Klio #07 (175) 2021


Schmidt W. (Regensburg, Germany). Periodicals and journalism of the German Empire, as a source for the study of the colonial past

Waldemar Schmidt
Magister of History,
University of Regensburg,
Humboldt street 48 a, 93053 Regensburg, Germany,
E-mail: wolodjaschmidt@gmx.de

Annotation. The author of the article tried to highlight issues related to the development of the press and journalism in Germany, which reflected the views of various circles of the population and political parties of the country on the problem of colonial expansion and the acquisition of colonial possessions. The article analyzes a number of magazine and newspaper articles that fully highlight the range of problems faced by the German Empire after the acquisition of the colonies. In the article, the author touched upon a number of significant discussions that were relevant in the periodical press and journalism of Germany concerning the colonial possessions.
Keywords. German Empire, periodical pre

Gerasoudi M.K. (Moscow). Rumour as a source of historical research: an experience of historiographical systematization

Bachelor Student,
Department of Russian History of the
Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries,
Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University.
Russian Federation, 119234, Moscow,
Lomonosovsky Prospekt, 27-4.
E-mail: gerasoudi@list.ru

Annotation. The usage of rumour as a historical source in modern research is considered in the article. The potential of rumour as a source in historical research is revealed and their attributive characteristics and distinctive features are identified. Rumour is differentiated from other types of informal communication: gossip, falsifications, unverified information, etc. The article reveals the mechanism of rumours genesis, their spread and circulation as well as the impact they can have on the society they circulate around. At the same time, the author reveals inaccuracies in modern approaches to rumour research and misunderstanding of what rumour is and what functions it has. In particular, misperception of rumour as an indicator of instability in society is highlighted.

Keywords: rumour, rumourology, informal communication, historical source, historiography.

Tribunsky S.A. (Samara). Some historiographic trends in the study of the problem of cultural and educational work in the Red Army during the front-line Civil War in Russia in domestic historical science (the second half of the 1980s – the first twenty years of the XXI century)


Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Russian History, Samara National Research University named after academician S.P. Queen “, 443086, Volga Federal District, Samara region, Samara, Moscow highway, 34, tel. 8-937-100-15-55, E-mail: ser.6791@yandex.ru

Annotation. In the domestic historiography of the Civil War in Russia (especially related to the front stage of its course in the second half of 1918 – 1920), historiographic sources published in the second half of the 1980s – the first twenty years of the 21st century took their place. These sources highlight various aspects of cultural and educational work in the Workers ‘and Peasants’ Red Army (RKKA) – this unique component of party-political work in the Armed Forces of the young Soviet state. The subject of this article is the established national research historiographic tradition of studying the topic of cultural and educational work in the Red Army during the front-line Civil War in Russia. In addition, the article examines the views of Russian historians, the analysis of the process of accumulation and increment of historical knowledge. As a result, some of its historiographic tendencies were identified. The article is written in the format of problem-thematic historiography.
Keywords: front-line Civil War in Russia; Red Army, cultural and educational work; party political work; historical and graphic source; historiographic analysis; new approaches, rebuilding, the crisis of historical science.

Omelchak D.V., Uniyatova A.A., Tugusova B.Yu. (Elista, Kalmykia). «The Goloshchekin genocide» in the historiography of Western Europe and the United States

Student of Kalmyk State
University named B. B. Gorodovikov
358000, Russian Federation, Elista, Pushkin St., 11.
e-mail: 777dhrode777@gmail.com

Student of Kalmyk State
University named B. B. Gorodovikov
358000, Russian Federation, Elista, Pushkin St., 11.
e-mail: akandymova@gmail.com

Student of Kalmyk State
University named B. B. Gorodovikov
358000, Russian Federation, Elista, Pushkin St., 11.
e-mail: tugusova00@mail.ru 

Annotation. The article is devoted to the attempts of researchers from Western Europe and the United States to create a new historical category — the Kazakh Holodomor called the «The Goloshchekin genocide». American and Western European researchers are uncritical about the history of collectivization in Kazakhstan and in their interpretations they massively adhere to the opinion that the famine in Kazakhstan was a deliberate genocide. Due to the fact that Western scientists were actually mainly engaged in studying only the “Holodomor” in Ukraine, the topic of famine in Kazakhstan was deprived of scientific justification, until the appearance of Sarah Cameron’s dissertation. This work was the first work that examined the tragic consequences of ill-conceived collectivization in Kazakhstan. It should be noted that the topic of famine in Kazakhstan has a rather complex and tragic background, which affects the modern relations between Kazakhstan and Russia.
Keywords. History of Kazakhstan, Holodomor, «The Goloshchekin genocide», historiography of Western Europe and the USA.

Lapunov A.A. (St. Petersburg). Between the age of Enlightenment and Romanticism: A Picture of the Slavic World by K.G. von Anton


Postgraduate student (III course), Subepartment of history of the Slavic and Balkan Countries, the Institute of History, Saint Petersburg State University.
199034, St. Petersburg, Mendeleevskaya line, 5.
e-mail: alexlapunov@gmail.com

Annotation. The article dedicates to the problems of the emergence of ideas about characteristic to the Slavs in 19th century the ethnolinguistic nature of the nation in pre-romantic times, in the Age of Enlightenment. This issue like as the Slavic studies of the age of Enlightenment has received little attention in Russian and foreign historiography. The main source is the first scientific encyclopedia about the Slavs “The first experience of describing the origin, customs, tempers, opinions and knowledge of the ancient Slavs“, published in two volumes in 1783 and 1789, by the lusatian scientist K.G. von Anton (1751–1818). On the example of analysis of the “picture of the Slavic world” of von Anton’s work the author comes to the conclusion that ethnolinguistic discourse in the Slavic world began to take shape in the second half of the 18th century. Its emergence is mainly associated with the transfer to Slavic soil of similar ideas of the German nation by the German intelligentsia of the 18th century, as well as with a new epistemology that arose as a result of the emergence of two new scientific disciplines (theoretical and Slavic linguistics and ethnography) at that time.
Keywords. K. G. von Anton, Slavs, the Age of Enlightenment, protonational discourse, linguistic nationalism, Slavic studies.

Melnik M.N. (Moscow). Saudi-American Alliance: Conflict Nature of Bilateral Relations in the First Decades of the 21st Century


PhD student of the Department of the Near and Middle Eastern History, Institute of Asian and African Studies, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 125009, Russia, Moscow, Mokhovaya st., 11-1.
E-mail: maxkinlem@mail.ru 

Annotation. The research object of this work is the Saudi-American relations in the first decades of the XXI century. The author analyzes the sources of tension and the emerging contradictions between Washington and Riyadh during this period. Particular attention is paid to the specific statements of high-ranking officials: American presidents, diplomats, Saudi kings, experts etc. The article consistently examines the gradual change in the key attitudes and positions of the United States in the XXI century towards Saudi Arabia as a result of events such as the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, the military campaign in Iraq in 2003, the Arab Spring in 2011, the Iranian nuclear deal in 2015. American policy in the region of The Middle East was also affected by the “shale revolution” of 2008-2010.
Since the beginning of the XXI century Saudi-American relations are acquiring features of conflict interaction. The parties tend to put pressure on each other more often setting various conditions. The United States has become for the KSA not only the main guarantor of security, but also one of the main irritating factors in the region.
Keywords. Saudi Arabia, USA, conflict, interaction, security, mutual distrust.

Shamardin V.V. (Saratov). The Interaction of B. Obama’s Cabinet and the House of Representatives in the Field of Free Trade: the Dissent in the Democratic Party

Postgraduate of the Department of International Relations
and Russian Foreign Policy
Institute of history and International Relations
Saratov State University.
410012, Russian Federation, Saratov, Astrakhanskaya St., 83.
E-mail: vikt.shamardin@yandex.ru

Annotation. The article is devoted to the study of the interaction of the Obama administration and the US Congress in the field of the liberalization of trade with the Asia-Pacific countries. Special attention is paid to the analysis of the tools of the House of Representatives, which are used to influence the course of the presidential administration in the field of free trade. The article discloses cleavage in regards to views of democrats on the problem of further trade liberalization. The author comes to the conclusion that the Obama administration could not offer acceptable conditions for further trade liberalization for most democrats, especially for members of the Congressional Progressive Caucus during the first presidential term. The dissent in views led to further failure in the implementation of such a project as Trans-Pacific partnership.
Keywords: liberalization, KORUS FTA, Asia-Pacific region, the Obama administration, free trade zone agreement, Trans-Pacific partnership, The New Democrat Coalition, Trade Promotion Authority (fast track).

Izotova S.V. (Moscow). Institutional preparation of elections to the All-Russian Constituent Assembly in Russia in 1917

Postgraduate Student,
Department of the History of Social Movements and Political Parties,
Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University.
Russian Federation, 119192, Moscow,
Lomonosovsky Prospekt, 27-4.
E-mail: izotova.svetlana.v@yandex.ru

Annotation. The article is devoted to the process of institutional preparation of elections to the Constituent Assembly during the revolutionary events of 1917. The course of legal registration of the first all-Russian elections, starting from the moment of obtaining the legal status of the Constituent Assembly, is reflected. The study describes the composition and activities of the Special Meeting for the preparation of the Regulation on elections to the Constituent Assembly, the course of the development of the Regulation itself and the features of the formed electoral law. In addition, the activities of the Legal Meeting under the Provisional Government, which developed the Draft on the Organization of Executive Power under the Constituent Assembly, as well as the Draft concerning the form of promulgation of laws under the Constituent Assembly are presented. It also reflects the activities of the All-Russian Commission for Elections to the Constituent Assembly (All-elections), formed with the aim of organizing and guiding the work of local electoral bodies, observing the course of elections, compiling lists of persons elected as members of the Constituent Assembly.
Keywords. Constituent Assembly, Constitution, people’s representation, the Russian revolution, law, electoral law, the Provisional Government.

Zelenov D.A. (Moscow). Specifics of USSR-FRG interaction in military-political sphere in epoch of Détente

Master’s student Russian State University for the Humanities (RSUH).
125993, Russia, Moscow, Miusskaya Square, 6.
e-mail: dima-zelenov17@mail.ru

Annotation. The growth of military-political contradictions between RF and states of the Euro-Atlantic community, which transformed to the new “cold war” in the second half of 2010th, directly and in destabilizing way influences all European countries and generally the whole architecture of security. Together with dismantling of the arms control system it causes the setting on the agenda the task to provide the new Détente. In this regard the existing experience of “classical” Détente of the first half of 1970th gets especial significance. The interaction between the USSR and Western Germany, which provided the solution of majority of military-political problems in Europe (first of all, post-war borders), played the special role in it. The article analyses the key-tracks of the USSR – FRG dialog on military-political issues in the end of 1960th – beginning of 1970th. Special author’s attention was paid to specifics and features of noticed parties negotiating process in period of determination of texts of the crucial agreements, primarily the Treaty of Moscow and the Four Power Agreement on Berlin.
Keywords: Détente, negotiating process, German question, inviolability of frontiers, Treaty of Moscow, Four Power Agreement on Berlin.

Khubeshty A.F. (Moscow). Formation of a system of interaction between the legislative and presidential powers in the process of developing and adopting the new Constitution of the Russian Federation in 1990-1993

Postgraduate student,
the department of History of State and Municipal Administration,
V. Lomonosov Moscow State University
119991, Russia, city with federal status, Moscow, Leninskie Gory street, 1
E-mail: khubeshty@mail.ru

Annotation. The article examines the formation of a system of interaction between the legislative and presidential powers in the context of the development of political events in 1990-1993 in Russia. The author analyzes the reasons that have determined the vector of the country’s political development for many years, as well as the distribution of the balance of authorities of the presidential and parliamentary powers.
An analysis is given of the draft constitutional structure submitted for consideration, which became the basis for the political discourse of the early 1990s In Russian Federation. The author concentrates on building top-down governance based on the principle of separation of powers as the basic principle of a democratic state structure. It was concluded that the discussion and adoption of the new Constitution of the Russian Federation was subordinated to the logic of the power struggle between the legislative power and President Boris N. Yeltsin’s, who definitely intended to enshrine in the new Basic Law the powers that would allow the presidential team to pursue an independent course without taking the Parliament into consideration.
Keywords. Constitution of the Russian Federation, the Basic Law, President of the Russian Federation, Parliament, Congress of People’s Deputies, Constitutional Assembly, the State Duma.

Avliev V.N. (Elista, Kalmykia). Correspondence of high officials of the Kalmyk steppe on the situation of livestock in the region (On the example of the trustee of the Kalmyk Bazaar)

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Faculty of Humanities, Kalmyk State University named after B.B. Gorodovikov,
358011, Russian Federation, Elista, st. Pushkin, 11,
e-mail: bartolomeod@yandex.ru

Annotation. The article examines the issues related to the correspondence of high officials of the Kalmyk steppe on the situation of livestock in the region on the example of the trustee of the Kalmyk Bazaar at the end of the 19th century. Questions about the condition of livestock were the most important for such a nomadic people of the South of Russia as the Kalmyks, since cattle breeding still played a key role in their everyday life. This correspondence, as part of the document flow of pre-revolutionary Russia, clearly shows what problems the Kalmyks faced in the arid region when owning livestock. The main problems were the deaths of livestock, which were attributed to various reasons. Among the main reasons were epizootics, that is, epidemics of diseases, especially among cattle and small ruminants. Based on the correspondence between higher and lower officials, it becomes clear not only the problems that the representatives of the Kalmyk people faced while keeping livestock, but also the ways to solve these problems, which were proposed by the officials of the region. The work also notes folk remedies for the Kalmyks’ fight against epizootics in animals. It also appears from the correspondence that the officials attached great importance to placing the trade movement of livestock in the region and beyond under their strict and accounting control.
Keywords. Correspondence, trustee, livestock, epizootics, struggle, ulus, Kalmyk Bazaar

Biryukova A.M. (Kolomna). The dynamics of commercial migration of the peasantry near Moscow in 1900-1914

post-graduate student of the Department of National and General History and Municipal Administration, State University of Humanities and Social Studies (Kolomna); 3rd year
116, Lenin St., Kolomna, 140410.
E-mail: biryukova.am@yandex.ru

Annotation. This article examines the main changes in peasant trade migration in 1900-1914. The scientific novelty of the research lies in the fact that the author identified and described the social and economic features of the development of the fishing activity of peasants near Moscow outside their village. As a result, it was proved that the crisis of 1900-1903, which hit all spheres of society’s life, could not have a pernicious influence on the Russian industry, which, albeit slowly, continued to grow. Depression 1904-1909 led to the disappearance of many trades and the emergence of a number of new ones due to the urgent need for peasants in searchof new ways of earning money. Many peasants had to do black work, because their former fishing activity turned out to be unclaimed. The period of industrial growth 1910-1914 led to a massive outflow of peasants to work in Moscow. But enterprises and factories did not need so much labor. Therefore, the most active peasants sought either individual entrepreneurship or united for a common cause. Those who could not find work in the city joined the ranks of the unemployed. All these circumstances contributed to an increase in peasant trade migration in the Moscow province in the period under review.
Keywords. Moscow province, peasants, entrepreneurship, features of the capital province, crafts, seasonal work, migration.

Razinkov M.E. (Voronezh). The orthodox clergy of the Central Black Earth Region in the social and political dialogue 1917 – 1918

PhD in History, associate professor,
Department of Social Sciences and Humanities FSBEI HE «Voronezh State University of Forestry and
Technologies named after G.F. Morozov»,
Russia, 394029, Voronezh, Tsiolkovskogo str., 8, ap. 207.
E-mail: razinkov_mihail@mail.ru

Annotation. In this article we studied the possibilities of constructive influence of the clergy on the socio-political situation by peaceful methods, based on materials from the provinces of the Central Black Earth Region (Voronezh, Tambov, Kursk, Orel). The relevance of the chosen topic lies in the search for peaceful solutions to social and institutional problems at the time of the revolution and the escalation of the civil war. Modern historiography, having debunked the Soviet myth of church conservatism after the February revolution, examines the relationship between the church and the Soviet government through the prism of an ongoing conflict. Nevertheless, the study of this undoubtedly leading factor in the relationship between the Bolsheviks and the clergy does not give an answer to the question – why did the church survive after the victory of the Reds in the civil war? The clergy took part in the formation of the organs of revolutionary power in the spring of 1917. Even the most conservative church hierarchs of the region spoke out with words of support for the Provisional Government and hopes for a peaceful development of events. Despite the frank oppression of the clergy and the church by the Soviet regime, they were able to maintain their authority among the most diverse social groups. Moreover, the religious worldview found points of contact with socialist ideology. In the struggle for their rights, the clergy of the Central Black Earth Region used the full range of opportunities for nonviolent resistance characteristic of civil society. All this points to the rootedness of religion in political culture, which ensured the further survival of the clergy in the Soviet state.
Keywords: revolution of 1917, civil war, clergy, church, laity, civil society, socio-political dialogue

Malakhov R.A. (Vologda). Participation of local bureaucracy of the Soviet state in property relations during the Great Patriotic war (on the materials of the Vologda region)

Ph. D. in History, Associate Professor.
Vologda State University
160000, Russia, Vologda, Lenina, 15.
E-mail: malakhov74@mail.ru

Annotation. The Great Patriotic war was the most difficult period in the destiny of the Russian peasantry. This was a time of extreme scarcity of food and clothing, of labor and draught power, of fuel for production, of seeds for sowing, and of fodder for livestock. At the same time, the war clarified and aggravated some previously not quite noticeable events related to the functioning of property relations in Russian rural society.
The article is devoted to the study of the system of distribution of surplus and necessary product in regional agricultural production, the definition of the main elements of mechanism of realization of the right of ownership at the grass-roots management level. The source of this work is the office documentation of the Central and regional party, Soviet, and controlling authorities of the war years.
The author of the article came to the conclusion that the leading employees of districts (first of all, secretaries of district party committees, chairmen of district Executive committees) and heads of kolkhozes and sovkhozes, machine-tractor stations were part of the lower management layer involved in the realization of the right of ownership and have certain opportunities for assigning and distributing agricultural products.
A special position in the hierarchy of regional bureaucracy was occupied by responsible employees of Central and controlling authorities. According to their position, they were obliged to monitor the implementation of local legal norms, state plans and decisions. These managers were part of a different category of bureaucracy, which had different powers and abilities in the process of withdrawing surplus product.
The research showed that during the Great Patriotic war, district bureaucracy and heads of kolkhozes, fulfilling state plans, engaged in personal food provision, actually participated in the distribution of surplus and necessary agricultural products. In this process expressed whether they have a divided right. The use by bureaucracy of the results of the work of collective farmers should be considered as the exploitation of the peasantry. At the same time, many heads of kolkhozes tried to maintain social relationships in their farms, because relationships with fellow villagers were the most important factor in the physical survival of people. Under these conditions communal traditions of mutual assistance and collective labor were strengthened among the kolkhozniks.
Keywords. The Great Patriotic war, state capitalism; kolkhoz; property rights; surplus product; bureaucracy.

Gridyaeva M.V. (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk). Hydrographic study of the Sakhalin-Kuril region in the post-war period (1946–1950)

Ph.D. in History, Leading researcher,
State historical archive of the Sakhalin region
693007, Russian Federation, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Dzerzhinsky St., 72
E-mail: grimar123@yandex.ru

Annotation. The article, based on archival sources and published materials, examines the historical experience of hydrographic research of Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands in the context of the study of the Far Eastern Seas and the Pacific Ocean in the first post-war years. The most important factors that determined the scope, forms and directions of work were named, the most significant surveys were shown (hydrographic expeditions of the Navy, Kurilo-Sakhalin naval integrated expedition, etc.), features and critical research findings. Special attention is paid to the main forms and directions of interaction between military hydrographers and representatives of scientific institutions in the implementation of expeditionary activities. It is concluded that in the first post-war years, the geography of hydrographic work in the Far East expanded, an important direction was research related to ensuring the interests of the political, economic and economic development of the Soviet Union. The cooperation of military hydrographers and scientists made it possible to more thoroughly explore the remote territories of the Far East, significantly expand the range of research. Hydrographers and scientists managed to solve the main tasks of hydrographic study of the water area, and the results of the research became a reliable basis for the development of hydrography of the Far Eastern seas and the Pacific Ocean in the subsequent period.
Keywords. hydrographic research, expeditions, Far East, Sakhalin, Kuril Islands

Dorokhov V.Zh. (Khabarovsk). The last Japanese prisoner of war of camp No. 16 of the Ministry of Internal Affairs in the Khabarovsk Territory. A sketch about the history of the repatriation of Japanese prisoners of war in 1956

the deputy chief of faculty of socially-humanitarian and economic disciplines of Far East legal institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia,
the colonel of police, the candidate of historical sciences, docent,
Khabarovsk, Baikal lane 4, apt. 10
e-mail: dorohova_elen@mail.ru

Annotation. As a result of the surrender of Japan in September 1945, more than 600 thousand prisoners of war fell into the hands of the Red Army, who, by the decision of the Soviet government, were sent to the USSR to restore the destroyed economy. The largest contingent of prisoners of war was stationed in the Khabarovsk Territory. By 1950 when the bulk of the prisoners of war were repatriated to their homeland, almost all camps were disbanded, except for Camp 16 in Khabarovsk and Camp 48 in the Ivanovo region, where the last Japanese prisoners of war convicted by the Soviet authorities for espionage remained in prison for the next 6 years. Due to the fact that their presence in the USSR was used by the diplomats of the two countries as one of the levers of political pressure on their opponents, they were able to return home only after the conclusion of the Soviet-Japanese Peace Treaty in 1956.
Keywords: USSR, Japan, prisoners of war, repatriation, NKVD-MVD camp No. 16, Khabarovsk incident, espionage, Soviet-Japanese peace treaty.

Voloshin V.G., Zhabrovets I.V., Karpov V.B. (St. Petersburg). Traditional values of the Russian Army: history and modernity

Candidate of Military Sciences, Associate Professor,
lecturer of the Department of the Military Institute of Railway Troops
and Military Communications
St. Petersburg, Suvorovskaya st., 1, St. Petersburg, 198504
e-mail: karpov 1914v@yandex.ru

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor,
Associate Professor of the Department of the Military Space Academy named after A. F. Mozhaisky
197198, Russia, St. Petersburg, Zhdanovskaya str., 13.
e-mail: karpov 1914v@yandex.ru

Candidate of Military Sciences, Associate Professor,
Associate Professor of the Department of the Military Space Academy named after A. F. Mozhaisky
197198, Russia, St. Petersburg, Zhdanovskaya str., 13.
e-mail: karpov 1914v@yandex.ru

Annotation. The article considers the problematic issues of military history, the history of the army, the features of the elements of uniform uniforms in different periods of the development of the Russian (Soviet) army, the modern dress uniform of military personnel, introduced in 2017 by the Minister of Defense of the Russian Federation, Army General S. K. Shoigu. The analysis of the main features of the evolution of military insignia in Russia, periodic attempts to make changes, both in the form of clothing and in the system of insignia, which relate more to the American or British military tradition and symbols, rather than to the Russian one, is carried out. The root causes and general understanding of such an extraordinary phenomenon as the introduction of shoulder straps in the Red Army in 1943 are substantiated. The deep reasons for the rejection of the former insignia during the revolutionary events in Russia are revealed. There is a positive trend towards the return of the traditions of both the Soviet and Russian Imperial armies in the Russian Army. Conclusions are drawn about the inadmissibility of ignoring traditional values in military affairs.
Keywords. Dress uniform, insignia of military personnel, Victory Parade, military traditions, rules of wearing uniforms, “golden” shoulder straps.

Gurkin A.B., Skvortsov K.N. (St. Petersburg). Anti-Russian rhetoric on historical topics of contemporary Polish mass media

Doctor of Philosophy, Associate Professor,
Head of the Department of History of Russia, Science and Culture
of Saint-Petersburg State Institute of Technology.
190013, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg, Moskovsky pr., 26.
E-mail: rpgurkin@mail.ru

Senior Lecturer of the Department of History of Russia, Science and Culture
of Saint-Petersburg State Institute of Technology.
190013, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg, Moskovsky pr., 26.
E-mail: skvork@mail.ru

Annotation. The article deals with the image of Russia and Russia-Poland relations, formed by the Polish media in recent years. The authors analyze a number of publications on the shared history of Russia and Poland that appeared in Polish media of various political orientations in 2014–2021. The main attention was paid to the events of the 20th century, causing the greatest resonance, namely: the Soviet-Polish war of 1919–1921, diplomatic interaction between Poland, the Soviet Union and Germany in the interwar period, the initial period of World War II, the Warsaw Uprising of 1944. These complex historical subjects have long been researched and actively discussed in historical science, but they are often greatly simplified and distorted in an anti-Russian spirit when covered in the Polish mass media. In the article, the authors give specific examples of such deformations, trace the general direction of the anti-Russian rhetoric of Polish politicians, journalists and historians, and attempt to explain why this rhetoric has grown in recent years. The article also examines the relevance of the historical heritage for the modern politics of the two countries.
Keywords. Russia-Poland relations, Polish media, anti-Russian rethoric, historical memory, Second Polish Republic, World War II.

Massov A.Ya. (St. Petersburg). Formation of the All-Russian Association of the South Pacific Researchers and Prospects for the South Pacific Studies

PhD, Professor, Head of the History and Cultural Studies Department
St Petersburg State Marine Technical University,
St Petersburg, Russia, Lotsmanskaya St., 3, St. Petersburg, 190121
e-mail: amassov@gmail.com

Annotation. The article is devoted to the establishment in March 2021 of the All-Russian Association of the South Pacific Researchers, which brought together humanities specialists in history, ethnography, economics, social relations and foreign policy of Australia and the states of Oceania. There are two areas of its work. One of them is aimed at giving impetus to the development of Russian analytical school of academic diplomacy with reference to the South Pacific, which should ultimately increase the effectiveness of the Russian foreign policy in this region, strengthen its political and economic positions. The second is the further intensification of scientific researches in the history, economics, ethnography and culture of the South Pacific. It is noted the long-standing traditions of the south Pacific studies by Russian scientists from the time of Russian circumnavigations, researches by N.N. Miklouho-Maclay on the islands of Oceania and up to the Russian expeditions to Papua New Guinea in 2017 and 2019. The main works of recent years published in Russia and related to the study of the states and peoples of the South Pacific are presented. The main directions of further research are determined, in particular, the continuation of the study of Russia’s ties with the South Seas region, further study of the ethnography and culture of its indigenous peoples, the history and modern situation of Australia and the states of Oceania. The importance of the expert work of the Association, its activities in the organization of scientific forums and conferences, the plan for the publication of the scientific journal South Pacific World is emphasized. Efforts to attract young generations of researchers to scientific activities and to carry out educational work are of no less importance.
Keywords. All-Russian Association of the South Pacific Researchers, South Pacific, Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, N.N. Miklouho-Maclay Foundation, scientific organizations, educational activities.

Kalakhanova Z.M., Zianshina R.I. (Stavropol), Dasuev M.L. (Grozny). Interference of Islam on world culture

Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor
Stavropol Institute of Cooperation, BUKEP branch
355,000, Russia, Stavropol, Goleneva Street, 36
E-mail: Zyzy.81@mail.ru 

Vice-rector for science
Institute of Friendship of the Peoples of the Caucasus
355000, Russia, Stavropol, K. Marksa Ave., 7
Е-mail: ravilya.zianshina@yandex.ru

FGBOU VO “Chechen State University”
364024, Russia, Grozny, Sheripova Street, 32
E-mail: dasuev2013@gmail.com

Annotation. This article consideres the contribution of Islamic civilization to world culture. Significant achievements of science, inventions, philosophical views of scientists of Muslim culture are demonstrated, which served as an impetus for integration and enrichment, and as a result of the transformation of different civilizations. Special attention is paid to the issues of the educational system of the Arab-Muslim culture and the Islamic education system. This paper examines the progressive views of contemporary Western Muslims, the most influential intellectuals and the most influential people in the world who practice Islam. The modern trends of liberal Islam, which oppose any violence against civilians, are clearly marked.
Keywords. liberal Islam, Arab-Muslim culture, Islamic education system, modern Western Muslims, teaching methods of Islam, world culture, Islamic civilization.

Belyaeva N.A. (Vladivostok), Usov A.V. (Moscow). Review of the book [Plekhanov A.M., Plekhanov A. A. Love in spite of fate. Alexander Kolchak and Anna Timireva. Moscow: Veche, 2021. 560 p.: ill.]

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Full Professor,
Department of History and Archeology
of the Far Eastern Federal University,
Honorary Worker of Higher Professional Education
of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation, 6900012, Vladivostok, Nadibaidze street, 17, 204
E-mail: minava204@rambler.ru

Cand. Sc. in History
The Centre of Humanitarian and Socio-Economic Disciplines
State Academic University for Humanities (GAUGN), Associate Professor
119049, Russian Federation, Moscow, Maronovsky Lane, 26
e-mail: epronhist@gmail.com

Annotation. A century separates us from a large-scale tragic event – the Civil War in Russia. One of the most controversial figures of the Russian Civil War is Alexander Vasilyevich Kolchak, the universally recognized leader of the White Movement, a polar explorer, a naval commander, and a military commander of the First World War. But for all the ambiguity of this figure, A.V. Kolchak is a large-scale personality and an extraordinary person. Fate wanted him to connect his life forever with the life of an amazing woman – Anna Vasilyevna Timireva. It was the admiral’s last love – one of the dramas that fill Russian history. The new book by historians Alexander Mikhailovich and Andrey Mikhailovich Plekhanov is not only the publication of correspondence of people close to each other and various investigative documents, but also reflections on the tragedy of time, an analysis of a bygone era. And, most importantly, according to the authors, “the love story of Anna Vasilyevna and Alexander Vasilyevich is a monument to a bygone time, evidence of the loyalty of these extraordinary personalities. An example for the current generation.”
Keywords: Alexander Vasilyevich Kolchak, Anna Vasilyevna Timireva, Civil War, Russia, documentary novel, Russian history, drama.

Samartseva E.I. (Tula). Review of the book by I. N. Zorina “Unwrap the memory” (St. Petersburg: Ivan Limbach Publishing House, 2020. – 560 p.)

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor,
Scientific secretary of the Tula State Arms Museum,
Professor of the Tula State University.
300002, Russian Federation, Tula, Oktyabrskaya st., 2.
E-mail: samartse@yandex.ru

Annotation. The book of the historian, translator, writer Irina Nikolaevna Zorina is based on personal impressions and at the same time a deep analysis of many key moments from the past of the second half of the XX – beginning of the XXI centuries. The author’s social circle included E. M. Primakov, Yu. P. Lyubimov, A. M. Adamovich, V. S. Vysotsky, E. N. Neizvestny, and many others. I. N. Zorina tells about the events that took place not only in Russia, but also in Czechoslovakia, Spain, Cuba, Venezuela, India, etc. The title of the book is associated with the poem by A. I. Gelman “Give freedom to memory, untie (unwrap) it…”. One of the iconic faces of the book is the husband of I. N. Zorina – Yuri Fedorovich Karyakin (1930 – 2011).
Keywords: history, memoirs, I. N. Zorina, Yu. F. Karyakin, E. M. Primakov, Yu. P. Lyubimov, A.M. Adamovich, V. S. Vysotsky, E. N. Neizvestny

Poltorak S.N. (St. Petersburg). The history of the legendary small infantry shovel (Book Review: Shutikov V.A. Small infantry shovel in documents, drawings, photographs. Moscow, Buki Vedi Publ., Part I, XIX, 2017. 320 p.; Part II, III, XIX-XX, 2019. 640 p.)

Editor-in-chief of the journal “Klio”
Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Honorary Worker
of Higher Professional Education of the Russian Federation,
consulting professor of the “Leningrad State University named after A.S. Pushkin”.
196605, St. Petersburg, Pushkin, Petersburg highway, 10.
E-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru

Annotation. The review analyzes the content of the two-volume monograph by V.A. Shutikov “Small infantry shovel in documents, drawings, photographs”. It is noted that the author managed to collect and analyze unique documents on the history of the creation of a small infantry shovel – the famous entrenching tool, which has become the personification of the hard work of an infantryman in a combat situation. V.A. Shutikov traces in detail the process of development and modernization of the small infantry shovel in various European armies and in the US army over a hundred years. There was fierce competition among inventors at different times, who tried to combine the capabilities of a sapper shovel with an ax, a saw, a shield, a helmet, a flask and even a mortar. It is concluded that even in the conditions of modern development of military equipment and weapons, a small infantry shovel remains a reliable assistant to the soldier in his struggle for survival in battle.
Keywords. Military engineering, sapper troops, small infantry shovel, wars in Europe in the second half of the XIX – the first half of the XX century, V.A. Shutikov.

Zimonin V.P., Krivoruchko A.P. (Moscow). To the anniversary of a major Russian scientist


Professor of the Military University of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, member of the Scientific Council of the Russian Military Historical Society, Corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Rocket and Artillery Sciences, Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Honored Scientist of the Russian Federation
117648, Moscow, Northern Chertanovo, 6, corp. 605.
E-mail: vp-zimonin@mail.ru


а member of the working group of the Russian organizing Committee «Victory», doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Honored Worker of the Higher School of the Russian Federation, member of the Union of Writers of Russia
111123, Moscow, ul. 2-ya Vladimirskaya, house 6, bldg. 1. sq. 11.
E-mail: tit1910@mail.ru

Annotation. The article dedicated to the 75th anniversary of the birth of Vladimir Antonovich Zolotarev, a well–known Russian historian, a major specialist in military history, source studies and historiography, orientalism, problems of military security, law, historical biography, reveals key milestones in the formation and creative development of this outstanding scientist and organizer of military historical science, his personal contribution to the development of fundamental works on military history and orientalism.
Keywords: Vladimir Antonovich Zolotarev, hereditary military, Russian military-historical science, Doctor of Historical Sciences, Doctor of Law, Professor, Major-General, full State Adviser of the Russian Federation of the first class.