show and reflect the progressive process of movement and the offensive of Russia to the Caucasus, then it is be noted that the aforementioned process has always had both geopolitical and economic background. As all the leading domestic historians agree on this, who, to one degree or another, studied and analyzed the Caucasian problems when the Caspian-Black Sea diameter from time immemorial was nothing more than the same region on the scale of which many trans-Eurasian transport routes converged and intertwined, then, let’s say that, with this he had attracted Russia. In addition, apart from this there were also natural resources within its perimeters. Moreover, speaking of the Dagestan’s borders, let us separately note that it is the geopolitical dimension of the Caucasus, as in fact, in terms of its geographical, and on the same level topographical, natural and climatic, as well as cultural and historical specifics, de facto is nothing other than a single and indivisible space. Consequently, all those determinants, patterns and benefits that steadily attracted Russia to the Caucasus, as a fact, automatically attracted it to the bosom of the Land of Mountains. However, let us straightly denote that in the context of historical epochs, the most important asset of the Land of Mountains has always been and is, the resource of its communication.
Keywords: Dagestan, Caucasus, Russia, integration, transport communications, Caspian-Black Sea region, Iran, Turkey

Yakhimovich S.Yu. (Khabarovsk). “One of the centers of organized railwaymen”: The Cooperative of workers of the CER as a segment of the trade union movement in Northern Manchuria (1919 – 1932)

Ph. D in History, Associate Professor,
Professor of the Department of social and humanitarian
and economic disciplines
Far Eastern law Institute of the Ministry of interior Affairs of Russia.
680042, Russia, Khabarovsk, 15 Kazarmenny Lane.
e-mail: sergyahim-69@yandex.ru 

Abstract. The article is devoted to one of the little-studied problems of the socio-economic aspect in the life of the Russian colony of the Chinese-Eastern Railway exclusion Zone, namely, the development of cooperation among railway workers here. The difficult political situation that has developed in the CER zone and the ongoing civil war in Russia has seriously shaken the standard of living and the provision of essential goods for workers and employees of the road. The article found that many cooperative associations that were engaged in this earlier went bankrupt or could not cope with their functions. The situation required the creation of a new large organization capable of supplying the railway workers of the CER with everything necessary. Such a consumer association was established at the end of 1919. “Cooperative of employees, craftsmen and workers of the CER”. From the very beginning of its activity, the cooperative came under the influence of the pro-Soviet trade union of railway workers and the Bolsheviks behind it. On the basis of archival materials not previously introduced into scientific circulation, the involvement of the CER Cooperative in trade union life, changes in the dynamics of its numerical composition and the results of economic activity are considered. It is concluded that the consumer organization performed not only the role of the support of the trade union to protect the economic interests of railway workers, but also became another form of public association of pro-Soviet workers. With the arrival of the CER in 1924 of the USSR, the financial support of the cooperative by the Soviet administration of the road improved. However, on the other hand, the pressure of the Chinese authorities, who saw the cooperative as a conductor of Soviet political and economic influence in Northern Manchuria, intensified on the consumer association of the CER. Despite this, the CER Cooperative managed to survive the Soviet-Chinese conflict of 1929 and, having partially recovered, continued its existence in the new conditions of the Japanese occupation of Manchuria, established in 1932.
Keywords: China-Eastern Railway (CER), cooperative, trade union, commissioner, product

Nikodim, Hieromonk (Khmyrov Denis V.) (St. Petersburg). “There were, of course, no funds, but where was there to get them from?”: To the question of the financial situation of Russian Orthodox clergy abroad in 1920-1940s

Ph.D. in History, Ph.D. in Theology,
Associate Professor Department of Theology,
Russian Christian Humanitarian Academy named after F.M. Dostoevsky
191011, Saint Petersburg, Embankment River Fontanka, 15.
e-mail: Hmyrovdenis@mail.ru

Abstract. Based on the materials of the State Archive of the Russian Federation, on the journals of the sessions of the Synod of Archbishops, on the official periodicals “Tserkovnye vedomosti” (“Church records”) and on researches of modern historians and on participants’ memories of the events, an attempt is made highlight the financial situation of the Russian Church Abroad through its highest authority – (the Synod of Archbishop) and the ordinary clergy in the period between the two World Wars. The issues that deal with diocesan deductions to the general church needs, the financial situation of the dioceses themselves and missions of Russian Church Abroad are considered in this article. The revenue sources to the general church treasury are listed, the ratio of revenues and expenses is revealed, annual growth in the budget deficit is noticed, that was often bordering on insolvency. The feasible support provided to the Russian exiles by sister Churches: Bulgarian and, especially Serbian, was also noted. Voluntary additional measures to support the Church – a self-assessment tax, practice of offsets and privileges are identified and presented. The role of special committees, whose activities were focused on maintaining the church life is shown in the article.
Keywords: Russian Church Abroad, Russian Orthodox Emigration, budget, finance, financial statements, financial audit, the Synod of Archbishop, Metropolitan Anthony (Khrapovitsky), Metropolitan Eulogius (Georgiyevsky), the journal “Tserkovnye vedomosti” (“Church records”)

Nechaeva A.S. (Khabarovsk). Business Activity of Russian Emigrants in Manchuria during the Second World War

3rd year postgraduate student, INIA-1 group,
Historical sciences and archeology.
Far Eastern Institute of Management RANEPA.
680000, Russia, Khabarovsk, Muravyov-Amursky str., 33.
Email: nechaeva-angelica@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article represents the situation of Russian entrepreneurs on the territory of the puppet state of Manchukuo in the 1940s in the conditions of the mobilization economy during the Pacific War. Based on documents from the archive of the Bureau of Russian Emigrants in the Manchurian Empire, the author examines the activities of Russian entrepreneurs who found themselves dependent on the changes and restrictions imposed by the pro-Japanese government on the economic life of the region. The problems of emigrant business are shown by the example of raw materials supplies, acute shortage, poor organization of labor activity, the state of the banking system, the food industry, in particular bakeries, dairy enterprises, animal husbandry, agriculture, hunting, wine and vodka production, services, transport enterprises, construction business and the activities of homeowners. The trends of decreasing the quality of manufactured products during the study period, the growth of illegal activities and speculation are noted. The attempts to create associations and unions to overcome crises, carried out with the support of the Bureau for Russian Emigrants in the Manchurian Empire, are shown. The current situation in the Russian business environment is presented on the examples of the activities of well-known emigrant entrepreneurs A.G. Suchkov, F.S. Volkov, P.M. Moskvin, etc.
Keywords: North-East China, Manchuria, Harbin, Russian entrepreneurship, Russian emigration, World War II, Japanese occupation

Belov A.I. (Mytishchi). The history of the rationalization movement in industry in the 1950s (based on the materials of the city of Voskresensk, Moscow Region)

Master’s degree of the Faculty of History, Management and Service of the State Educational Institution of Higher Education of the Moscow Region “State Social and Humanitarian University, teacher of the municipal budget educational institution “Multidisciplinary linguistic gymnasium No. 33” city of Mytishchi
141008, Moscow region, Mytishchi, Astakhov avenue, 8A
e-mail: abelov998@gmail.com 

Abstract. During the leadership of N.S. Khrushchev, the question was raised about the inefficient use of the latest achievements of science and technology. The experience of innovators in enterprises spread slowly. The CPSU and the government urged workers to improve production technology. The development of the rationalization movement increased the growth of labor productivity and produced an economic effect. The author bases his conclusions on the analysis of historiography, as well as archival documents, most of which relate to the process of development of rationalization activities during the period under study in the city of Voskresensk, Moscow Region. A comprehensive assessment of rationalization work in this region is carried out in historiography for the first time.
Keywords: N.S. Khrushchev, reforms, industry, rationalization movement, scientific and technological progress

Shtoda A.E. (Moscow). Perception of India by Soviet people in 1953-1964

Postgraduate student, Lomonosov Moscow State University,
School of Public Administration,
Department of History of State and Municipal Administration.
119991, Russian Federation, Moscow, Lomonosovsky prospekt, 27, building 4,
e-mail:  antropovskaia@gmail.com

Abstract. The article is devoted to the perception of India by the Soviet people in 1953-1964. This period is characterized by the formation and rapid development of Soviet-Indian relations. Contacts between the two countries arose even before India gained independence, but the intensity has grown after the establishment of diplomatic relations in 1947.

Economy played an important role in strengthening Soviet-Indian relations. Ties between the two countries have become closer in 1953 due to the first trade agreement. Bilateral relations have been developing in all areas, cultural exchange was extremely important, because due to it people were able to receive more information about another country. Visits of officials and impressions of specialists who worked in the Republic of India were meaningful for the formation of perceptions of India by the Soviet citizens.

The research focuses on the crucial factors that formed the image of India in the Soviet people’s heads. Source of information, evolution of the perception of India and reaction of the Soviet citizens to the emergence of a new major trading partner is considered in the article.
Keywords: USSR, India, perception, cultural exchange, memories

Tribunsky S.A. (Samara). Cultural and educational work in the Red Army during the Great Patriotic War (06/22/1941 – 05/09/1945): Soviet historiography of the problem. Article two. Analysis of Soviet historiographic sources (second half of the 1960s – first half of the 1980s)

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of National History and Historiography, Samara National Research University named after Academician S.P. Koroleva,
443086, Volga Federal District, Samara Region, Samara, Moskovskoe shosse, 34,
E-mail: ser.6791@yandex.ru 

Abstract. Through the repeated efforts of more than one generation of Soviet historians, it was proved that one of the significant reasons for the victory of the Soviet people in the Great Patriotic War (06/22/1941 – 05/09/1945) was the fact that in the Armed Forces of the Soviet state the function established, moreover, efficiently and qualitatively, the system of party-political work. Its constituent element was cultural and educational work, which had a small degree of independence. In the process of studying these unique phenomena, a large array of historiographical and historical sources has accumulated in Soviet historical science. Moreover, many of them saw the light in the second half of the 1960s – the first half of the 1980s. That is, at a time when the historiographic process of partial “reanimation” of Stalinist approaches in the theory and methodology of Soviet historical science began to dominate (they, as you know, were somewhat undermined during the Khrushchev “thaw”. This article is a logical continuation articles “Cultural and educational work in the Red Army during the Great Patriotic War (06/22/1941 – 05/09/1945): Soviet historiography of the problem. Article 1. Analysis of Soviet historiographic sources (second half of the 1950s – first half of the 1960s) x years)”, published in this journal [Klio. 2023. No. 02 (194) Feb. S. 19-32]. The subject of her research is the established Soviet research historiographic tradition of studying the topic of cultural and educational work in the Red Army during the Great Patriotic War, the views of Soviet historians, analysis of the process of accumulation and increment of historical knowledge, the depth of scientific development of the topic mentioned above, in the second half from the 1960s to the first half of the 1980s. Based on the results of studying our problem, some of its main historiographical tendencies are synthesized. The article is made in the format of problem-thematic historiography. There are no copyright claims for the completeness of the coverage of the problem.
Keywords: Red Army, cultural and educational work; party political work; historiographic source; historiographic analysis; historiographic trends; the second half of the 1960s – the first half of the 1980s

Sotnikov V.E. (Moscow). The First All–Army Party Conference on March 29-30, 1991 as a reflection of the attitude of Soviet military personnel to the policy of M.S. Gorbachev

Vladislav Evgenievich Sotnikov
postgraduate student of the Department of History of Russia in the XX-XXI centuries
Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov
119192, Moscow, Lomonosovsky prospect, 27, building 4
E-mail: ulsim96@mail.ru

Abstract. In the article, the author analyzes the problem of the attitude of the Armed Forces of the USSR to the policy of “perestroika” at its final stage in March 1991. During the political confrontation between the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR B.N. Yeltsin and USSR President M.S. Gorbachev, the position of the army was decisive. The First All-Army Party Conference on March 29–30, 1991 allowed M.S. Gorbachev to use it in order to enlist the support of the army. The author emphasizes the lack of coverage of the First All-Army Party Conference in the scientific literature and introduces previously unpublished archival materials into scientific circulation. At the conference, communist servicemen spoke about the current problems of the USSR Armed Forces and demanded that the political leadership resolve the issues raised. The author emphasizes that for the first time at the conference, the military were able to personally convey to M.S. Gorbachev his fears and anxieties. However, the President of the USSR, General Secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Supreme Commander M.S. Gorbachev did not take seriously the problems posed, evaded answering many questions, and thus did not justify the trust of the communist military personnel, which contributed to the deepening of the conflict between M.S. Gorbachev with the military, which led to the loss of loyalty to him by the generals and the Armed Forces of the USSR as a whole.
Keywords: Armed forces of the USSR, perestroika, CPSU, M.S. Gorbachev, party conference, collapse of the USSR, referendum