Klio #08 (176) 2021


Alhusseini Ameer Hameed Saffah (Kazan). History of archaeological studies of the ancient city of Uruk in the first half of the 12th century

postgraduate student, Department of Archeology and General History, Kazan (Volga) Federal University
18, Kremlyovskaya St., Kazan, 420008, Russia
e-mail: safah436@gmail.com

Annotation. The article shows the history of the archaeological study of Uruk in the first half of the twentieth century. German and Iraqi archaeological expeditions. Until now, almost all the reporting documentation on the excavations carried out in Uruk has been preserved, which were the main source for studying the history of the work of archaeological expeditions and the results of research in the city of Uruk. According to the results of the study, the role of German archaeological research using scientific methods of excavation in the city of Uruk was presented. , and also present the first German discoveries in Uruk in the second half of the twentieth century. During eleven field expeditions conducted in the first half of the 20th century, the expeditions obtained valuable materials from an archaeological and historical point of view, and discovered a number of temples and archaeological structures that attracted the attention of specialists and the general public to these excavations.
Keywords: ancient Uruk, excavations, German and Iraqi archaeological expeditions, Ziggurat Eanna, Ziggurat Anu.

Avliev V.N., Abeeva O.N., Goryaev M.S., Lidzheeva C.F., Olchanova T.V. (Elista). Documents about the history of the Military Scientific Archive in 1863 – 1925

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Faculty of Humanities, Kalmyk State University named after B.B. Gorodovikov,
358011, Russian Federation, Elista, st. Pushkin, 11,
e-mail: bartolomeod@yandex.ru

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Department of IRDA, Faculty of Humanities,
Kalmyk State University named after B.B. Gorodovikov,
358011, Russian Federation, Elista, st. Pushkin, 11,
e-mail: olga.abeeva@yandex.ru

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Department of IRDA, Faculty of Humanities,
Kalmyk State University named after B.B. Gorodovikov,
358011, Russian Federation, Elista, st. Pushkin, 11,
e-mail: mergengoryaev@mail.ru

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Department of IRDA, Faculty of Humanities,
Kalmyk State University named after B.B. Gorodovikov,
358011, Russian Federation, Elista, st. Pushkin, 11,
e-mail: lkf1957@mail.ru

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Department of IRDA, Faculty of Humanities,
Kalmyk State University named after B.B. Gorodovikov,
358011, Russian Federation, Elista, st. Pushkin, 11,
e-mail: tsagana2@yandex.ru

Annotation. The article discusses issues related to the history of the emergence and activities of one of the predecessors of the Russian State Military Historical Archive – the Military Scientific Archive. The research is based on a wide range of legislative and documentary sources, materials from periodicals and monographs. The relevance of the topic is substantiated, the degree of elaboration of the problem is shown, the methods that were used in the work are indicated. On the basis of a number of archival documents, the high level of the scientific and reference apparatus of the Military Scientific Archive is shown. This is evidenced by the fact that by the beginning of the twentieth century, seven catalogs of the archive were published. Of great interest among archival documents is the questionnaire entitled “Answers of the VUA to the questions of the Archaeological Commission of the Imperial Moscow Archaeological Society on the state of the archive”. This document, dating from the end of the 19th century, shows the location of the archive, staffing, salaries of employees, the total number of documents stored in the archive. The rules for the work of visitors in the Military Scientific Archive, which date back to the very beginning of the twentieth century, seem to be very informative. In the VUA, bearing this name since 1867, files, notes, documents, maps and materials related to military history, geography, administration and statistics were kept. The archive also contained the files of the directorates of the main headquarters of the armies, reports of military agents and, in part, diplomatic correspondence regarding the wars waged by the Russian Empire. The VUA has passed its historical path very worthily, overcoming numerous difficulties, and in the end was able to fulfill the main goal – the preservation of cultural and documentary heritage for posterity.
Keywords: Military scientific archive, sources, records, documents, systematization, catalog, visitors.

Medvedev S.V. (Moscow). Vsepoddanyshy report of the Minister of Internal Affairs D. S. Sipyagin on the results of his visit to the Yaroslavl, Kostroma, Nizhny Novgorod and Vladimir provinces

Candidate of Historical Sciences, assistant
professor of the Russian Transport University,
127055, Moscow, Novosuschevsky street, 22,
e-mail: speransky1809@yandex.ru 

Annotation. The article analyzes the most comprehensive report of the Minister of Internal Affairs D. S. Sipyagin, which is a kind of result of his trip to the factory centers of the Yaroslavl, Kostroma, Nizhny Novgorod and Vladimir provinces. The proposals of D. S. Sipyagin on the desirability of greater interaction between the factory inspection and the bodies of the provincial administration are considered. Sipyagin’s report demonstrates the variety of problems that overwhelmed industrial enterprises at the turn of the century: the dependence of factory inspection and factory police on factory owners, the possible presence of gendarmes, general police and private security structures in factories and the inevitable confusion associated with this, the low educational and material level of workers. The article concludes that the Minister of Finance S. Yu. Vitte knew about the content of the most comprehensive report long before it was submitted to the tsar, opposed the transfer of the factory inspection under the control of the governor, tried to act proactively, offering the implementation of the ideas outlined by Sipyagin under the auspices of his department (for example, the creation of mutual aid societies of workers controlled by the authorities). Sipiagin’s report was discussed in a Special Meeting less than a month before his tragic death, which allows us to call it “the political testament of the minister”.
Keywords: D.S. Sipyagin, history of economics, factories, industry, history of Russia

Grebenchenko I.V. (Moscow). Content and network analysis of the memories of Soviet space designers: a circle of communications

2nd year postgraduate student, Faculty of History, Moscow State University, Department of Historical Information Science
Russia, Moscow, Lomonosovskiy prospect, 27, building 4
E-mail: grebenchenkoirina@mail.ru

Annotation. This article examines the memoirs, diaries and correspondence of 34 Soviet scientists – designers of rocket and space technology, members of the Council of Chief Designers in the period 1950-1967. Based on the array of sources, a full-text database was created and a content analysis was carried out, one of the results of which is a matrix of mutual occurrence of “personal” categories associated with members of the Council. The co-occurrence matrix provides information on how close the interactions were between them on the basis of this matrix, a network analysis of the interaction between the chief designers was carried out, the type of network was determined and the key figures that had the most powerful influence on the development of the Soviet space program were identified. The novelty of the research is associated with the task of studying interpersonal communications based on the analysis of sources of personal origin, as well as with the fact that for the first time a large array of texts of biographical and memoir sources (in abbreviated form – 5,500 pages of text) related to the members of the Council of Chief Designers was collected and processed using a set of quantitative methods. The relevance of this study is to test new research methods and approaches when working with large full-text databases.
Keywords: content analysis, network analysis, sources of personal origin, graphs, co-occurrence matrix, rocket and space technology, designers.

Kuzmina A.V., Komogaev V.S. (Sevastopol). The role of archival sources in the study of the history of a single enterprise of the Soviet industry (on the example of the Sevastopol instrument-making plant “Parus”)

Ph.D. of Historical Sciences, Moscow State University,
299000, Sevastopol, st. Heroes of Sevastopol, 7
E-mail: sevastopol.anna@gmail.com

2nd year Master’s Degree student, Sevastopol State University
299053, Sevastopol, 299053, st. Universitetskaya, 33
E-mail: vkomogaev@gmail.com

Annotation. The article is devoted to the analysis of the archival materials in the study of the history of enterprises of the Soviet industry. As an example, the authors choose a large, city-forming enterprise – the instrument-making plant “Parus”. The authors consistently and in detail consider various types of archival documents and, based on information from sources, cite specific vivid episodes from the life of the plant. Particular attention in the article is paid to such documents as the director’s annual reports, messages from the factory large-circulation, acceptance certificates and statistical reports. The authors come to the conclusion that the archival funds of the enterprise and complexes of office documentation at the disposal of the researcher allow to fully assess and recreate the picture of the activity of the Parus plant in the 1970s, as well as to compare the actual results with the planned goals and tasks. In addition, the documents confirm the importance of the enterprise as a whole for the development of the city and its infrastructure.
Keywords: Industry of Sevastopol, history of Soviet industry, Sevastopol instrument-making plant “Parus”, source study, archival documents, socio-economic history, history of enterprises

Roslova G.V. (Moscow). Censorship and “Self-Censorship” in the East German Press by the Example of Three Districts of East Germany: Berlin, Rostock and Leipzig

Moscow Automobile and Road Construction State Technical University (MADI),
Assistant Professor
125319, Moscow, Leningradsky prospect, 64
University of Rostock, Doctor Philosophiae (PhD)
E-mail: galina.roslova@gmail.com

Annotation. This article examines the complex mechanism of censorship that developed in the party newspapers of East Germany`s Socialist United Party of Germany (SED) on the eve of the 1989 crisis and the unification that followed it. It is the first time in Russian historical science when it’s stated how this mechanism was perceived and assessed by the journalists themselves and the differences in central and regional newspapers are shown. Through the use of different sources, including unique interviews with employees of three different newspapers, it was possible to implement several research tasks: to find out whether there was censorship in the GDR at all, to trace which newspapers – central or regional – were  under greater oppression of censorship, and to answer the main the question of this study: which censorship – external or internal (“self-censorship”, German “Selbstzensur”) determined the actions and the way of thinking of journalists?
Keywords: German reunification, press of the East Germany, mass media, Socialist Unity Party of Germany, censorship

Volkov A.S. (St. Petersburg, Pushkin). On the question of the origin and settlement of Vod

2nd year postgraduate student
Pushkin Leningrad State University.
196605, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Pushkin, Peterburgskoe shosse, 10.
E-mail: lex0619@mail.ru

Annotation. Vod, the oldest known tribe of the north-west of the Leningrad region. For a long time it was believed that Water appeared on these lands only at the end of the first millennium AD and the roots of this people should be sought in Estonia. But archaeological excavations have proved that the Vod lived here for a long time, the earliest of the discovered Vod burials date back to the I-IV centuries of our era.
Sources on the history of this tribe are extremely few. Located on the outskirts of the territory of Novgorod, Vod rarely appears in chronicle sources. Having no written language of its own, Vod transmitted its own history orally, to date, a significant part of it has been lost to science. The poorly documented history of Vod raises many questions among scientists and researchers since the XVIII century. One of the most important of them is the question of the origin and settlement of Vod.
The article examines the process of studying the question of the origin and settlement of Vod, starting with the first mentions of this people in the writings of historians of the Russian Empire. The conclusions made by scientists are highlighted, the hypotheses put forward on the issue of interest to us are presented.
Keywords: Vod, Izhora plateau, Vodskaya land, Leningrad region, lands of Veliky Novgorod.

Papilin G.A. (Novosibirsk). To the issue of participation of American capital in the revolutionary events of 1917 in Russia

Investigation Department of Investigating Committee
of Russian Federation for the Novosibirsk Oblast.
630099, Russian Federation, Novosibirsk, Trudovaya St., 9.
e-mail: glebpapilin@mail.ru

Annotation. The article examines the domestic and foreign historiography of the participation of American capital in the Russian revolutions of 1917. The author combines the evidence in scientific circulation of financing and providing organizational and methodological assistance to political forces that participated in the revolutionary events of 1917 in Russia with the objective world social, economic and political processes of the late 19th – early 20th centuries and proposes to consider the course of events in August – September 1917, taking into account foreign policy factors. On the basis of the  reviewing the facts, the author concludes that the victory of the Bolsheviks in the revolutionary struggle was desirable for some American financial corporations. To substantiate proposed version, the author cites not only the objective prerequisites for the intervention of foreign capital in the domestic political processes of Russia, but also the specific consequences of this intervention.
Keywords: Kerensky, Bolsheviks, USA, funding, imperialism, Wall Street, sovereignty, Federal Reserve System (FRS)

Tyurkova A.A. (Khabarovsk). Police activities to combat drug criminality in the Soviet Far East (1922-1930): historiography of the problem

Post–graduate student
of the Far Eastern Law Institute
of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia
680020, Russian Federation, Khabarovsk, st. Kazarmenny lane, 15.
E–mail: nastya.tyurkova@mail.ru

Annotation. The article outlines the main directions of studying the activities of the police in countering drug criminality in the Soviet Far East (1922-1930). The emphasis is made on the fact that the historiographic analysis of scientific works on the research topic is based on several criteria: 1) the period of publication of works; 2) thematic focus: works on the history of drug addiction and the development of drug legislation; research on the history of the police; work, which analyzes the place and role of the police in the fight against drug criminality. A special group is made up of works by Far Eastern scientists. Attention is drawn to the fact that a number of publications studied, within the framework of the topic under consideration, do not belong to historical ones, however, they are extremely important for assessing the degree of elaboration of the problem under study. Given that drug criminality in the 1920s. in the Far East – this is a unique phenomenon that has its own unique features, further study of the topic is necessary based on the active expansion of the source base, the formulation of new problems, scientific analysis and a critical approach to assessing existing research.
Keywords: drug criminality, the Far East, Russia, scientific research, historiographic, police, crime control, research prospects

Mochalov D.P. (Orenburg). Issues of the methodology of historical science in academic work of Boris Isaakovich Gorev

Master student of World History and Methods of Teaching of history and social
studies Department, Orenburg State Pedagogical University.
460014, Russian Federation, Orenburg, Sovetskaya St., 19
E-mail: dosoldschool@yandex.ru

Annotation. The article is devoted to the methodological issuesin the academic writing of the revolutionary Soviet historian, Boris Isaakovich Gorev. The correlation between the topic and the early Soviet philosophical debate is considered in the article. Along with that the originality of the intellectual context is regarded, including the author`s works, assuming his political biography. The author`s perspective on such categories as class, intelligentsia, societal matter etc. has been construed, based on his historical research and methodological textbooks. The author`s predictions about historical discussion about the unity and diversity are specifically mentioned in the article. These would later result in the argument between the formational and civilizational approaches. It is shown Gorev`s category class is not limited to binary division and intelligentsia as a stratum of characteristic of each of the classes is interpreted closely to Gramsci`s Theory.The article also points to the role of political economic disability and concern with the formation of innovations in the categorical apparatus that indicates the determination to connectthe methodological generalizations with the actual state of specific industries. In relation to the issue, it is concluded that for the stage of Marxist historical science at Gorev`s time, the problem was mainly far-fetched and associated with insufficient development of the heritage of classical works. Nevertheless, the formulation of the issue itself is marked as valuable in the light of further elaboration of the socio-economic formations theory.
Keywords: B.I. Gorev, historical materialism, Marxism, methodology of history, philosophy of history, classes, Menshevism

Sergeev A.V. (St. Petersburg). «Territorial Association» of the Obolensky princes in the second third of the XVI century

PhD in History, Institute of Industrial Safety, Labor Protection and Social Partnership, Head of Department,
190098, Russia, St. Petersburg, Konnogvardeisky Boulevard, 19
E-mail: sergeev1967@inbox.ru

Annotation. In the article, by comparing data from various sources, the difference between the “Princely lists” and the territorial union of the Obolensk Rurikovichs is determined, the biographies of a number of princes are specified. It was found that in the second third of the 16th century this branch was distinguished by cohesion, concentration of land holdings mainly in one area, numerous, significant political influence. This period can be considered as the most favorable in the history of the Obolensky princes.
Keywords: Obolensky princes, social status, surname, service, pedigree, land tenure

Petrovich I.K. (Moscow). Religious issue in the programs of liberal political parties in Russia at the beginning of the twentieth century

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of History, Department of the History of Social Movements and Political Parties, postgraduate student.
119234, Russian Federation, Moscow, Leninskie Gory street, building 1.
e-mail: igor-petrovich-1995@mail.ru

Annotation. The issues of the relationship of the Orthodox Church and other religious organizations with the state, their place and role in the political system of the empire, were among the most pressing issues that existed in Russia at the beginning of the twentieth century. Liberal parties, along with individual representatives of the considered direction of political thought, in program documents and any publicistic works, as a rule, covered it widely, thoroughly and objectively, putting forward reasoned proposals for transforming state-confessional relations. The article is devoted to the study of the problems of state-confessional relations in the program documents of the liberal political parties of Russia at the beginning of the twentieth century. The article provides a comparative analysis of the views of liberals on the relationship between religious organizations and government agencies. As a result of the study, the author notes the degree of importance of this issue for representatives of the liberal movement of the early twentieth century.
Keywords: religious issue, liberals, political parties, confessions, state-confessional relations.

Soldatenko V.F. (Kiev, Ukraine). To a discussion about the concept of the Great Russian Revolution

Doctor of historical sciences, Professor, Corresponding Member of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Chief Researcher, Institute of Political and Ethnic Studies. Ivan Kuras NAS of Ukraine
01030, Ukraine, Kiev, st. Volodymyrska, 54
e-mail: soldatenko.v.f@gmail.com

Annotation. In continuation of discussion about the Great Russian Revolution, it is proposed to consider one of its specific aspects. Participation of the national regions population in social and political movements is investigated, role of ethno-national factors in the all-Russian process is clarified. Basis for the analysis and conclusions is the phenomenon of the Ukrainian National Democratic Revolution. It was a derivative of the multiethnic society democratization that began in February 1917. In the course of events, the desire to resolve the Ukrainian question resulted in a peculiar direction of the struggle. It was distinguished by its chosen orientations, goals, content and forms of organization; it drew huge masses of the region’s population into its force field. The tasks of social liberation were organically complemented and intertwined with the desire to revive the nation in all spheres of its existence. The main problem remained the creation of a national state.
The thesis about the reasons, the objective nature of the Ukrainian revolution, its real place in the unfolding all-Russian transformations of a turbulent time is put forward and on specific documentary, factual materials. This approach is extremely important, capable of making certain adjustments to the constructive comprehension of the events of 1917-1922 in Russia.
Keywords: Ukrainian revolution, national factor, platform, political parties, Central Council, Directory, UPR.

Grinёv A.V. (St. Petersburg). Once again on the problem of the “Great Russian Revolution”

Doctor in Historical Sciences and
Professor of the Humanities Institute
at the Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University.
195251, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Polytechnicheskaya, 29.
E-mail: agrinev1960@mail.ru

Annotation. The article is a response to the critical essay of Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the Department of History and Regional Studies of the St. Petersburg University of Telecommunications named after prof. M.A. Bonch-Bruevich V.S. Izmozik and Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor of St. Petersburg Mining University S.N. Rudnik, published in the fourth issue of the journal Klio for 2021. In their essay, they try to defend the truth of the concept of the “Great Russian Revolution”, which, from the point of view of the author of this article, is nothing more than another pseudoscientific myth that has recently become widespread and support from higher authorities.
Keywords. Russian History, Great Russian Revolution of 1917-1922 years, February 1917, October 1917, socialism, politarism.

Vafin M.O. (Khabarovsk). Formation of units to combat the theft of socialist property and speculation of the NKVD of the USSR in 1937

Postgraduate student of the
Far Eastern Home Ministry Law Institute of the Russia.
680020, Russian Federation, Khabarovsk, per. Kazarmenny, 15.
E-mail: vafin_1992@mail.ru

Annotation. The article examines the process of formation of departments for combating theft of socialist property and speculation (OBHSS) as part of the NKVD of the USSR. The prerequisites for the formation of the service are noted, the key of which was the predominant position of socialist property in the economic system of the USSR by the end of the 1930s. In addition, the author analyzed the features of the organizational structure of the OBHSS, where he focused special attention, highlighting the structure and features of staffing, the first officials appointed to positions in the new division. The article considers the specifics of the formation of BHSS units on the territory of the Far Eastern Territory. In the final part, it is emphasized that during 1937, the BHSS apparatuses continued the process of their formation, which was necessary due to the optimization of new units for the needs in the fight against crimes encroaching on socialist property. As a result, by 1938, An effective body was formed in the Soviet Union, which in the subsequent years of its existence ensured the security of the economic basis of the entire Soviet system from criminal encroachments until the collapse of the USSR.
Keywords: economic crime, protection of socialist property, organization of activities, OBHSS, militia, NKVD of the USSR.

Kolomeytseva M.A. (Moscow). Social deviations and the fight against them among the peasantry in the post-reform period (based on the materials of the Don region)

candidate of history,
specialist in academic work
Lomonosov Moscow State University
119234, Russia, Moscow, Leninskie Gory, 1/12
e-mail: marijaandreeva@mail.ru

Annotation. The article is devoted to the peculiarities of the social behavior of the traditional peasantry during the period of modernization in the second half of the XIX-early XX century. The research is carried out, on the materials of the peasant population of the Don region. The subject under study is social deviations, the manifestations and causes of destructive behavior are studied. The scientific relevance of the research is determined by the reconstruction of the history of everyday life; practical-the possibility of analyzing historical experience in order to use experience to develop programs for the development of society, the social sphere. It is shown, that the deviations among the agrarian population had a dual origin: on the one hand – the preservation of the traditional way of life (rituals, patriarchal mores), on the other-social transformation, which caused social, psychological, mental reactions of the population. The methods of combating deviations and their prevention are characterized. It is emphasized that deviant behavior had negative reviews, the peasant population sought to preserve the principles of morality.
Keywords: the period of modernization, the peasantry, social behavior, social deviations, morality, self-consciousness, Don region

Syzranov A.V. (Astrakhan). Muslim society «Majlis Shura-i Islam» in Astrakhan

PhD of history, associate professor of department
«Philosophy, sociology and linguistics»,
Astrakhan state university
of architecture and construction engineering,
Russian Federation,
Astrakhan, Tatisheva, 18
associate professor of department of Russian history,
«Astrakhan state university»,
Russian Federation,
Astrakhan, Tatisheva, 20a
E-mail: A_Sizranov@mail.ru

Annotation. The article examines the history of the emergence and activity of the muslim society “Majlis Shura-i Islam” in Astrakhan in 1905-1911. Attention is paid to the ideological and political prerequisites for its emergence. The main directions of the activity of the society “Majlis Shura-i Islam” are considered. It is concluded that this activity was in many respects quite progressive, in particular, in the educational, information and publishing spheres. A popular school among astrakhan muslims functioned under the society. The educational and socio-political newspaper “Burgani Tarakki” was published at the expense of the organization. Many representatives of the muslim intelligentsia of Astrakhan were associated with the society. At the same time, the activities of the “Majlis Shura-i Islam” society (against the background of the struggle against pan-islamism and pan-turkism in the empire) caused fears of the provincial power structures, which was the main reason for its closure.
Keywords: Astrakhan, islam, «Majlis Shura-i Islam», Mustafa Izmailov, muslims, pan-islamism, pan-turkism, public organization

Guseynova T. (Kazan). Evolution of the methodology of teaching Russian as a foreign language: a historical aspect

assistent of Kazan Federal University
Institute of Philology and Intercultural Communication
Department of Russian as a Foreign Language,
420132, Russian Federation, city of Kazan, Adoratskogo st. 33-14,
E-mail: teranee01@mail.ru

Annotation. The presented article is devoted to the study of the evolution of the methodology of teaching Russian as a foreign language. The relevance of the work is justified by the need to develop new approaches in the study of foreign languages ​​in connection with the development of the educational process and communication technologies. In this context, the analysis of the historical aspect of teaching Russian as a foreign language seems to be a very significant link in a large philological chain. Therefore, the author of the article pays close attention to the Soviet period, when those basic methods were laid that are still relevant and provides an overview of modern methods of teaching Russian as a foreign language. According to the author, teaching Russian as a foreign language has gone through four stages of its development, each of which is characterized in this publication. An excursion into the history of the development of the methodology of teaching Russian as a foreign language convincingly shows that the teaching process is constantly being improved, and its effectiveness is increasing.
Keywords: Russian language, methodology, USSR, evolution, learning Russian by foreigners.

Zolotarev V.A. (Moscow). Sergey Ivanovich Kvashnin – Honorary Citizen of Kirov

Honorary Professor of the Military University of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, Doctor of Historical Sciences, Doctor of Law, Acting State Advisor of the Russian Federation of the 1st class.
195220, Russia, St. Petersburg, Grazhdansky Prospect, 11, office 1N.
E-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru

Annotation. The article describes the multifaceted activities of the famous modern jeweler and artist Sergei Ivanovich Kvashnin. He can rightly be considered a historian of Russian jewelry art. His professional development is traced, it is noted that outstanding abilities and extraordinary diligence allowed Sergei Ivanovich to reach colossal heights in his work: to become an extra-class artist-jeweler, Honored Artist of the Russian Federation, Academician of the Russian Academy of Arts, full holder of the Orders of Carl Faberge and an honorary citizen of Kirov.
Keywords: S.I. Kvashnin, Kirov, artist-jeweler, Russian Academy of Arts, honorary citizen of Kirov